Jt

■24 Hours D72 Hours

Figure 11.5 A comparison of the moisture pick-up of Litesse, selected sugars, and polyols at a Relative Humidity of 66% (30°C). (Courtesy of Pfizer Ltd., Kent, United Kingdom.)

freezing point depression. Polydextrose has a higher average molecular weight and therefore has a reduced and favorable effect on the freezing point depression compared with smaller molecules such as sucrose or sorbitol, as shown in Figure 11.6 (Baer and Baldwin, 1984 and 1985). Polydextrose has also shown some potential as a cryoprotectant in fish and beef surimi (Park, 1986; Park and Lanier, 1987); in these products, polydextrose has some advantages over the traditionally used cryoprotectants such as sorbitol as it does not add any unwanted sweet flavors.

Litesse and Litesse II are second and third generation polydextroses with a reduced titratable acidity and improved flavor comparedtopolydextrose(Table 11.2).LitesseII was specifically developed for use in light foods that are more flavor sensitive and where

Temperature (°C)

■ 42DE Glucose syrup Sucrose i 1 Fructose □ Sorbitol

Concentration (w/w%)

Figure 11.6 Freezing point depressions of Litesse, selected sugars, and sorbitol at various concentrations. (Courtesy of Pfizer Ltd., Kent, United Kingdom.)

a higher level of sugar and fat replacement is required, e.g., confectionery, chocolate, bakery fillings and toppings, jams/jellies, syrups, and spreads. The sensory characteristics of Litesse and Litesse II in aqueous solution were similar when judged by trained panelists using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, and there were no significant differences between the two at equivalent concentration in aqueous solution. However, sweetness was the most intense flavor characteristic and Litesse II was judged sweeter than Litesse at a concentration of 20%. The sweetness of Litesse II was probably enhanced by its lower titratable acidity. Litesse II was also less bitter, astringent, and oily than Litesse. Since Litesse II has a tenfold lower titratable acidity compared to Litesse, products made with the former rarely have to be buffered. The acidity of Litesse II also means that sucrose inversion in the presence of Litesse II is negligible and there is minimal effect on fat rancidity and subsequent flavor changes. In practical terms, this means that in most applications there is no need for an additional neutralization step when using Litesse. Litesse II can be used at greater levels in a formulation because of its clean, mildly sweet taste. In all other respects Litesse and Litesse II have the same bulking and functional properties as the original polydextrose.

Table 11.2 Comparison of Some Characteristics of Polydextrose, Litesse and Litesse II

Property

Polydextrose

Litesse

Litesse II

Taste

Tart, acidic

Bland, neutral

Clean, mildly sweet

Acidity (mequiv/g)

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