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Figure 10.7 Effect of cake gel additions on batter and cake characteristics in fat-free sponge. (From Tamstorf, S., Grindsted Technical Paper TP 9-1e, presented at Grindsted Symposium, Beijing, September, 1983. With permission.) Figure 10.8 The aeration effects of distilled monoglyceride dispersions in alpha- and beta-crystal forms. Figure 10.8 The aeration effects of distilled monoglyceride dispersions in alpha- and beta-crystal forms. Ice cream has a complex structure, being an aerated,...

Formulation Optimization

The major challenge in the development of reduced-fat foods is to achieve fat reduction while matching as closely as possible the eating qualities of the traditional full-fat product. This involves the creative use of established functional ingredients, including the range of fat replacers now available. For most food products, reduction of fat is associated with an increase in water content. The first need, therefore, in order to mimic the quality of the full-fat product, is to attempt to...

Carbohydrate Fatty Acid Polyesters

The development of carbohydrate-based and alkyl glycoside-based fatty acid polyesters as fat substitutes to replace edible fats and oils on a one-to-one basis in food is described in detail by Akoh and Swanson (Akoh, 1994 Akoh and Swanson, 1987a and b, 1989a and b, 1990, 1994). Carbohydrate and alkyl glycoside fatty acid polyesters exhibit functional and physical properties resembling conventional triglycerides without contributing significantly to the caloric content of the diet. Digestion and...

A3 Chemical Composition

The gross chemical composition of maltodextrins is related to the botanical source from which they are derived and can, in general, be divided into two broad groups root starches and cereal starches. The composition of root starches makes them particularly attractive as raw materials for the preparation of maltodextrins for many food applications, including fat replacement. For example, potato and tapioca starches have a low lipid content (0.05 to 0.1 mg g) compared to cereal starches (0.6 to...

Fat Replacement Strategies

A number of approaches have evolved in the development of reduced-fat foods. In this section, the main options will be discussed briefly in the order that they were introduced. 1.5.1 DIRECT FAT REMOVAL NO COMPENSATION During the rush of publicity of the new nutritional recommendations in the early 1980s, the first strategy to evolve was simply to remove fat from the standard product, without any attempt to address the organoleptic changes resulting from the reduced presence of the fat. The...

Interactions With Other Food Ingredients

Ten years of experience with applications of MP3 have revealed that this ingredient is extraordinarily compatible with a wide variety of food ingredients. The most important interaction appears to be the synergy observed between MP3 and the other ingredients which are required to complete the illusion. Once an effective concentration of a suitable MP3 has been incorporated into a low-fat food, other ingredients are usually required to complement or complete the illusion of high-fat content in...

Olestra And Its Impact

Initially, as previously mentioned, the desire was to find an ingredient that would behave, both physically and chemically, like fat, while contributing fewer calories, and which could be used in all product types by directly substituting for the fat, with little or no need to reformulate the product. Olestra, a sucrose polyester, first synthesized in 1968 and patented by the Procter & Gamble Company in 1971, precisely fitted those criteria (Mattson and Volpenheim, 1971). With sucrose...

References

Anon., Taking the non-fat option, Food Man., August 17, 1990. Anon., Quest for fat substututes taking many routes, Inform, 2 (2), 115, 1991a. Anon., Ault Foods develops fat replacement, Food Drink Daily, August 30, 1, 1991b. Anon., Fat substitutes Finding method in the madness, Prepared Foods, 161 (13), 21, 1992. Anon., Pfizer introduces Dairy-Lo, Confect. Prod., 59 (7), 538, 1993. Anon., Profiling fat functionality, Source, No. 13, 6, 1994. Anon., Olestra gets a second patent extension,...

Other Fat Replacers

Not all fat replacers can be classified as food additives as currently defined by the Directive 89 107 EEC on food additives (the so-called framework additives directive). A food additive is defined as a substance not normally consumed as a food in itself and not normally used as a characteristic ingredient of the food whether or not it has nutritive value, the intentional addition of which to food for a technological purpose in the manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packaging,...

Classified List of Fat Replacers and Their Applications

The following table groups fat replacers according to the classification presented in Chapter 1 (Section 1.4.2). In each group, the fat replacers are listed in alphabetical order of their trade names (or common names). This should enable the reader to easily locate a particular fat replacer in the table. It should be noted that, while registered trademarks are not included in the table, the majority of the trade names do in fact carry registered trademarks and the ownership of these belong to...

Fat Replacers In The Context Of Functional Foods

The link between fat replacers and functional foods has not previously been made. However, that an association does exist, as will be demonstrated here, is worth pointing out amidst the current high level of interest in functional foods. One definition for a functional food states that it is a food which positively affects physiological functions of the body in a targeted way as a result of it containing ingredients which may, in due course, justify health claims (Roberfroid, 1995). Taking this...

Other Applications

Polydextrose can be used to replace part of the fat in soft chewy candies with little effect on structure. Since polydextrose has a higher viscosity than simple sugars and polyols at equivalent concentrations, it can contribute to the creamy mouthfeel of the product. Spoonable and pourable dressings can be made with reduced levels of oil using polydextrose. Polydextrose provides some of the functionality of the oil by providing mouthfeel, viscosity, and bulk in this application (Kappas et al.,...

A61 Applications Of Powdered Grades Of Microcrystalline Cellulose

Powdered grades of microcrystalline cellulose are commonly used in foods as a high quality inert fiber source and a noncaloric bulking agent. Additionally, the porous and free-flowing nature of these products make them ideal as carriers of liquid materials such as essential oils. They are also widely used as anticaking agents in grated cheese. Two families of powdered microcrystalline cellulose products, the FD and LM grades, were specifically developed for use in low fat applications. FD...

Gelcarin Gp 911

Gelcarin GP 911 and Seakem GP 418, FMC Food Ingredients Division. Modified from FMC Corp., 1994d. With permission of the FMC Corporation, Brussels, Belgium. Gelcarin GP 911 and Seakem GP 418, FMC Food Ingredients Division. Modified from FMC Corp., 1994d. With permission of the FMC Corporation, Brussels, Belgium. and lubricating the protein structure, Novagel improves both the melting and eating properties of low-fat cheeses Bullens et al., 1994 . Manufacturing typically involves dispersion in...