Subordinate Clauses

Subordinate clauses can be classified according to their syntactic properties into nominal, adverbial and relative clauses. Subordinate clauses can also be structurally classified according to their initial constituent, which can be either a subjunction or a clause constituent (sometimes both or neither of these elements). They can also be classified semantically.

Nominal arr-clauses are neutral as to the factivity of their proposition, but are taken as factive if nothing else is implied by the context. They can be combined with a preposition, although the preposition is deleted more often than before noun phrases. Sometimes, it is possible to delete att, e.g .jag tror (inte) (att) hon kommer. 'I (don't) think she is coming', vi är rädda (för) att han inte vet det 'we are afraid that he doesn't know that'; cf. vi är rädda för det 'we are afraid of that'.

One type of interrogative nominal clauses are introduced by the subjunction om or huruvida. They are non-factive, but need not express a question, e.g. vi hörde oss för om/(om) huruvida hon kunde komma 'we asked (about) whether she could come.'

JWi-interrogative nominal clauses are introduced by a question word or a noun phrase or prepositional phrase containing a question word. They presuppose an open proposition associated with the clause, but are non-factive as far as the question word is concerned, e.g. det beror pä i hur m&nga elevers väskor du mäste leta (lit.) 'that depends on in how many pupils' bags you have to look.' When the proposed wh-constituent is the subject of the subordinate clause, it should be followed by the subjunction som, e.g. jag vet inte vilka gäster som har tackat ja 'I don't know which guests have accepted.'

Free relative clauses are nominal, too, and can be introduced by vad, followed by som if the subject is relativized, e.g. vad som förvänade mig var hans snabbhet 'what surprised me was swiftness'.

Adverbial clauses are generally introduced by subjunctions or by word groups that can be analysed as complex subjunctions.

1 Temporal clauses start in när, dä 'when', medan 'while', förrän, innan 'before', tills 'until', sedan 'since', efter (det) att 'after', e.g. vi slutade inte förrän det började regna 'we didn't stop until it started to rain.' Dä-and när- clauses also function as relative clauses.

2 Locative clauses start in dar, dit, därifrän. They normally function as relative clauses, and even when they function as adverbials they can be analysed as free relatives, e.g. jag bor (i det hus) där du bor 'I live (in the house) where you live'; jag har en gäng varit (till den stad) dit du reste 'I have once been (in the town) where you travelled.' Varifrän replaces därifrän in non-free relative clauses. Compare: hon kommer därifrän du har hämtat din fru 'she comes from where you have taken your wife', hon kommer frän den plats varifrän du har hämtat din fru.

3 Conditional clauses start in om, if all, i den händelse att, e.g. jag kan gä, om du vill 'I can go, if you want me to.'

4 Concessives and concessive conditionals are introduced by fastän, även om, e.g. fastän jag är sjuk, tänker jag gä 'although I am sick, I will go';

även om jag vore sjuk, skulle jag gä 'even if I were sick, I would go.'

A special type is introduced by a wh-constituent. It can also have a nominal function, e.g. vem som an kommer tänker jag strunta i (honom) 'whoever comes, I am going to ignore (him).'

5 Causal clauses start in eftersom, emedan, därför att, för att, e.g. jag kom eftersom du bad mig 'I came, because you asked me to.'

6 Consecutive clauses start in sä (att), etc., e.g. hon stannade, sä att vi kunde hinna fatt 'she stopped so that we could reach her'.

7 Purposive clauses start in for att, sä (att), e.g. hon stannade sä att vi skulle hinna fatt 'she stopped in order for us to reach her'.

8 Comparative clauses start in som or än, e.g. Kim gär fortare an jag springer 'Kim walks faster than I run'; jag är en lika stor idiot som du (är) 'I am as big an idiot as you are'. When the clause is reduced to a comparative phrase, the old subject can take the accusative in colloquial style, e.g .jag är tröttare än du/dig 'I am more tired than you'.

Relative clauses are normally introduced by the subjunction som or, particularly in formal style, by a constituent containing a relative word, vilken, vilket, vilka, vars, där, dit, varifrän, varmed, etc. These expressions correspond to a gap later in the relative clause. Any extractable constituent of the clause can be relativized, including prepositional phrases and complements in comparative constructions, e.g. här är en bil där/i vilken baksätena är borttagna 'here is a car where the back seats are removed'; han var en kung som ingen var maktlösare än 'he was such a king that nobody had less power than he'.

A preposition can be preposed with the relative pronoun or left behind (cf. constituent preposing), e.g. här är en bil som baksätena är borttagna i. A nominal head of the genitive vilkens, vars is preposed with the pronoun, but a nominal head of non-genitival vilken is preposed only in archaic style, e.g. den kvinna i vilkens /vars sällskap jag satt,... 'the woman, in whose company I was sitting,...'; jag sände dem i ordningen a, d, b, i vilken ordning de ocksä anlände till mötesplatsen 'I sent them in the order a, d, b, in which order they also arrived at the meeting-place'.

The subjunction som can normally be deleted in restrictive relative clauses, if the subject position of the relative clause is filled, e.g. jag tar den (som) du har I vänster hand 'I take the one that you have in your left hand'. Som-clauses can have a special causal interpretation, e.g. jag var dum som gick 'I was foolish to go'.

Relative clauses are normally attributive, but may also modify a verb phrase or an entire clause, like an adverbial. Here, the pronoun vilket is always used, e.g. Lisa skrev en sonett, vilket jag inte lyckades göra 'Lisa wrote a sonnet, which I didn't manage to do'. Correspondingly, attributive clauses are typically relative, but they can also be either nominal or adverbial, e.g.frägan om vi mäste sluta 'the question about our having to stop', jublet efter att han gdtt i mdl 'the shouts of joy after he had reached the goal'.

0 0

Post a comment