Passivization

Greek passive constructions may be translated with the Gothic medio-passive in the present, with forms of -nan verbs, and with periphrastic constructions made with the preterite participle and forms of wisan and wairpan. The periphrastic forms still maintain some of their literal value, and accordingly are not actually elements of the verbal system. The perfect passive is translated with forms of wisan 'be' in most occurrences; the aorist on the other hand was more commonly translated with wairpan 'become'. Presumably the difference in selection was made because wisan like the perfect indicates a state rather than a process. Development of such periphrastic forms gives further indication that the language was moving to VO patterning.

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