Natural Remedies for Food Cravings

Sugar Belly Secret

Joe Bovino is not only the creator of this book of strategies but also the author of other four amazon number one bestsellers. Having done extensive research and consulted professionals, he has formulated a strategy on how to get rid of that extra fat and lose weight. That is after almost a decade and a half year. He has also experienced other products prior to researching the natural ways of having a good strategy for weight loss. He can, therefore, be trusted. It entails a fun and simple strategy of having weight loss that melts away the extra pound without exercise or dieting. At times, it is quite hard to stay motivated to work out on a daily basis, especially when you are busy with work and getting older, it is hard to find the time and maintain your workouts! With this book of strategies, you learn how to continue with your usual work and enjoy life with your friends and family while at the same time lose that extra weight and belly, without any shed of sweat. It will help you; Rejuvenating and refreshing your skin, Supercharge your energy levels and become activated most of the time, You will still continue eating your preferred food and drinks without restrictions., Melt away extra pounds and keep them off for a long time. Continue reading...

Sugar Belly Secret Summary


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Nutritional Functions Of

The nutritional function of fat in food would not be complete without mentioning its physiological psychological aspect, mainly the extent to which fat plays a role in achieving satiety. Research has shown that the consumption of fat is associated with a subsequent state of fulfillment, such that, by implication, fat reduction might lead to energy compensation and the increased consumption of food. This issue is discussed in detail in Chapter 2. However, it should be pointed out that most studies on satiety have been carried out using noncaloric, nonabsorbable fat substitutes (such as sucrose polyesters). As will be discussed, so far such fat substitutes have not been approved for use in foods, and therefore the studies do not address the current market reality where fat mimetics are used to reduce the fat content of food products. A study on satiety involving three different types of fat mimetics is currently being undertaken at the Leatherhead Food Research Association, supported by...

Prolamine and Glutelin RNA Localization in Rice

These distinct ER subdomains may serve to spatially separate the synthesis and, in turn, the entry of these proteins into the secretory pathway. Such a suggestion was supported by biochemical analysis of subcellular fractions enriched for these membranes. Prolamine PBs, purified by repeated sucrose density gradient centrifugation, contained polyA-RNA which directed the synthesis of only prolamines, suggesting that the PB-ERs were enriched for prolamine mRNAs (Yamagata et al. 1986). On the other hand, Kim et al. (1993) demonstrated an approximately two-fold greater abundance of glutelin transcripts over prolamine transcripts in membrane-bound polysome fractions, indicating that this fraction, composed mainly of cisternal ER, is enriched for glutelin mRNAs.

Questions And Problems

The formula of simple sugars is C6H12 6. The simple formula of higher carbohydrates is C6H10 5. Of course, many of these units are required to make a molecule of starch or cellulose. If higher carbohydrates are formed by joining together molecules of simple sugars, why is there a difference in the ratios of C, H, and O atoms in the higher carbohydrates, compared to the simple sugars 8. During 1 month, a factory for the production of simple sugars, C6H12O6, by the hydrolysis of cellulose processes 1 million kg of cellulose. The percentage of cellulose that undergoes the hydrolysis reaction is 40 . How many kilograms of water are consumed in the hydrolysis of cellulose each month

Market Developments In Reducedfat Foods

In response to consumer concerns over fat intake, an increasingly wide range of food sectors now offer reduced-fat and reduced-calorie versions of standard products. According to Wagner (1992), 76 of U.S. adults consume low-fat or low-calorie foods and drinks, while U.K. consumers are not far behind, with 74 claiming to consume low-fat and light products, ahead of German adults with 69 and French adults with 48 . Two in every three Australians have also been reported to consume reduced-fat and low-calorie food products (Anon., 1993). While the message of reducing fat appears to have a stronger appeal to Europeans, they are nevertheless less inclined than Americans to incorporate low-fat, low-calorie, and sugar-free products into their diets. This phenomenon is put down more to market development and product availability than to a significant difference in attitudes between U.S. and European consumers.

Materials And Methods

Mouse 17 clone 1 (17Cl1) cells were infected with MHV A59 at an MOI of 0.1. The extracellular media were collected and clarified by centrifugation. The supernatant containing the virions was precipitated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000 in 0.4 M sodium chloride and was purified through a 20-60 sucrose gradient. Fractions containing virus particles were combined and concentrated by pelleting through a 30 sucrose cushion. Virions were resuspended in TMEN buffer. Purified virion proteins were analyzed in a 10 SDS-PAGE gel. The band containing the N protein was removed from the gel, destained, and incubated under reducing conditions with DTT prior to in-gel digestion with proteomics grade porcine pancreatic trypsin (Sigma). Resulting peptides were extracted and dried under vacuum. A portion of the peptide mixture was passed through a gallium (III) immobilized metal affinity column (IMAC) (Pierce) to enrich and isolate phosphopeptides. The IMAC elution was dried under vacuum prior to...

Isolation Of Membranes

After unbroken cells are removed by low-speed centrifugation, the total membrane fraction can be collected by ultracentrifugation. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation can be used for removal of ribo-somes, peptidoglycan fragments, and other large complexes and for separation of the cytoplasmic and outer membranes. Because of its content of lipopolysaccha-ride, the density of the outer membrane in E. coli is higher than that of the cytoplasmic membrane. In other gram-negative bacteria, the densities of the two membranes are similar, and their separation by this technique is not as effective.

Results And Discussion

Viral particles released to the culture medium by BEV-infected Equine dermis (Ederm) cells were concentrated by centrifugation over a 20 sucrose cushion at 25000 rpm for 2 h. The pellet was resuspended in TEN buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM EDTA, 150 mM NaCl) and layered over a 15-45 sucrose gradient that was centrifuged at 25000 rpm for 2 h. The fraction containing the virions was concentrated by ultracentrifugation. The characteristic polymorphism of torovirus particles was observed after negative staining of the purified preparation, and spherical, oval, elongated, kidney-shaped particles could be seen (Figure 1A, B). At higher magnification, surface projections or peplomers could be observed with more detail (Figure 1C, D).

Mass Transfer Inhibition And Flavor Release

Numerous earlier studies examined the effects of mass transfer on flavor taste perception by relating viscosity data to sensory perceptions. Cussler et al. (1979) established that perceived flavor ratings are proportional to the concentration of the flavor taste compound and to the square root of the diffusion coefficient, whereby the latter is related to viscosity. Further studies by Kokini et al. (1982), using the same penetration model of mass transfer, showed that increasing tomato solids decreases the rate of transport of a sweetener (sucrose or fructose) to the surface of the tongue, resulting in a decrease of sweetness intensity. While the studies mentioned above indicate the importance of diffusive mechanisms on sensory perceptions, Darling et al. (1986) proposed a different concept. On the basis of their study on flavor release from guar gum and sucrose solutions, as well as the modeling of those systems, they suggested that, on the one hand, partitioning behavior (which...

Particle Characteristics

Particles of SARS-CoV, FIPV, and MHV were prepared from Vero-E6, AK-D, and DBT cells, respectively. MHV and SARS-CoV were also produced in cells cultured with tunicamycin, to form spike-depleted particles with low infectivity. For safety reasons, all particles were fixed with 10 (for SARS-CoV) or 1 (for FIPV and MhV) formalin in pH 6.5 HEPES-buffered physiological saline before imaging. All viruses were collected by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, and each remained highly infectious until fixed.

Pharmaceutical excipients in formulations

The purity of the excipients used is very important and should be carefully considered. A purity grade even higher than the pharmacopeial monograph may be required if some specific impurity may be implicated in a degradation reaction. If the protein concentration is low, even trace amounts of impurities such as metal ions, peroxides, proteases, or reducing sugars will result in a high impurity-protein ratio.34 A detailed study of peroxide formation in

Transfer To Plants

(tumor-inducing) or Ri (root-inducing) of +200 kb in size cause crown gall disease in plants whereby they induce the formation of tumors at the site of infection. The Ti plasmid encodes a sensor-response regulator system, VirA and VirG, respectively, which in conjunction with ChvE, a chromosomally- encoded periplasmic sugar binding protein, process signals from wounded plant tissue. The phospho- transfer reaction from VirA to VirG induces gene expression from the vir A, -B, -D, -E, and -G operons on the Ti plasmid. In addition, the virC, -F, and -H operons are induced but these operons express nonessential gene products that affect host range or the degree of virulence. The signals generated by the plant include phenolic compounds, simple sugars, and decreased pH or phosphate content.

A1 Introduction And Historical Perspective

The term maltodextrin was first used very broadly in the early 1950s to describe oligosaccharides consisting of a-1,4-linked glucose units and including mixtures of maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, and higher oligosaccharides (Alexander, 1992). By 1957, a narrower definition was published by the American Corn Industries Research Foundation in which maltodextrin was defined as the product obtained by the incomplete hydrolysis of cornstarch and containing 13 to 27 reducing sugars, calculated as anhydrous dextrose and expressed on a total solids basis (Hoover, 1957). In 1983, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued regulations defining maltodextrins as nonsweet, nutritive saccharide polymers consisting of D-glucose units linked primarily by a-1,4 bonds with a dextrose equivalent (DE) of less than 20. The regulations further stipulated that maltodextrins were prepared by partial hydrolysis of cornstarch using acids and or enzymes, thereby apparently excluding...

A3 Chemical Composition

All starches are polymers of a-linked anhydroglucopyranose units. Native starches are composed of amylose, a linear polymer of primarily alpha-1,4 linkages, and amy-lopectin, also a linear polymer of alpha-1,4 linked units but with about 5 of the bonds in the form of alpha-1,6 branch points. In general, native starches contain amylose and amylopectin in an approximate ratio of 25 75 although speciality starches such as waxy maize starch (99 amylopectin) and amylomaize (50 to 70 amylose) are available (BeMiller, 1993 Zobel, 1992). Unlike highly hydrolyzed products such as high-fructose corn syrup, which have very similar chemical, physical, and organoleptic properties regardless of botanical source, maltodextrins have subtly different properties that are related to their botanical source as well as to the processing method used for their manufacture. Both amylose and amylopectin play imporant roles in determining the functional properties of starch and consequently of the maltodextrins...

A62 Other Food Applications

More recently, a study comparing the sensory and physical performance of Avebe's potato maltodextrin Paselli SA2 and National Starch & Chemical Co. tapioca maltodex-trin N-Oil in a reduced-calorie frozen dessert was reported (Specter and Setzer, 1994). The effect of an artificial sweetener bulking agent combination (Nutrasweet's polydex-trose-aspartame) was also examined in this study. The basic formulation consisted of cream (37 fat), nonfat dry milk, sucrose, and water to give final concentrations of 12 milk fat, 10 nonfat milk, and 16 sucrose (total solids content was 38 ). A total of 21 formula variations were prepared including those in which the fat content was 100, 66, 33 and 0 of the 12 milk fat in the control recipe. The removed fat was replaced by one part Paselli SA2 or N-Oil and three parts water. On sensory assessment following 0 and 140 d of storage, none of the high-fat or low-fat products were judged to be different in terms of gumminess or coldness. No significant...

Foundations for practical nutritional information

A food company that had not kept abreast of nutritional knowledge recently formulated a new 'diabetic muesli bar', replacing all sucrose sources with dextrins, in the belief that 'sugar' replacement would improve blood glucose control. However, such wisdom was obsolete, because sucrose, being half fructose, induces a much lower blood glucose response than dextrins, which are rapidly digested glucose polymers. The new 'diabetic' bar had a greater glycaemic impact than the unmodified version.

B5 Interactions With Other Food Ingredients

Interactions between native starches and lipids in food products are also manifested in products containing potato maltodextrins and lipids. Trials using a model system with combinations of Avebe's potato-derived Paselli SA2 and different emulsifiers have shown that the presence of certain emulsifiers increased the rate of gel formation (Table 6B.1), gave better control of the final gel strength, and modified the final gel textures. The model results were confirmed in a study of chocolate layer cakes in which the shortening was replaced by a combination of a low-DE potato maltodextrin and emulsifiers (Sob-czynska and Setzer, 1991). The best results were obtained using sucrose-ester- or monoglyceride gels in combination with low-DE potato maltodextrin added in the dry form. The exact mechanism of the interaction is unknown, but it is believed that helical inclusion complexing occurs between linear fractions of Paselli SA2 and the fatty acid chains of the emulsifiers.

B63 Spoonable Products

Spoonable products such as emulsified sauces and mayonnaise are oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, as in frozen dessert applications, there is a concentration effect the fat replacer, being entirely in the water phase of the product, is more functional than it would seem from the final concentration. This is beneficial in terms of mouthfeel and creami-ness, but could have drawbacks regarding texture. The gel forming properties may cause an undesirable, gellified, cuttable consistency. However, the occurrence of this negative effect depends on the concentration of the maltodextrin used, the total fat content of the product, the other ingredients in the formulation, and the processing conditions selected. In most cases, these parameters can be adjusted and many customers use low-DE maltodextrins in spoonable dressings without any problems. An example of the application of a low-DE potato maltodextrin in a low-fat salad dressing is given in Table 6B.4. The manufacturing process involves...

Maximum allowable product temperature

Including peptides and proteins, do not crystallize during freezing. For such amorphous materials, eutectic crystallization does not occur. Instead, the system freezes by a change in viscosity of the system from a viscous liquid to a glass at a temperature called the glass transition temperature. This is typically written as T to differentiate it from the softening point or a true glass transition Tg of protein excipients in the solid state or of a pure polymer. The T g can be detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as a second-order increase in the baseline of the thermogram and typically occurs just prior to the onset of the endotherm for the melting of ice. The Tg for pure sucrose is -32 C that of pure trehalose is -30 C. In the solid state with water content of 1 , the Tg for pure sucrose and trehalose is about 100 and 65 C, respectively.32 The water content should be specified because water has a very low Tg (-135 C) thus, increasing water content will greatly reduce...

Formulation components for lyophilization

A typical lyophilized protein formulation may contain a bulking agent, buffer, tonicity modifier, and other excipients that may be classified as cry-oprotectants and lyoprotectants.44 Nonionic surfactants can be used to reduce protein aggregation. Because phosphate buffer often causes problems during lyophilization, alternate buffers such as Tris, histidine, or citrate may be used. Trehalose or sucrose are often used to stabilize the protein as both are non-reducing sugars that can act as both cryo- and lyo-protectants and provide a glassy matrix by remaining amorphous during lyophilization. Bulking agents typically used are discussed next. Some excipients may also be added to the reconstituting solution rather than to the formulation directly. For example, the presence of nonionic surfactant such as Tween during lyo-philization has been reported to affect the stability of a protein antibody adversely but helps to optimize protein recovery if added to the reconstituting solution.45 We...

Peroxisomal Growth is a Common Feature in Plant Cells

Microscopical studies document the enlargement (growth) of different kinds of peroxisomes in plant cells. Examples include glyoxysomes in oilseed cotyledons during postgerminative growth (Hayashi et al. 2000 Kunce et al. 1984 Wanner et al. 1982), leaf peroxisomes during greening of leaves (Gruber et al. 1973), and ureide-producing root peroxisomes in uninfected cells during development of root nodules (Kaneko and Newcomb 1987, 1990 Vaughn 1985 Webb and Newcomb 1987). Experiments with green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric proteins aimed at describing motility of peroxisomes in plant cells revealed changes in their size, shape, and number (e.g., Collings et al. 2002 Mano et al. 2002 Mathur et al. 2002). Higher-equilibrium-density cottonseed glyoxysomes apparently derived from lower-density pre-glyoxysomes were identified in sucrose gradients (Choinski and Trelease 1978), as were at least two buoyant-density populations of peroxisomes isolated from suspension cultures of anise...

Dietary CrIii And Free Radical Scavenging Ability

Chromium(III) has been postulated to be an antioxidant, beneficial in the treatment of hypertension. Chromium(III) therapies influencing the glucose insulin system and age-related hypertension have been shown to also lower free radical formation 45 . In spontaneously hypertensive rats, niacin-bound chromium supplementation decreased lipid peroxidation by altering free-radical formation measured, determined by thiobarbi-turic acid reactive substances (TBARS) 45, 46 . Preuss et al in 1997 examined several chromium compounds to determine their efficacy in regulating blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats. The control group ingested a diet low in chromium, and five other groups were fed the same diet with various chromium compounds added at 5 ppm chloride, acetate, nicotinic acid-glycine-cysteine-glutamic acid (NA-AA), picolinate, and niacin-bound chromium. Following this, the rats were challenged with drinking water containing 5 and 10 w v sucrose. Only chromium acetate and...

Targeted Modifications of the IHNV Genome Exchange of VHSV and IHNV Proteins

Virus (SVCV), a carp rhabdovirus belonging to the vesiculoviruses, were amplified through RT-PCR on viral genomic RNAs and inserted into the pIHNV digested with Spel and Smal. Corresponding chimeric recombinant viruses, rIHNV-Gvhsv and rIHNV-Gsvcv were generated and produced. Growth of both recombinant viruses in cell culture was shown to be similar to the wild-type rIHNV. For the rIHNV-Gvhsvthe only remarkable feature was the size of the induced plaques, which were of intermediate size between induced plaques in VHSV-infected and IHNV-infected cells (Fig. 7A). Direct confirmation of the recovery of recombinant IHNV expressing the VHSV G instead of IHNV G was provided by analysis of gradient-sucrose purified viruses on SDS-PAGE and Western blot assay using monoclonal antibodies directed against the IHNV P and the VHSV G (Fig. 7B).

Endogenous AtAPX Resides in ER and Peroxisomes

As is apparent from many of the discussions above, conclusions made from studies of overexpressed membrane proteins in transformed cells are subject to criticism. In view of this concern, studies of endogenous PMPs in nontransformed cells have been performed to substantiate refute the role of the ER (or portions thereof) as an authentic pre-peroxisomal sorting compartment. Thus, Lisenbee et al. (2003) conducted a combined microscopy and cell fractionation study to examine endogenous AtAPX in nontrans-formed cultured Arabidopsis cells. AtAPX was consistently observed in vivo within peroxisomes, but detected only in small, subtle ER subcompartments. However, AtAPX and CpAPX (Nito et al. 2001) were reliably identified on im-munoblots of ER and peroxisomal fractions recovered from isopycnic sucrose gradients. Mg+2-induced shifts of AtAPX in sucrose density gradients provided convincing evidence for localization in rough ER vesicles. Immunogold electron microscopy verified the presence of...

Prospective observational epidemiological studies

In the only prospective dietary study reported among Pima Indians141, 187 women aged 25-44 were followed from 1968 to an unspecified time prior to 1984 87 developed diabetes. The only nutrient significantly predicting diabetes was higher total carbohydrate and starch intake. However, in each tertile of higher total energy and total fat intake there was a higher incidence (although this was not statistically significant). No multivariate analyses were performed. There was no relationship with tertiles of sugar intake. This small sample of young women may have lacked the power to identify major nutrients and represents only a limited exploration of nutrition in the population with the world's highest diabetes risk.

Early History Of Water Testing For Giardia And Cryptosporidium In The Us

Over the next decade the method was greatly improved by introducing a Percoll-sucrose separation step to replace the zinc sulfate, and incorporating an immunofluorescent monoclonal antibody (mAb) stain for cyst detection. Since there was also a mAb for Cryptosporidium, this was incorporated into the method and it became a single analysis that could recover and detect both parasites (LeChevallier et al., 1990). LeChevallier and colleagues used this new method, nicknamed the IFA method as it used immunofluorescence for parasite detection, in national surveys of source and finished drinking water samples from 66 surface water plants. Giardia and

Hydrocolloid Functionality In Foods 921 Thickening Properties

The general viscosity concentration plot illustrated in Figure 9.2 applies to the zero-shear viscosities of hydrocolloid solutions, which is an index of the initial resistance to flow of the system. For solutions of small molecules, such as sucrose, viscosity, h, is independent of the shear rate (y) at which it is measured and solutions such as this are described as possessing ideal (or Newtonian) behavior. Hydrocolloids, on the other hand, deviate vastly from Newtonian behavior in terms of their shear rate dependency of viscosity, and usually show a marked reduction in viscosity as the shear-rate of measurement is increased. The extent of this shear-rate dependency of viscosity (shear-thinning behavior) is a function of the concentration of the polymer in solution. At concentrations below the coil overlap concentration, c*, polymer chains are essentially free to move independently through the solvent and the viscosity shows only a slight dependency on the shear rate of measurement...

Use of Chromatin Immunoprecipitation for Investigating TR Action in Development

Nuclei extraction buffer A 2.2 M sucrose, 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 3 mM CaCl2, 0.5 Triton X-100, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 5 g mL aprotinin, 1 g mL pepstatin A. Buffer A should be made just before use. 3. Nuclei extraction buffer B 0.25 M sucrose, 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 3 mM CaCl2, 1 mM PMSF, 5 g mL aprotinin, 1 g mL pepstatin A. Buffer B should be made just before use.

Transgenic Analysis of TR Function During Development

IX Nuclear preparation buffer (NPB) 250 mM sucrose (1.5 M stock, filtered and aliquoted at -20 C), 15 mM HEPES (1 M stock, adjusted with KOH, so that the pH of the 15 mM buffer is 7.7, stored at -20 C), 1 mM EDTA, 0.5 mM spermidine trihydrochloride (Sigma, cat no. S-2501 10 mM stock, filtered aliquots stored at -20 C), 0.2 mM spermidine tetrahydrochloride (Sigma, cat. no. D-1141 , 10 mM stock, filtered aliquots stored at -20 C), 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) (Sigma, cat no. D-0632 100 mM stock, filtered aliquots stored at -20 C). 5. Sperm dilution buffer (sdb) 250 mM sucrose, 75 mM KCl, 0.5 mM spermidine trihydrochloride. 9. Extract buffer (make about 100mL) 1X XB (from 20X stock), 50 mM sucrose from 1.5 M stock, filter, store at -20 C, 10 mM HEPES (1 M stock pH adjusted with 5.5 mL 10 N KOH 100 mL, filtered, and stored at -20 C) final pH (10 mM) is 7.7. 11. Crude cytostatic factor (CSF)-XB 10 mM KCl, 0.1 mM CaCl2, 1 mM MgCl2, 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.7, 50 mM sucrose, 5 mM EGTA, pH 7.7.

Calcium Permeable Channels

The diversity of ER Ca2+-releasing agonists further emphasizes the importance of the organelle in different intracellular Ca2+-signalling events. However, similar to the identification of LCC1, the localization of the cADPR-, IP3- and NAADP-releasing sources, i.e. the ER, in plants were achieved by enriching membrane fractions through sucrose gradient separation (Muir and Sanders 1997 Navazio et al. 2000, 2001). The NAADP-releasing source in animal cells appears, however, to be clearly separated from the ER SR compartment (for review see Patel 2004). Identification of the genes encoding ER localized calcium channels may therefore provide further evidences to the subcellular localization of the cADPR-, IP3- and NAADP-sensitive calcium stores.

Physiology and Metabolism

The fermentation of glucose, lactose, manni-tol, or other sugars may be easily detected by the production of gas or by change in color of an indicator dye caused by the production of acids. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of acid end products is an important aid in the identification of bacteria, especially of anaerobic bacteria of the genera Clostridium, Bacteroides, Peptococcus, and Peptostreptococcus. Volatile fatty acids may be estimated in the culture suspension, in an ether extract of the culture, or in the bacterial cell directly or after derivative formation, by gas-liquid chromatography or by other techniques, such as isotachophoresis.

The Structure of Membrane Proteins

The OmpF porin is a member of the P-barrel membrane protein class. These molecules are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, where they either mediate nonspecific transport of ions and small molecules that passively diffuse though the pore or selectively allow the passage of molecules such as maltose and sucrose. The porin shown in Figure 51 transports nutrients and waste products across the outer E. coli membrane. Note that, as with the a-helices of the potassium channel, the strands are not exactly perpendicular to the membrane plane and have different lengths.

Physical And Functional Properties

Polydextrose is an odorless, white to light cream amorphous powder, and its physico-chemical properties are summarized in Table 11.1. It has virtually no sweetness and an energy value of only 1 kcal g. Unlike the polyols, polydextrose takes part in the Maillard reaction with amino acids, similar to reducing sugars, so allowing the characteristic flavors of caramel and toffee to develop. Polydextrose, improved polydextrose (Litesse), and super-improved polydextrose (Litesse II) have positive heats of solution (9 kcal g), unlike sucrose (-4.3 kcal g) and most of the polyols (-8 to -35 kcal g).

Role of the ER in Macromolecular Trafficking from CC to SE

In considering the major role of the phloem in sugar transport it is interesting to note that although some of the transporters involved in phloem loading, for example the SUC2 transporter (Stadler et al. 1995) and the proton pump (H+-ATPase) (DeWitt and Sussman 1995), are located on the plasma membrane of the CC, the leaf sucrose transporter SUT1 is located only on the plasma membrane of the SE (K hn et al. 1997 Lalonde et al. 1999). In this

Compatible Solutes

Sugars and polyols, such as glycerol, glucosylgly-cerol, sucrose, and trehalose, are commonly used for osmotic balance among diverse organisms, including prokaryotes, yeast, plants, algae, and mammalian cells (Table 64.1). Sugars and polyols are often accumulated by organisms that must deal with dessica-tion. Sorbitol is a good example that can either be internalized from the medium (if it is present) or synthesized de novo. High concentrations of this polyol have been shown to protect proteins during dehydration by osmotic or thermal stress and to preserve proteins during storage. Sorbitol has been shown to function as an osmolyte in sugar-tolerant yeasts (Hansenula anomala), as well as in the gram-negative, strictly fermentative and ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis. Other polyols, notably glycerol, mannitol, and arabitol, are accumulated by several species of yeast and algae. As specific examples, the marine algae Dunaliella sp. accumulates glycerol, whereas the fungi...

Carbohydrate Fatty Acid Polyesters

The most often studied and only noncaloric synthetic fat substitute that is being reviewed for FDA approval is olestra produced by The Procter & Gamble Company. Olestra is a patented and registered trademark name for the mixture of the octa-, hepta-, and hexaesters formed from the sugar, sucrose, and the long-chain fatty acids isolated from vegetable oils (Jandacek, 1991). Sucrose fatty acid polyesters (SPE), more accurately called sugar, polyol, carbohydrate, or saccharide fatty acid esters, are defined in the patent literature as the hexa-, hepta-, and octaesters of polyols such as methyl glucose, sucrose, raffinose, mannitol, or sorbitol with saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (Hass, 1968). The nomenclature chosen, carbohydrate polyesters, is not chemically accurate. The carbohydrate or polyol moiety is not a chain of sugars, nor are the fatty acids or esterified fatty acids chains that resemble fibers, plastics, or cloth recognized as polyesters. Carbohydrate fatty acid...

Stabilizing Excipients

Various saccharides (sugars) protect the conformation of proteins in aqueous solutions and during freeze-drying. Unfavorable interaction of the sugar molecules with the protein surface (preferential exclusion) in aqueous solutions makes the native protein conformation with the least surface area thermodynamically favored against the unfolded state (6). The preferentially excluded cosolutes also reduce conforma-tional fluctuation of the protein at lower temperatures, which results in a decreased risk for aggregation and chemical changes during storage. The sugars stabilize the protein conformation against dehydration stresses by substituting surrounding water molecules through hydrogen bonding. They also prevent a chemical reaction kineti-cally by keeping the protein in highly viscose glass-state freeze-dried matrices with limited molecular mobility. Nonreducing disaccharides (e.g., sucrose and trehalose) are the most potent and useful excipients to protect protein conformation in...

From Inclusion Bodies of Escherichia coli Cells

Inclusion bodies produced in Escherichia coli are composed of densely packed denatured protein molecules in the form of particles (1,2). In addition to the recombinant protein of interest, inclusion bodies contain small amounts of host protein, ribo-somal components, and DNA RNA fragments (3). It is advisable to purify the inclusion bodies from the cells to a high-degree purity before carrying out solubilization and purification. This will reduce the number of purification steps after solubilization and refolding, minimize the interference of other contaminating proteins during refolding, and result in a therapeutic protein free from other cellular contaminants, such as lipids, carbohydrate, and endotoxin (4). Isolation of inclusion bodies from E. coli occurs by cell lysis with high-pressure disruption using a French press or sonication step followed by centrifugation (5). Further purification can be achieved by washing with detergents and a low concentration of salt and or urea...

Formulation Development of Proteins

Stabilizing the protein's native folded structure during storage is essential to maintaining the biologic activity, but the native state of most naturally occurring proteins is only about 5-15 kcal more stable than the unfolded conformation (17). Labile proteins that are not sufficiently stabilized during storage in the optimized liquid formulation can be further stabilized (to an extent) with the addition of excipients that are preferentially excluded from the protein's surface, e.g., sucrose, which has been shown to stabilize with this mechanism (18). The reason for stabilization has been explained as an increased concentration of any excipient that is excluded from the protein surface will cause the protein molecules to adopt a more compact folded state to minimize the protein-excluded solvent interaction. The compact protein state is, in turn, less prone to chemical and or physical degradation. The flexible native protein state is thereby stabilized against more diffuse...

Timing of Senescence the Opening

Significant changes in carbohydrate levels can be observed throughout the development of petals and corollas. In most petals and corollas, starch (Ho and Nichols, 1977 Ferreira et al., 1986 Tirosh and Mayak, 1988), sucrose (Nichols 1973 van der Meulen-Muisers et al., 2001) and a number of other sugars (van der Meulen-Muisers et al., 2001) decline after anthesis in both cut and uncut flowers (Tirosh and Mayak, 1988 van Doorn, 2004). However, relatively high levels of sugars are maintained through senescence in several species (van Doorn, 2004). Exogenously applied sugars, especially sucrose and glucose, have long been shown to delay flower senescence (Nichols, 1973 Borochov and Woodson, 1989 van Doorn, 2001). It was widely thought that sugar treatments prolonged vase life by increasing levels of respiratory substrate to levels that allow for prolonged flower maintenance (Borochov and Woodson, 1989 van Doorn, 2001). However, the fact that in multiple species significant amounts of...

Liver function tests 287

Liver function The liver has many critical functions, including filtering blood, eliminating toxins, secreting bile (a fluid that helps absorb and digest fat), and making clotting factors. It also converts sugar into triglycerides (lipids) and glycogen (a carbohydrate) to be stored for energy and, between meals, converts triglycerides, glycogen, and amino acids into blood sugar to meet the body's immediate energy needs. The work of the liver is particularly critical to the brain and central nervous system. These tissues receive their energy supply only from sugar, and so are extremely vulnerable to liver failure.

Faecal bulking index and wheat bran equivalents

To measure FBI, rats are fed a nutritionally complete baseline diet containing 5 mixed dietary fibre and 50 sucrose, and the increase in hydrated faecal bulk when a proportion of the sucrose is replaced by a test food is compared with the increment induced by an equal weight of wheat bran reference. In the case of the breakfast cereals, all of the sucrose was replaced by cereal.

Regulation Of Pancreatic Secretion

The enteroinsular axis has also been characterized. GIP is also called glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. On absorption of glucose, galactose, sucrose, or fat (corn oil), the duodenum secretes GIP.29-32b GIP has been identified as a possible incretin, which is an endocrine factor from the gut with insulinotropic activity. The direct metabolic effects of GIP include antagonizing the lipolytic action of glucagon in fat cells, reducing glucagon-induced increase of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and reducing hepatic glucose output without a concomitant rise in plasma insulin.33 Incretins are released by nutrients and stimulate insulin secretion in the presence of elevated blood glucose levels. The connection between the gut and the pancreatic islets has been coined the enteroinsular axis. Because the enteroinsular axis acts as a feedback loop for suppression of pancreatic secretion, Isaksson and Ihse34 have proposed its use in the treatment of pain induced by pancreatic...

Carbohydrates and fats

For mono- and oligosaccharides, little direct degradation occurs at temperatures typical of UHT processing but there are several reactions that occur that may affect nutritional quality. Firstly, Maillard reactions may occur, depending on the composition of the food, i.e. the presence of reducing sugars and amino acids. This is covered in Chapter 11 and will not be further discussed here. It is interesting to note that one of the intermediate compounds formed during the reactions, 5'-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), has been used to indicate the level of heat treatment received by milk.

Cell Structure Of The Archaea

Bacterial envelopes usually comprise a peptidoglycan wall with a single lipid bilayer internal to the wall (gram-positive Bacteria) or two lipid bilayers one internal and the other external to the wall (gram-negative Bacteria). In contrast, Archaea have neither peptidoglycan nor a wall. Instead the most common outer layer of their envelope consists of a paracrystalline S-layer, composed of noncovalently linked hexagonally or tetragonally arranged protein or glycoprotein subunits. Methanogens show particular diversity in envelope composition. Methanobacteria have a structure referred to as pseudomurein which resembles peptidoglycan, Methanosarcina have a structure referred to as methanochondroitin and Methanococcus and Methanoplanus have protein or glycoprotein layers. Pseudomurein is distinguished from peptidoglycan by its use of L-isomeric amino sugars with a-1,3 linkages rather than D-isomeric amino sugars using a-1,4 linkages. Haloarchaea have a protein...

Neuroendocrine Studies

These findings are in line with earlier papers reporting that leptin levels are low in nar-coleptic humans (23). However, the interpretation of the findings is difficult. As alluded to above, leptin is critically involved in the control of feeding and energy expenditure. Low levels are associated with food craving and reduced basal metabolic rate (24,25). Thus, low circulating leptin levels should increase food intake rather than reduce it in narcoleptics. However, hypocretin peptides are part of the complex neural network that conveys leptin signals to the brain (15,32). In particular, hypocretin levels in the brain rise in response to a reduction of circulating leptin levels, which supposedly stimulates food intake in this physiological context. Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that hypocretin deficiency attenuates the effect of hypoleptinemia on food intake.

Chromatographic Purification

First change 250 mL 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, 1 M urea, 5 (w v) sucrose, and 1 mM PMSF, pH 8.5. b. Second change 250 mL 50 mM Tris-HCl, 0.5 mM EDTA, 0.5 M urea, and 2.5 (w v) sucrose, pH 8.5. c. Third change 250 mL 10 mM Tris-HCl, 0.5 mM EDTA, 0.25 M urea, and 1 (w v) sucrose, pH 8.5. d. Fourth change 250 mL 10 mM Tris-HCl, and 1 (w v) sucrose, pH 8.5. 2. Dissolve the lyophilized hGH (approx 14 mg) in 3-4 mL 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer containing 1 (w v) sucrose. Filter the solution through a 0.45- m filter to remove any aggregates (see Note 13). 6. Pool all the protein fractions containing pure hGH, and dialyze against 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer containing 1 sucrose. Check by SDS-PAGE for purity. 2. Remove the dense inclusion body layer very carefully without disturbing the other layers. If the homogeneity of the inclusion bodies is not sufficient, repeat the ultracentrifugation sucrose gradient again using the pellet of the first ultracentrifugation step. Depending on the density of the...

Relative glycaemic potency and glycaemicglucose equivalents

Sugar type is another reason that 'sugar' content does not indicate glycaemic effect. Sucrose ('cane sugar') for instance has a GI of 61 because it is a disac-charide containing a fructose (GI 23) and a glucose (GI 100) unit.55 While dietary sugars include sucrose, lactose, fructose, glucose, and other mono- and disaccharides, 'blood sugar' is blood glucose.

The Specialised Case of Pore Plasmodesma Units

Compared to other organelles within the SE, the ER is well preserved in the form of nets or stacks (Thorsch and Esau 1981a,b Sjolund and Shih 1983). The parietal fenestrated ER, which shares some traits with the cortical ER (Staehelin 1997), has been postulated to be a structural necessity for ATP-fuelled retrieval (Sjolund and Shih 1983), and may thus be essential for sucrose uptake and retrieval by the SE (van Bel 1996).

Impact on key nutrients carbohydrates

Reducing sugars such as glucose and lactose participate in Maillard reactions, which will be discussed further in section 14.3. The shear forces during extrusion can also create reducing sugars from complex carbohydrates as well as from sucrose and other sugars. Sucrose losses of up to 20 were found in protein-enriched biscuits (Noguchi and Cheftel, 1983). While sucrose loss may affect product color and flavor, there is an opportunity to reduce the content of indigestible oligosaccharides that can cause flatulence. Sucrose, raffinose and stachyose decreased significantly in extruded pinto bean high-starch fractions (Borejszo and Khan, 1992). Corn-soy snacks had lower levels of both stachyose and raffinose compared to unextruded soy grits and flour, but values were not corrected for the 50-60 corn present (Omueti and Morton, 1996). Starch and stachyose were lower in extruded peas compared to raw peas (Alonso et al, 2000), but an increase in total free sugars did not fully account for...

Mechanisms of copper absorption

An association has also been observed between very high intake of fructose or sucrose and a worsening of the effects of copper deficiency in rats,94,95 but not in pigs.96 In humans, similar experiments97 have produced changes including cardiac arrhythmia and reduction of erythrocyte SOD activity with apparently increased copper balance, suggesting that high fructose intake acts systemically to raise body copper requirements. Experimental evidence implicating high fat

Regulation of termination at an intrinsic terminator

The sacB and sacPA genes of B. subtilis, genes concerned with sucrose utilization, appear to be regulated by a very similar antitermination termination mechanism. The protein products of genes sacY and sacT regulate sacB and sacPA expression, respectively. The leader regions preceding sacB and sacPA specify RNA antiterminator structures that closely resemble those of the bgl operon. Dephosphorylation of SacY by SacX, in response to the presence of sucrose, leads to antitermination of transcription in the leader region preceding sacB. The proteins and sites involved in attenuation control in the sac and bgl systems are homologous.

Types of food additives

Some additives clearly serve an important function. Preservatives help to prevent food from spoiling and enable processed food to be stored for much longer. They reduce the likelihood of bacterial contamination in the food we eat. Sodium nitrite is added to cured meat, for example, to prevent the growth of organisms like Clostridium botulinum, which causes severe toxicity, botulism (see pp. 249-51). Preservatives also reduce chemical degradation and so allow food to have a longer shelf life. Other additives may also have a beneficial function, for example artificial sweeteners reduce the sugar intake of people who suffer from diabetes or obesity.

Stage 1hydrolysis Stage

Complex carbohydrates-----> Simple sugars Simple sugars + fatty acids + amino acids-----> organic acids, including acetate + alcohols Anaerobic digesters at industrial wastewater treatment plants that degrade simplistic, soluble organic compounds such as glucose do not experience hydrolysis or stage 1. However, complex, soluble organic compounds such as table sugar (sucrose) must be hydrolyzed. Table sugar is a disaccharide consisting of two 6-carbon sugars, glucose and fructose, that are bonded together. Although soluble in water, table sugar is too complex to enter a bacterial cell where it can be degraded. Table sugar sucrose + H2O glucose + fructose (7.2)

Olestra And Its Impact

Initially, as previously mentioned, the desire was to find an ingredient that would behave, both physically and chemically, like fat, while contributing fewer calories, and which could be used in all product types by directly substituting for the fat, with little or no need to reformulate the product. Olestra, a sucrose polyester, first synthesized in 1968 and patented by the Procter & Gamble Company in 1971, precisely fitted those criteria (Mattson and Volpenheim, 1971). With sucrose substituting for the glycerol moiety in triglycerides, and six to eight of the hydroxyl groups of the sucrose esterified by fatty acids, the chemical structure of olestra is rather similar to fat. The main difference is that the molecule cannot be hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipases, and hence passes straight through the gastrointestinal tract unchanged without being absorbed. It thus contributes no calories. Furthermore, its physical properties could be manipulated by varying the chain length, the...

Function Of Symbiotic Microorganisms

Microbial provision of essential amino acids to the insect has been studied systematically in the symbiosis between aphids and the intracellular bacteria Buchnera. The core evidence is nutritional, and arises from the development of chemically defined diets consisting of sucrose, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals, on which aphids can be reared. Dietary studies in which the 20 amino acids of proteins are individually omitted have revealed that many aphids have no specific requirement for most or all the amino acids that are normally dietary essentials for animals, but that aphids experimentally deprived of Buchnera by antibiotic treatment require all the essential amino acids. The implication, that the insect derives essential amino acids from Buchnera, is supported by radiotracer studies demonstrating the synthesis de novo of various essential amino acids by aphids bearing Buchnera (Fig. 54.3).

Reactions and interactions between food constituents

The browning reactions between proteins and reducing sugars, part of the Maillard reaction, are exothermic reactions that can be followed by DSC. They are associated with relatively small enthalpies (less than 100 J g) and take place at temperatures above the Tg of the involved ingredients. Investigations of the Maillard reaction by calorimetry are rare. Examples are studies of Maillard reactions occurring between lactose and casein (Raemy et al., 1983), as well as between starch and amino acids (Kapusniak, 1999). Figure 5 presents the calorimet-

Applications Of Biosensors

Many biosensors such as enzyme sensors have been developed for food analysis and food quality control. Enzyme sensors are used for the measurement of sugars, such as glucose, sucrose, and fructose. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and glutamate in food are also measured by biosensors. Some of these sensors are also being used in the medical field and for monitoring waste-water. Many of these sensors operate on the same principle as described previously for the glucose sensor shown in Fig.17. 2. The freshness of fish meat can also be measured by enzyme sensors. The freshness sensor that detects the degradation products of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in fish meat, as well as many other enzyme sensors, achieves very high sensitivity by combining an FIA system coupled with chemiluminescence detection.

Effects Of Various Dietary Components On Chromium Absorption And Excretion

Apparently, a number of dietary components affect the absorption of chromium. Effects of simple versus complex dietary carbohydrate on urinary chromium excretion were investigated 40 . Thirty-seven healthy men and women volunteered for the 18-week study in which they ate breakfast and dinner in the research kitchen facility at the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center. Lunches and weekend meals also were provided to go. The reference diet was designed by nutritionists to meet known nutrient needs. This reference diet consumed for 12 weeks contained 35 of total kilocalories as complex carbohydrate and 15 of kilocalories as simple sugars. A simple sugar diet with 35 of kilocalories as simple sugar and 15 of kilocalories as complex carbohydrate was fed for 6 weeks. The chromium content of the reference diet contained 16.0 1.2 xg Cr 1000 kcal and of the simple sugar diet was 15.7 0.8 g Cr 1000 kcal. Urinary chromium excretion was significantly higher during the simple sugar diet...

Selection of excipient

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (see Chapter 2 for a discussion of the DSC technique) is gaining increasing use as a tool to screen potential excipients that can stabilize the desired protein.99 The thermal transition in this case represents the unfolding of the native structure, which results in an endothermic peak. Stabilizing excipients, sugars such as glucose and sucrose and polyols such as sorbitol and glycerol, were found to increase the denaturation temperature Tm of the proteins, ovalbumin, lysozyme, and a-chymotrypsinogen.37 For tPA, the melting temperature Tm in phosphate buffer was about 66 C. In the presence of arginine, a stabilizer used in the formulation, the Tm shifted to 71 C.100 The thermogram for this observation is shown in Figure 4.3. Similarly, the transition temperature of aFGF was found to rise from 63 to 67 to 74 C as the concentration of trehalose increased from 0 to 0.5 to 1.5 M, respectively.43 In studies with a humanized monoclonal antibody,...


Carbohydrates have the approximate simple formula CH2O and include a diverse range of substances composed of simple sugars such as glucose High-molecular-mass polysaccharides, such as starch and glycogen (animal starch), are biopolymers of simple sugars. The simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharides. These are also called simple sugars. Because they have six carbon atoms, simple sugars are sometimes called hexoses. Glucose (formula shown above) is the most common simple sugar involved in cell processes. Other simple sugars with the same formula but somewhat different structures are fructose, mannose, and galactose. These must be changed to glucose before they can be used in a cell. Because of its use for energy in body processes, glucose is found in the blood. Normal levels are from 65 to 110 mg of glucose per 100 ml of blood. Higher levels may indicate diabetes. a molecule of water is lost. Recall that proteins are also formed from smaller amino acid molecules by condensation...


The enzymes mentioned above are hydrolyzing enzymes, which bring about the breakdown of high-molecular-weight biological compounds by the addition of water. This is one of the most important reactions involved in digestion. The three main classes of energy-yielding foods that animals eat are carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Recall that the higher carbohydrates that humans eat are largely disaccharides (sucrose, or table sugar) and polysaccharides (starch). These are formed by the joining together of units of simple sugars, C6H12O6, with the elimination of an H2O molecule at the linkage where they join. Proteins are formed by the condensation of amino acids, again with the elimination of a water molecule at each linkage. Fats are esters that are produced when glycerol and fatty acids link together. A water molecule is lost for each of these linkages when a protein, fat, or carbohydrate is synthesized. In order for these substances to be used as a food source, the reverse process must...


The research cited in this chapter regarding currently available fat replacers supports the notion that such products may aid in reducing dietary fat intake but perhaps not overall energy intake. Most studies using traditional low-fat foods and currently available fat-replaced foods have resulted in compensation for energy reductions, but not macro-nutrient compensation. Results from sucrose polyester studies are equivocal in respect to energy and fat compensation, with some reporting energy compensation while others do not. More tightly controlled, laboratory-based human studies are needed to determine how useful fat replacement will be in reducing overall fat and energy intakes.

Rheological Matching

The majority of published reports investigate the issue of fat replacement in oil-in-water emulsion systems since, on the one hand, it represents a large range of existing product categories, and, on the other hand, it is the easiest system to characterize and define from a scientific point of view. An oil-in-water emulsion exhibits non-Newtonian, shear thinning behavior. In a recent study, Mela et al. (1994) showed that an increase in oil content (in an oil-in-water emulsion containing 1.0 w w of sucrose stearate as an emulsifier and fat content ranging from zero to 48 ) gives rise to a logarithmic increase in viscosity (as measured at a shear rate of 48 sec-1), and that this viscosity increase was a predominant factor affecting perceived fat content as assessed by panelists. However, statistical analyses of the data showed that fat content made independent contributions beyond viscosity alone. Indeed, earlier work on perceived fat content and creaminess in thickened milks (Mela,...


IBV (strain Massachusetts 41) was obtained from Dr. Benjamin Lucio-Martinez, Unit of Avian Health, Cornell University and propagated in 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. Virus was harvested from the allantoic fluid after 48 h of infection and purified on a sucrose gradient prior to labeling for FdQ studies.


Sucrose and trehalose have been found to be effective stabilizers for spray-drying of proteins.69 In one relatively early study, the feasibility of spray-drying solutions of recombinant methionyl hGH and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was investigated. Although hGH underwent extensive aggregation during atomization, tPA remained intact on atomization. Degradation of hGH during processing was caused by surface denaturation at the air-liquid interface of the droplets in the spray and could be reduced by the addition of polysorbate 20 into the formulation. Because polysorbate 20 is a surfactant, it is likely that it acts by replacing hGH molecules at the air-liquid interface. This study found that it was feasible to spray-dry tPA in the current marketed formulation. Although high temperatures are used in spray-drying, the key to avoid degradation is that the contact time between droplets and hot air in the spray-drying chamber be very small. A 40-sec exposure of a tPA solution to 50...


Although virtually indistinguishable from H2S-positive Salmonella on most enteric plating media, E. tarda can be readily isolated from humans and animals on enteric plating media containing fermentable substrates, such as lactose and sucrose (MacConkey, xylose-lysine-desoxycholate XLD , Hektoen, Salmonella-Shigella SS and desoxycholate citrate DC agars). Colonies appear colorless and therefore assume the color of the plating medium. On those media that incorporate detectors of H2S (all of the above listed media except MacCon-key), colonies will have a black center indicating H2S has been produced (Fig. 2). Biogroup 1 strains of E. tarda, which are H2S-negative and sucrose-positive, will be most easily identified on media containing only lactose (MacConkey, SS and DC agars), and they will not have black centers. Bismuth sulfite and brilliant green agars, both excellent for Salmonella Sucrose 5.0 g Colonies of E. tarda appear clear to whitish with black centers after incubation at 37 C...


Density gradient A column of liquid in which the density varies continually with position, usually as a consequence of variation of concentration of a solute. Such gradients may be established by progressive mixing of solutions of different density (as, for example, sucrose gradients) or by centrifuge-induced redistribution of solute (as for caesium chloride gradients). Density gradients are widely used for centrifugal and gravity-induced separations of cells, organelles and macromolecules. The separations may exploit density differences between particles, or primarily differences in size in the latter case the function of the gradient is chiefly to stabilize the liquid column against mixing.


Biogroup 1 strains of E. tarda ferment sucrose, mannitol and arabinose in addition to maltose but are H2S-negative. Two recent publications (Walton et al., 1993 Leung, 1996) have described sucrose-positive strains of E. tarda that are H2S-positive and do not ferment mannitol or arabi-nose, and therefore, do not belong to biogroup 1. It remains to be seen if these strains are a new species or a second biogroup of E. tarda.

Diet composition

Composition of the diet has been explored as an etiological factor in the risk of type 2 diabetes for many years. Because of major recent changes in 'Western' diets (including increases in simple refined carbohydrates and in dietary fat from animal sources, with decreased complex carbohydrates and fiber intake), dietary constituents have received significant attention. An early hypothesis was that refined and simple sugars played a major role. This early debate has been summarized by Mann128 who noted that a number of studies both supported and did not support this hypothesis. It is important to note that the majority of those early studies were methodologically weak, and few were prospective in design. West also provided a review of nutrition in the etiology and prevention of type 2 diabetes with published evidence from before 1975129,130. His primary conclusion was that total calories and obesity seem to be of primary importance, and he found little support for specific diet...


A study with endogenous AtPex10p in Arabidopsis cells produced results that were both contrasting and supportive of those of other studies. Flynn et al. (2005) employed immunofluorescence microscopy and semiquantitative immunogold electron microscopy of Arabidopsis cells and sucrose-gradient fractions to elucidate the subcellular location(s) of AtPex10p. As was expected from the predictions of Schumann et al. (2003), but in contrast to negative evidence for trafficking to tobacco-cell ER (Sparkes et al. 2005), AtPex10p was observed in subdomains of ER. Despite numerous varied attempts and approaches, however, they were unable to demonstrate the occurrence of AtPex10p in Arabidopsis peroxisomes. The reason(s) for the apparent discrepancies between these results and those of Sparkes et al. (2003, 2005) are not known.


Results from cell-fractionation experiments confirmed the coexistence of AtPex16p in ER and peroxisomes (Karnik and Trelease 2005). Immunoblots revealed the presence of AtPex16p in purified peroxisome and ER fractions obtained from sucrose gradients. AtPex16p also exhibited a definite Mg+2-

Other food colours

Other colourants in use are sunset yellow (E110), another synthetic azo dye, and caramel. Caramel colours are manufactured from sugars and are very widely used. This food colour has caused some concern due to effects in experimental animals, for example the reduction in the number of white blood cells in rats. This may be due to the effects of contaminants at the high doses given which may be enhanced by a reduced intake of vitamin B6 in the diet. Annatto and beta carotene are naturally occurring colourants, but in one study 26 per cent of patients with chronic urticaria were shown to react to annatto.15

Islet Maintenance

A third model of p-cell response to stimulation is the sucrose feeding model.126-129 Five weeks of high-sucrose feeding of adult hamsters leads to a neogenesis-associated doubling of p-cell mass. In a variant model, sucrose feeding of pregnant mothers,119 the offspring exhibit a significant decrease in p-cell apoptosis, together with a substantial increase in p-cell replication, islet neogenesis, and p-cell mass. INGAP is implicated in both cases,119 thus supporting a role for INGAP in p-cell mass expansion through a modulation of islet neogenesis. Thus, a homeostatic balance between p-cell neogenesis and apoptosis is important in regulation of p-cell mass in the adult pancreas.130


Polydextrose is most commonly used to replace sugars in various desserts, confections, baked goods, and other sweet foods. Typical applications for polydextrose include ice cream, instant puddings, jams, jellies, pastry, chilled desserts, bakery fillings, cakes, biscuits, confections, frozen desserts, toppings and frostings, instant drinks, cereal bars, extruded snacks, sauces, salad dressings, and peanut spreads. In these applications, polydextrose reduces calories while maintaining the body and texture of full-sugar foods. Although polydextrose is not a fat-replacer per se, it has a relatively high viscosity in solution and can therefore contribute to the mouthfeel and creaminess of fat-reduced formulations. Polydextrose can therefore be considered as a fat-mimetic in some applications.


Citrobacter farmeri (Brenner et al., 1993) corresponds to species 4 and is named in honor of John J. Farmer III. It is positive for indole production and negative or delayed positive for citrate utilization. It produces arginine dehydrolase and ornithine decarboxylase and produces acid from a-methyl-D-glucoside, meli-biose, raffinose, and sucrose and can utilize ben-zoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, malitol, D-melibiose, 1-O-methyl-a-galactoside, palatinose, protocate-chuate, D-raffinose, and sucrose, but not m-coumarate, dulcitol, or malonate as sole carbon sources. Citrobacter braakii (Brenner et al., 1993) corresponds to species 6 and is named in honor of Hendrik R. Braak. It is characterized by variable indole production, positive or delayed positive citrate utilization, arginine dehydrolase, and ornithine decarboxylase activity. It does not produce acid from salicin or sucrose and can utilize m-coumarate, 1-O-methyl-a-galactoside, 3-phenylpropionate, and L-tyrosine (delayed), but not...


Excessive Maillard browning can result in losses of lysine up to approximately 50 (de la Gueriviere et al, 1985). High barrel temperature, low moisture, and high shear promote Maillard reactions. Browning may occur even when reducing sugars are excluded from formulations because new reducing sugars may be formed from hydrolysis of sucrose, starch, and other polysaccharides. In a model system of wheat starch, glucose and lysine, low pH increased Maillard reactions (Bates et al, 1994). Lysine can be preserved, however, if extruder operating conditions and formulations are carefully balanced. Corn-soy blends extruded for reconstitution as porridge or gruel had good lysine retention (Konstance et al, 1998).

Sepsis 441

Semen A thick, opalescent fluid, produced in the male reproductive organs, that is ejaculated through the penis during orgasm. Semen is the secretory product of various organs (the prostate, bulbourethral glands, seminal vesicles, and others) plus spermatozoa and ranges in color from milky white to yellow to grayish. Besides living sperm, semen contains water, three simple sugars (to provide nourishment for the sperm), alkalis (to buffer the acidity of the urethra and the vagina),


High-protein foods should be avoided, including meat, fish, eggs, poultry, dairy products, nuts, peanut butter, legumes, and soy products. Artificial sugar products containing Nutrasweet also should be avoided. The food program used to treat those with PKU is quite expensive, typically costing up to 10,000 a year or more. Although health departments may pay for the formula in some states and mandated insurance coverage may cover the cost in other states, most insurance companies do not cover the cost of treatment for those with PKU because it is considered nutritional rather than medical therapy.


Stresses due to high sugar diets, strenuous exercise, physical trauma, and pregnancy and lactation have been shown to enhance chromium losses 68 . Kozlovsky et al. 69 have shown that subjects who consumed high sugar (35 of total calories) generally had increased urinary chromium excretion compared with when they consumed only 15 of total calories from simple sugars. Morris et al. 62 reported in in vitro research that insulin treatment affected the transfer of chromium from the blood plasma and increased excretion in urine. They demonstrated that chromium reduced in plasma and increased in urine in response to sugar intake regulated by insulin action. Similar results were reported by Clodfelder and coworkers 64 who indicated that insulin treatment increases chromium concentrations in the urine of rats.

Lactate Fermentation

There are three biochemical reactions for lactate production from sugars such as glucose (Equations 6.8,6.9, and 6.10). In addition to glucose, other sugars fermented by lactate-forming bacteria include fructose, galactose, mannose, saccharose, lactose, maltose, and pentoses.

The Sugar Solution

The Sugar Solution

Curb Sugar Cravings Once And For All With These Powerful Techniques. Sugar sensitive people might be low in specific neurochemicals that help us feel calm, centered, confident, and optimistic. Sugar is a drug that temporarily makes the sugar sensitive feel better, but with damaging consequences.

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