Because of its high rate of respiration, particularly in the dark, the retina produces significant amounts of CO2 (Sickel, 1972). CO2 has a high diffusion coefficient and is very soluble; therefore, most of the CO2 generated can be expected to diffuse into adjacent retinal or choroidal vessels. Some of the CO2 diffusing into the retina will pass into the neighboring Müller cells where it is converted to bicarbonate by the action of carbonic anhydrase. Müller cells are known to contain high levels of carbonic an-hydrase which is likely to be involved in CO2 fixation in the retina and the maintenance of a normal acid-base balance (Musser and Rosen, 1973; Sar-thy and Lam, 1978; Linser and Moscona, 1981).
TCA Cycle t a-ketoglutarate -
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