Peter Sutovsky12 and Gaurishankar Manandhar1

'Division of Animal Sciences departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, USA

Detailed theoretical analysis, using mathematical modeling, reveals that sex is a very inefficient way of reproducing. The inefficiency lies in making male offspring. In the majority of sexual species, only the female contributes energy and resources to the young. In contrast the males rarely contribute more than the minimum-a tiny sperm carrying genes, but devoid of other resources.

The Evolution of Life, edited by Linda Gamlin and Gail Vanes, Oxford University Press, New York, 1987

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