From what just has been said it has become clear that there is no particular pattern of clause topology that distinguishes main and subordinate clauses except for the lack of possibilities for the pragmatic marking of constituents (which is a consequence of the lack of independent illocutionary force rather than of subordination per se), and the presence of subordination markers. Finite subordination markers are the usual set of adverbial clause-introducing connectors like ndr '(always) when', hvis 'if', da '(then) when' (Ger. als)9 fordi 'because', selv om 'even though', as well as the complementizers at 'that' and om 'whether'. Infinite subordination markers are the infinitive marker at 'to' as well as a number of complex subordinators of the type preposition + at, e.g. uden at 'without' and for at 'in order to'. It should be noted that the finite complementizer at and the infinitive marker at are spelled the same but are pronounced differently: the former is [ad, a] while the latter is [a] and thus phonetically identical with a reduced (not stressed) form of the coordinating connector og [ay, a] 'and'.
It was mentioned above that wh-words like hvem 'who', hvor 'where' or hvorfor 'why' are the only focus elements that can be placed into position (1) in sentence schema A1. In subordinate clauses, position (1) is the subject position and not a position for pragmatically marked material. Accordingly, w/z-words in indirect questions are placed in the connector position (0). This goes even for w/z-words that are subjects, which leaves an open position (1) to be filled by the dummy der:
De vidste ikke hvem der var kommet
'They didn't know who had come.'
Thus one can distinguish between de spurgte hvem Peter var 'they asked who Peter was' where hvem 'who' is predicative and Peter 'Peter' subject, and de spurgte hvem der var Peter 'they asked which (of them) was Peter', where hvem is subject but not in subject position and has to be followed by a dummy der in position (1).
Relative clauses are introduced by the relative particle som: jeg kender en mand som du ville elske at m0de 'I know a man that you would love to meet\jeg kender en mand som hans s0ster har vxret gift med 'I know a man that his sister has been married to'. If the subject is the target of the relative clause, som can take its place: jeg kender en mand som bor i Helsing0r 'I know a man that lives in Elsinore'. There are also som-less relative clauses: jeg kender en mand du ville elske at m0de 'I know a man you would love to meet' Jeg kender en mand hans s0ster har vxret gift med 'I know a man his sister has been married to'. In their case, the subject position has to be filled with der : jeg kender en mand der bor i Helsing0r 'I know a man that lives in Elsinore'. (Sometimes this der is reanalysed as a relative particle, although it is not different from the usual dummy der that fills otherwise empty subject positions.)
This applies at least to the written language. In the spoken language and especially in the dialects, som can be followed by der, where som is the subordinator in position (0) and der the subject dummy in position (1). Furthermore, like all clauses that follow schema B, relative clauses can contain a pleonastic marker at which only occurs with non-declarative sentence mood, as in jeg kender en karl, som at der har tjent hos ham ifjor 'I know a farmhand that worked for him last year'. This marker can stand alone as a relative marker as well, as in this example in Bornholm dialect: brygjninjen va et arbeaj a kvinjfolken skulle passa (lit.) 'brewing was a work that women should mind'.
This pleonastic at occurs in all examples of non-declarative sentence mood, such as in temporal clauses (with ad as the pleonastic marker; the dialect is from Sk&ne): d dd ndr ad lannsvajjen ble makadamiserad, sd ble ddnn rattad ... 4 and then when the road was macadamized, then it was straightened or in exclamatory main clauses: mon ikke at lvi kunne fd startet en slags indsamlingskomite? 'perhaps we could start a kind of money collecting committee?'
Was this article helpful?