101 Toxic Food Ingredients

101 Toxic Food Ingredients

Using this simple 4-step system is the easiest, fastest, and most powerful way to distinguish which food ingredients are toxic to your overall health and which are healthy to consume. There are hundreds, even thousands, of such toxic ingredients that food manufactures use, and it could take you months or maybe even years to dissect all of that information. This program is designed to restore your health and eliminate any Toxic ingredients that may be slowly causing your health to deteriorate. However, as a side effect, you may lose weight due to the change in your diet. If you exercise and lift weights, you may notice an increase in muscle and energy as well. You will immediately notice results within the first week of applying the concepts in this system. All you have to do is follow the proven plan I give you and you will instantly have more energy and vitality. The key is to use the alternative foods in your diet consistently to see the results. More here...

101 Toxic Food Ingredients Summary

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Types of food additives

Artificial sweeteners are use to sweeten food or drink without adding calories. Examples of artificial sweeteners are saccharin, aspartame, and acesulfame K. Nutrients are considered as food additives only in the USA, and not in other countries. The group includes vitamins, minerals, and essential amino acids. The use of food additives has increased enormously in the past thirty years, especially as the Western diet now comprises many processed foods. This means that we are exposed to a variety of food additives. Are all of these additives necessary And what are their effects on our bodies Some additives clearly serve an important function. Preservatives help to prevent food from spoiling and enable processed food to be stored for much longer. They reduce the likelihood of bacterial contamination in the food we eat. Sodium nitrite is added to cured meat, for example, to prevent the growth of organisms like Clostridium botulinum, which causes severe toxicity, botulism (see pp. 249-51)....

Are food additives harmful

The use of food additives on a wide scale is beginning to be questioned by some toxicologists, especially as the long-term effects of the substances are often not known. With the increase in the use of food additives, there has been data suggesting that some people have an intolerance to certain food additives and linking various physical and mental disorders, including childhood hyperactivity, with their use. In response to public pressure, food manufacturers have begun to supply foods that are 'organic', that is, additive-free or, for example, containing only 'natural' colouring agents. The term 'organic' applied to food also means food that has not been exposed to pesticides at the growing or harvesting stage. At present there is insufficient reliable scientific data on the adverse effects of food additives in humans but there is much public concern and many anecdotal reports of problems relating to food additives, particularly allergic reactions. The extent of intolerance to food...

Interactions With Other Food Ingredients

Ten years of experience with applications of MP3 have revealed that this ingredient is extraordinarily compatible with a wide variety of food ingredients. The most important interaction appears to be the synergy observed between MP3 and the other ingredients which are required to complete the illusion. Once an effective concentration of a suitable MP3 has been incorporated into a low-fat food, other ingredients are usually required to complement or complete the illusion of high-fat content in order to achieve the highest consumer satisfaction. These ingredients are familiar to formulators who are accustomed to the use of the full palette of food materials normally used to adjust viscosity, set, handling properties, mouthfeel, and flavor (Singer, 1992).

Safety evaluation of food additives and contaminants

As the historical examples at the beginning of the chapter demonstrated, it is essential that food additives be carefully tested for the potential to cause adverse or untoward effects before humans are exposed to them. The testing is normally carried out in experimental animals in vivo (in the living organism) but information from in vitro (in the test tube) experiments may also be taken into account. The tests usually consist of lifetime exposure of experimental animals to the substance at different doses, but with the maximum level several times greater than that expected to be consumed by humans. Such testing, however, may not always be predictive, as experimental animals may not show the same type of behavioural or immunological effects as humans and the fate of the chemical can also be different (see p. 27). Moreover, although the quantities of food additives consumed by humans are very small, their consumption generally occurs over a lifetime. This chronic exposure is often...

Food Allergy Or Food Intolerance

Between 12 and 20 of Americans, British and Dutch people complain about food allergies. In fact, problems are more likely to be due to food intolerance rather than actual allergy. This has been confirmed by skin-prick tests, analysis of immunoglobulin E level in serum, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests which found food intolerance in 2 to 5 of adults and 6 to 13 of children (age 1 to 6) in Europe. Challenge-proved adverse reaction to food is one tenth of that perceived and allergic reactions to chemicals and additives in food are even more rare. A similar ratio occurs in Asia. The dietary habits in different countries determine the observed rates of food sensitivities. Sensitivity to fish occurs frequently in Scandinavia, to rice in Japan, to peanuts in the U.S. and the U.K., and to seafood and milk in Italy. It also means that communities not exposed to particular allergens are not affected as frequently by various forms of sensitivities, e.g., allergy to peanuts is...

Replacing Standard Fats With Lowcalorie Fats

By a low tendency for becoming incorporated into tissue as depot fat. Currently, medium-chain triglycerides are marketed by the U.S. company Karlshamns Food Ingredients (Captex 300, 350 and 355, now known as AKomed range) and by Stepan Company (Neobee M-5). However, as pointed out by Thayer (1992), there are certain limitations to the use of medium-chain triglycerides in foods since, upon hydrolysis, the free fatty acids released give strong off-flavors.

Mechanical and rheological properties

The stiffness and storage modulus, G' and G, are of fundamental importance in the characterization of food systems. They change with temperature, water content and RH, and can be related to transitions or chemical modifications of the main components of a given food, those of polymer nature playing a major role. The system which behaves like a rigid brittle solid for T < Tg becomes rubbery just above the Tg threshold as a result of the increased polymer segmental mobility. The rheological properties of the material are connected with these physico-chemical states. In recent years significant advances have been made in both the theory of viscoelasticity and the rel ated instrumentation for Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and Thermal Mechanical Analysis (TMA) became rather popular in food science investigations. These techniques can be combined with thermo-dielectric analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance, and other methods 31 to investigate glass transitions and their effect on...

Pesticide residues in food

As well as worrying about acute intentional and accidental poisoning by pesticides, the general public is concerned about some of these chemicals finding their way into food (see also Chapters 10 and 11). There have been cases of improper use of pesticides leading to serious illness and even death from food contamination. For example, the use of mercury-containing fungicides on seed grain which was subsequently used for food instead of planting led to the deaths of significant numbers of people in different parts of the world. Similar incidents have occurred with the pesticide hexachlorobenzene.

Acceptability Of Fat Replacers

Further criteria that need to be taken into account include the general classification of fat replacers. Differentiation between those compounds permitted generally as food ingredients and those classified as food additives is significant here. If the potential fat replacer is already widely used as a food ingredient, then its use is likely to be generally acceptable, unless there are any compositional regulations that preclude such use and provided the compound meets the necessary quality and safety requirements for food use, such as those laid down under the 1990 Food Safety Act in the U.K. Starches, including those that have been modified by physical or enzymatic means, are generally considered as food ingredients and so permitted widely for food use. In contrast, chemically modified starches tend to be classified as additives along with other compounds of interest, including celluloses, gums, pectin, bulking aids, emulsifiers, and stabilizers. The future direction of acceptability...

Additives As Fat Replacers

A number of compounds that can be used as fat replacers in foods are classified as additives and so are controlled by appropriate additives legislation. One of the most notable developments in food legislation in recent years is progress toward harmonized additives legislation at European Union level. Certain of the European countries not currently members of the Union but linked via economic agreement are taking steps to amend their legislation to bring it into line with Community legislation and this trend is set to continue. Additives such as gums, other hydrocolloids, bulking aids, emulsifiers, stabilizers, and celluloses are controlled for food use by Council Directive 95 2 EC on food additives other than colors or sweeteners. This directive establishes second order controls for named additives, i.e., not only is a positive list of additives established but also the foods in which they can be used and maximum permitted levels of use. Once implemented by the Member States, this...

B8 Legislative And Labeling Status

Maltodextrins are all-natural food ingredients that have not been chemically modified. In Europe, they are allowed for use in foods as food ingredients and are not classified as food additives therefore, they have no E-number in European countries. In the U.S., maltodextrins are approved direct food substances (FDA CFR 21, 1983). In 1995, the FDA affirmed the GRAS status of maltodextrin derived from potato starch as a direct human food ingredient. Maltodextrins such as Avebe's Paselli SA2 can be labeled as either starch or maltodextrin, depending on local food legislation. These regulations are in contrast to those pertaining to certain chemically modified food starches which are also marketed as fat replacers, e.g., A.E. Staley's Sta-Slim range, which need to be labeled as modified starch when used in a reduced fat food product.

Constraints on innovation

The principle of substantial equivalence was adopted into the EU Regulation on Novel Foods and Novel Food Ingredients.37 The Regulation excludes from its controls foods and food ingredients obtained through traditional propagating or breeding practices and which have a history of safe use. GM plants are considered as 'novel' under the terms of the Regulation. However, the detailed safety evaluation provisions of the Regulation do not apply to foods produced by genetic manipulation 'if on the basis of the scientific evidence available they are substantially equivalent to existing foods with regard to their composition, nutritional value, metabolism, intended use, and the level of undesirable substances present'. The Regulation regards food as 'novel' if the characteristics of the food differ from the conventional food regarding the accepted limits of natural variation of such characteristics. It is clear that most nutritionally enhanced plants would be caught under the definition of a...

Enterotoxins and Food Products

The primary source of staphylococcal food contamination is human. However, cows are an additional source - staphylococci are causative agents of mastitis in cows and so may contaminate dairy products (Ombui et al., 1992). Although staphylococci are frequently present in pets (e.g., in dogs, which may suffer from mouth acne), these animals are not critical vehicles of food contamination. Besides dairy products, staphylococci are also present in almost 30 of raw pork, salted meat, and uncooked smoked ham (Atanassova et al., 2001). Meat is frequently contaminated with S. aureus and may contain high numbers of colony-forming units (cfu) per gram (Surkiewicz et al., 1975). Home-made cakes, creams, and vegetable salads are important vehicles of staphylococci in central Europe.

A7 Nutritional And Toxicological Aspects

Powdered and colloidal grades of microcrystalline cellulose are nondigestible, zero-calorie food components that have no known toxicological risks. Microcrystalline cellulose has been evaluated by both the EC Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) and the Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee for Food Additives (JECFA). Both committees have allocated the maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of not specified (FMC Corp., 1993a). * Danagel IC 15, FMC Food Ingredients Division. Modified from FMC Corp., 1994c. With permission of the FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA.

Worldwide Legislation

The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) has been incorporated in legislation as the method of control for food contamination by the European Commission's General Hygiene Regulations and by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. This system attempts to follow foodstuffs from growth through all stages of handling and processing right up to their consumption (Figure 9.4). Due to the multiple factors affecting contamination and the numerous occasions when it may occur, HACCP incorporates the following well-known business practices good manufacturing practice (GMP), good hygienic practice (GHP), good agricultural practice (GAP), and good storage practice (GSP). One potential problem with using the HACCP system

The story of saccharin4

For these reasons the Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) considered that the tumours in the rat bladder were not relevant to humans. Both JECFA and the European Union Scientific Committee on Food concluded that saccharin was not a hazard and approved it for use. Similarly the FDA withdrew their proposal to ban saccharin in 1991.

Legislative And Labeling Status

Directive on Food Additives other than Colors and Sweeteners (95 2 EC) in Annex 1 (generally permitted food additives at quantum satis levels), and Annex V (carriers and carrier solvents). Polydextrose is listed as E1200 in Europe and is currently approved in over 45 countries.

How triorthocresyl phosphate caused jake leg

Why had TOCP been added to the ginger extract Tri-orthocresyl phosphate was readily available as it was a constituent of lacquers and varnishes, and was extensively used in the leather industry. It was seen as an ideal solvent to use in the preparation of jake because it was odourless, tasteless, colourless, and cheap. It was also miscible with the resinous extract of ginger and soluble in alcohol. Unfortunately, it was very toxic to humans, a fact that appears not to have been known. At the time there was no law requiring food additives or medicinal products to be tested for safety, and thus the suppliers had broken the law, not by supplying a contaminated and unsafe product, but by selling a product that was not as described in the US pharmacopoeia. In June 1930 twenty-one men and six New York corporations were indicted for conspiracy to violate federal laws.

Flattened head syndrome See positional plagio

Many different common foods may trigger an allergic reaction, including citrus fruits, dairy products, wheat, eggs, fish, cola drinks, artificial coloring, shellfish, berries, tomatoes, pork, and nuts. Infants prone to allergies may be especially sensitive to milk and milk products, wheat, eggs, and citrus fruits. Allergic reactions can be caused by even very tiny (even undetectable) amounts of the food. For example, a child who is allergic to peanuts could go into anaphylactic shock after eating a food that only has been touched by peanuts. Food additives also may cause problems. About 15 percent of children who are allergic to aspirin are also sensitive to Yellow Dye 5 (tartrazine).

Toxins That Attack Axons

Axon-associated neuropathies include Ginger Jake paralysis. This term refers to a neurological disorder that struck about 50,000 adults at the height of Prohibition, The Noble Experiment, in the United States. This occurred in 1930-1931 when the federal ban on alcohol sale or use was at its height. The Prohibition Bureau permitted the sale of Jamaica Ginger Extract as a headache remedy and digestive aid. This material, however, contained 60-80 alcohol. It was common for people to buy the extract, mix it with soda, and consume the resulting cocktail. The problem occurred when unscrupulous distributors ran out of the ginger oleoresin, a flavoring agent normally added to Jamaica Ginger. They substituted, in one large batch, tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP). This material is widely used as a liquid plasticizer. From the perspective of the purveyors of Jamaica Ginger extract TOCP was ideal because it was cheap, soluble in alcohol, and conveyed a taste that was similar to the customary...

Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens

With ingestion of the toxins from C. botulinum is known as botulism. There are seven antigenically distinct types of botulinus toxin, each of which is designated by a letter (A-G). Types A, B, E, F, and G are the ones that are associated with human disease, with type A accounting for about 25 of outbreaks and type B 8 , although some regionality is seen with the various types within the United States. Botulinus toxin is heat-labile (5 minutes of boiling will destroy the toxin) and is produced at any temperature in which bacterial growth occurs. The majority of outbreaks have been traced to home-produced foods, especially vegetables, fish, fruits, and condiments. Commercial food sources are occasionally incriminated. The key to preventing this disease is to destroy the C. botulinum spores. Food needs to be subjected to a temperature of 120 for 30 minutes, usually with the aid of a pressure cooker in the home environment, to destroy spores. Any surviving spores may germinate in the...

Classified List of Fat Replacers and Their Applications

Opta Food Ingredients Inc., MA, USA (to be manufactured by -) National Starch & Chemical Co., NJ, USA Partnership Quaker Oats Company, IL, USA and Rhone-Poulenc Food Ingredients, NJ, USA British Sugar pic., Opta Food Ingredients Inc., Suitable for no-fat MA, USA applications, provides Based on USDA patented process for Oatrim Licensed to partnership Quaker Oats Company, IL, USA & Rhone-Poulenc Food Ingredients, NJ, USA Van den Bergh, Food Ingredients Group, IL, USA Opta Food Ingredients Inc., MA, USA Pfizer Inc., Food Science Group, New York, USA Orafti (previously Raffinerie Tirlemontoise) Belgium and Rhone-Poulenc Food Ingredients, NJ, USA Opta Food Ingredients Inc., MA, USA MD Food Ingredients, Viby J, Hercules Food Ingredients FMC Corporation, Food Ingredients Division, PA, USA Rhone-Poulenc Food Ingredients, NJ, USA Copenhagen Pectin A S, Denmark (Division of Hercules Food Ingredients Group, DE, USA) Salad dressings, sauces, soups, condiments, bakery products, frozen...

The doseresponse graph

For chemicals such as food additives, food contaminants, and industrial chemicals the threshold, that is the dose at which toxic effects become apparent, is determined from the dose-response graph and used in the risk assessment process. The threshold value is used, together with safety factors, to determine the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of a food additive, or the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of a food contaminant, or the threshold limit value (TLV in the USA, or maximum exposure limit (MEL) in the UK), for an industrial chemical (see box for calculation). For a drug, information about the dose in animals below which there are no adverse effects will be necessary before human volunteers can be exposed in clinical trials. More extensive safety evaluation is carried out for drugs than for

Relative glycaemic potency and glycaemicglucose equivalents

Control of postprandial glycaemia - the blood glucose response to food intake -is an increasingly important health issue. Diabetes mellitus, marked by an inability to control blood glucose levels, is increasing rapidly in many developed countries, in which an over-supply of high energy and highly digestible carbohydrate foods is coupled with predisposing factors, including physical inactivity, obesity, and inheritance.28 Many consumers need to be able to manage postprandial glycaemia by selecting foods and food combinations according to glycaemic impact, but food labels at present give them little assistance. Glycaemic carbohydrate components most commonly seen on food labels are 'carbohydrate', 'available carbohydrate', 'complex carbohydrate' (starch), and 'sugars'. One of the main reasons for distinguishing between sugars and complex carbohydrates is the once-held belief that sugars have a more acute impact on blood glucose levels than starch. However, some starches are so rapidly...

When lack of knowledge is dangerous

Knowledge of the relationship between dose and response (effect), and the threshold for this, is crucial in defining the risk of exposure to a chemical. Safety evaluation is a legal requirement for drugs, food additives, and contaminants in food, and a risk assessment has to be carried out in order to set the limits of exposure.3 The relationship between the dose and the response (effect) can be established and plotted as a graph. This is called a dose-response curve (see Figure 29 and box), which often shows that there is a dose(s) of the chemical that has no effect and another, higher dose(s) which has the maximum effect. It is a visual representation of the Paracelsus principle that, at some dose, all chemicals are toxic. The corollary to this is that there is a dose(s) at which there is no effect.

Box 163 Radiation Can Cause Mutations

In addition to radiation, mutations can result from exposure to certain chemicals and some subtances that occur naturally in foods (Box 16.4). Things that can cause mutations can be as different as pesticides, industrial chemicals, food additives, or naturally occurring ingredients in foods. Although people worry about pesticides and food additives with complex chemical names, we drink coffee and eat other foods that contain mutagens we ignore because they have not been labeled as chemicals. We have to

The Editors

Professor Roller has published over 40 refereed papers and patents and is a frequent invited speaker at international conferences. Her main research interests are in the application of biotechnology to food processing with special emphasis on developing new and upgrading old food ingredients using enzymes and microorganisms. The enzy-mic modification of food polysaccharides to prepare novel fat replacers, gelling agents, and thickeners is an important focus of her research work.

Constituents

Thermal analysis and calorimetric techniques, which include principally differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermo-gravimetry (TG), thermomanometry and adiabatic calorimetry have been widely used to investigate physico-chemical properties of foods and food ingredients as well as to determine optimal and safe food processing parameters.

Nutrition Claims

Certain Member States in the European Union already have, or would like to have, national provisions, be they regulations or guidelines, controlling the use of nutrition claims on food labels, for example low fat, reduced fat, or fat free. The use of such claims is of particular relevance to those food products containing fat replacers. Development The U.S. FDA has also produced regulations on the use of specific nutrient content claims on food labels covering both expressed claims (direct statements about the level or range of nutrients in a food) and implied claims (those suggesting nutrients are present absent in a certain amount or those suggesting that, because of their nutrient content, foods may be useful in being healthy and which are made in conjunction with an explicit claim or statement, e.g., healthy, contains 3 g of fat). Free and low claims before the name of the food can only be used for foods that have been specially

Conclusion

DSC is used to investigate heat-induced conformational or structural changes of a broad range of food ingredients (biopolymers, proteins, fats, sugars, emulsifi-ers) in various physico-chemical conditions, and at various weight fractions of water. Detailed description of principles and methodologies employed to obtain DSC signals and to extract information may be found in the large body of data that were published since several decades. They show a great influence of several intrinsic and extrinsic factors on calorimetric data, making difficult any generalization. In the present work, we showed that DSC can give valuable information on how examples of protein solutions and emulsions behave under various physico-chemical conditions used for preparation of complex food emulsions. Besides the well es tabl ished effects of physico-chemical environmental parameters on heat-induced conformation changes of globular proteins, DSC in scanning mode can be used for evalu ation of growing of fat...

A8 Future Prospects

Finally, given a thorough knowledge and understanding of the action and interaction of food ingredients, it is possible that the food technologist of the future will use a systems approach based on a combination of two or more fat replacers and or other food ingredients, coupled with formulation and processing changes, to develop high quality low-fat products that consumers will accept. This approach, although by no means an easy option, is also advocated in Chapter 1 and is gradually being accepted by the food industry. However, since our knowledge and understanding of ingredient interactions in foods is as yet incomplete, the full benefits of this approach may only be realized once additional scientific data become available.

Free radicals 189

Include the Humphrey Amendment signed in 1951, the Food Additives Amendment signed in 1958, the Color Additive Amendments of 1960, the Drug Amendments of 1962, the Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965, the Vitamins and Minerals Amendments of 1976, the Medical Device Amendments of 1976.

Cadmium

Cadmium was isolated for the first time in 1817 by Strohmeyer. In nature, cadmium is usually present in the form of sulfides accompanying zinc and copper ores. The application of cadmium in various branches of industry started at the beginning of the 20th Century. It is widely used in metallurgy (as a component of alloys and to coat surfaces of other metals) and electro-technics, and in the production of pigments, plastics (as a stabilizer), gum, and pesticides. This industrial use leads to food contamination via the ecosystem. Other sources of cadmium contamination include the burning of coal, oil, and waste. Significant amounts of cadmium are also found in some mineral fertilizers, as well as in industrial and municipal waste used as manure (McLaughlin et al., 1999 WHO, 1992a,b).

Copper

A copper complex of chlorophyll in amounts not higher than 1 mg per g of product is used for coloring preserved vegetables, however the complex cannot contain more copper than 200 mg per g (Dz. U., 2003). Non-organic copper compounds were used in the past for food coloration in the 19th Century in England, copper salts were used to color food products and condiments.

Pyramidal cells

Pyroglutamate (2-oxo-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid, or PCA) This amino acid is an important flavor enhancer found naturally in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, dairy products and meat it is found in large amounts in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood. It is also a suspected enhancer of cognitive ability.

Hormones in Milk

In the U.S., the debate is far more animated with concerns related to the possible health consequences of hormone levels in milk being higher than desirable, and to animal rights and animal health. There have been some reports, primarily by Epstein (1990a, 1990b, 1996), that state BST treatments have increased insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) content in milk. There have also been reports that indicate that IGF-1 is not completely broken down by digestive enzymes and that some may cross the intestinal wall into the bloodstream (e.g., Chan, 1998). Unfortunately, many of these reports extrapolate heavily from the effects of IGF-1 to the use of BST for increased milk production. Until there is substantive data on this argument, it will be necessary to accept the judgment of the FDA and the Food and Agriculture Organization World Health Organization Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives, which find no evidence that the use of BST is a health risk.

Additives

Insall, 'Food additives and why they are used', in M. Saltmarsh (ed.), Essential Guide to Food Additives, Leatherhead, Surrey, LFRA, 2000. 6. D. M. Conning, 'Toxicology of food and food additives', in B. Ballantyne, T. Marrs, and T. L. M. Syversen (eds.), General and Applied Toxicology, 2nd edn., Basingstoke, Macmillan, i999 S. Barrett, 'The Feingold diet dubious benefits, subtle risks' (2004), published online (http www.quackwatch.org 0iQuackeryRelatedTopics feingold.html) 13. Conning, 'Toxicology of food and food additives' Emsley and Fell, Was it Something You Ate Insall, 'Food additives and why they are used' Barrett, 'The Feingold diet'. 14. Conning, 'Toxicology of food and food additives'.

Mercury

Mercury is a chemical element present in organic and inorganic compounds. Methylmercury, which contaminates seafood, is the most frequent cause of mercury poisoning. Seafood contamination may be a result of industrial sewage being dumped into seas and leading to accumulation of mercury compounds in tuna and swordfish, as happened in Minamata Bay, Japan, in 1955 (Harada, 1995). The other main source of food contamination is seed that has been preserved using phenyl-mercuric ethanoate. Flour can be also contaminated with N-(ethylmercuric)-p-phenylsulphaniline.

Other Applications

The Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the EC Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) have awarded polydextrose an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) not specified in February 1987 (FAO WHO, 1987) and 1990 (Commission EC Report, 1990), respectively. An examination of the available data indicates that gastrointestinal tolerance to polydextrose is better than to polyols (Grossklaus, 1990). This is not surprising in view of the fact that polydextrose is osmotically less active (higher molecular weight), and that only half of an ingested dose is fermented in the colon.

Glucosidase

Glycyrrhiza The dried root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, known commercially as Spanish licorice. Used as an ingredient of glycyrrhiza fluid extract and glycr-rhiza syrup, both of which are used as flavoring agents in compounding medicine. This substance has a weak cortisone-like action.

Other Fat Replacers

Not all fat replacers can be classified as food additives as currently defined by the Directive 89 107 EEC on food additives (the so-called framework additives directive). A food additive is defined as a substance not normally consumed as a food in itself and not normally used as a characteristic ingredient of the food whether or not it has nutritive value, the intentional addition of which to food for a technological purpose in the manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packaging, transport, or storage of such food results, or may be reasonably expected to result, in it or its byproducts becoming directly or indirectly a component of such foods. Some fat replacers may be based on food components, for example, proteins (see also Chapter 8) others may be totally new compounds, for example, some of the synthetic fat substitutes that are currently under development (see Chapter 13). Regulatory approval for such compounds can be a long, time-consuming process as well as...

Saccharin

Saccharin is an example of a food additive that was unnecessarily banned as a result of inappropriate testing, inflexible and conservative interpretation of the results of tests, and the failure to appreciate other evidence. For more details of the safety assessment of food additives and further discussion of this case see pp. 299-308 and below pp. 280-1.

Tartrazine

Hyperactivity is difficult to diagnose and distinguish from restlessness, which may be due to other factors, like hunger, boredom, or inappropriate treatment by adults. Whether hyperactivity is caused by food additives is controversial 6 some studies have shown an improvement in behaviour after children switch to a diet, such as the Feingold diet, that is free from artificial colours and flavours, while other studies have shown no improvement. One double-blind crossover study of fifteen hyperactive children found some improvement when the Feingold additive-free diet was used,7 but it may be argued that a major change in dietary habits would be expected to lead to behavioural changes. Another double-blind crossover study using objective laboratory and classroom observation failed to find any effect from the Feingold diet.8 Another trial on twenty-two hyperactive children found a statistically significant improvement in the mothers' ratings of their children's behaviour but not in...

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