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Developments In Fat Replacers

Although the fat replacement issue has been on the agenda for more than a decade, it was not until the late 1980s and early 1990s that the development of ingredients specifically for fat replacement really took off. The fact that there are so many ingredients now available for use in fat replacement means that this has been one of the strongest growth areas in the field of ingredient development for some time. In this section, the various developments in fat replacers are put in a historical context, highlighting the main events, in order to show how each development had an impact on further research activities. It sets the scene for the more detailed discussion on the different fat replacers or categories of fat replacers in Chapters 6 through 13.

Improving The Quality Of Fat Replacers

Developments of fat replacers have not only been confined to the development of new ingredients. In addition, much effort has been made by ingredient manufacturers to improve further the quality of the existing fat replacers in terms of their functionality, ease of use and heat stability, with the aim of expanding their industrial applications. Three trends can be identified instantization alterations in functionality profile and ease of use during product manufacture. Instantization is an obvious and well-established route for ingredient extension. Thus, a number of ingredient manufacturers have launched instant versions of their fat mimetic. This is evident from the list of fat replacers given in the Appendix. functionality profile provided by the original ingredient in order to obtain some additional fat-like property (e.g., development of the Novagel range of fat replacers by F.M.C., based on Avicel ). The extreme form of this trend was its extension into the development of...

Fat Replacers And Fat Preference

There is a concern about the use of fat replacers, especially products like SPE that mimic the properties of fat so closely, that they may reinforce and maintain the preference for fatty foods. It may be that the most effective strategy for fat reduction would be to decrease the preference for dietary fat. Mattes (1993) has examined the effects of two different reduced-fat diets, one which allowed the use of fat mimetics (commercially available reduced-fat products such as salad dressings, table spreads, mayonnaise) and one which did not, on the preference for a limited number of high-fat foods. The results indicated that the group which did not experience fatty flavors showed a decrease in the preferred level of fat in test foods, whereas the group using fat replacers showed no such shift. Mattes (1993) concluded that the preference for fat in foods is governed more by exposure to fatty flavors than by the level of fat in foods. Mattes (1993) further suggested that the preference for...

Market Developments For Fat Replacers

In 1992, Morrison optimistically calculated that the maximum fat replacement potential in the U.S. was around 21 billion pounds, which equated to sales of around 46 billion, assuming a fat replacer price of 1.5 per pound. However, more recent reports suggest that fat replacers have not lived up to expectations. According to Consumer Reports, just a few years ago some analysts predicted that annual U.S. sales of fat replacers would quickly exceed 1 billion however, by 1992 they still had not topped the 100 million mark (Anon., 1993). Another report states that even with the U.S. market for low-fat, low-cholesterol foods being worth 12 billion in 1990, fat replacers were only worth 100 million (Shuckla, 1992). It should be noted that the size quoted for the low-fat, low-cholesterol foods market, i.e., 12 billion, is considerably lower than that given earlier in this paper and serves to highlight that there are many contradictory figures surrounding the issue of low-fat foods and fat...

Acceptability Of Fat Replacers

The most fundamental issue that a manufacturer wishing to use a fat replacer must take into account is whether or not the particular fat replacer is permitted for food use. The wide range of potential fat replacers on the market means that legislative controls may differ, depending on the nature of the component concerned and the food product in which they are to be used. Account also has to be taken of any existing minimum compositional requirements for the food in question. Although the current trend in food legislation is away from so-called vertical or compositional requirements and toward more informative labeling, there may still be compositional aspects that need to be taken into account for example, the recent legislation on the composition and labeling of low-fat spreads at European Community level. Further criteria that need to be taken into account include the general classification of fat replacers. Differentiation between those compounds permitted generally as food...

Additives As Fat Replacers

A number of compounds that can be used as fat replacers in foods are classified as additives and so are controlled by appropriate additives legislation. One of the most notable developments in food legislation in recent years is progress toward harmonized additives legislation at European Union level. Certain of the European countries not currently members of the Union but linked via economic agreement are taking steps to amend their legislation to bring it into line with Community legislation and this trend is set to continue. Additives such as gums, other hydrocolloids, bulking aids, emulsifiers, stabilizers, and celluloses are controlled for food use by Council Directive 95 2 EC on food additives other than colors or sweeteners. This directive establishes second order controls for named additives, i.e., not only is a positive list of additives established but also the foods in which they can be used and maximum permitted levels of use. Once implemented by the Member States, this...

Fat Replacers In The Context Of Functional Foods

The link between fat replacers and functional foods has not previously been made. However, that an association does exist, as will be demonstrated here, is worth pointing out amidst the current high level of interest in functional foods. Section 1.1. Most of the ingredients used to replace fat, of course, do not provide any special positive physiological benefits themselves. However, fiber-based fat replacers can claim such benefits since there is a growing recognition for the role of dietary fiber in disease prevention, particularly in relation to colonic cancer and heart disease (e.g., Asp et al., 1993 Stark and Madar, 1994 Kritchesky, 1994). Thus, a number of fat replacers have been launched based on fiber from a number of different sources, such as oats, sugar beet, soy beans, almonds, and peas. For instance, Advanced Oat Fibers manufactured by the company Williamson Fiber Products in Ireland were first introduced in 1988. Oat fiber is also a good source of b-glucan which is...

Classified List of Fat Replacers and Their Applications

The following table groups fat replacers according to the classification presented in Chapter 1 (Section 1.4.2). In each group, the fat replacers are listed in alphabetical order of their trade names (or common names). This should enable the reader to easily locate a particular fat replacer in the table. It should be noted that, while registered trademarks are not included in the table, the majority of the trade names do in fact carry registered trademarks and the ownership of these belong to the developers or manufacturers which are given in the fourth column of the table. Other information given in the table includes chemical name composition (with origin of the base material and processes used, where appropriate and when available), the concentration at which the fat replacer is normally used, special features, and applications in foods. * Reproduced from Jones, S. A., Fat replacers database, Leatherhead Food Research Association. With permission. certain products. On the other...

Other Fat Replacers

Not all fat replacers can be classified as food additives as currently defined by the Directive 89 107 EEC on food additives (the so-called framework additives directive). A food additive is defined as a substance not normally consumed as a food in itself and not normally used as a characteristic ingredient of the food whether or not it has nutritive value, the intentional addition of which to food for a technological purpose in the manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packaging, transport, or storage of such food results, or may be reasonably expected to result, in it or its byproducts becoming directly or indirectly a component of such foods. Some fat replacers may be based on food components, for example, proteins (see also Chapter 8) others may be totally new compounds, for example, some of the synthetic fat substitutes that are currently under development (see Chapter 13). Regulatory approval for such compounds can be a long, time-consuming process as well as...

Important Considerations In The Development Of Lowfat Foods

Thus, a full knowledge of a range of fat replacers, which can be used effectively to narrow down the number of fat replacers suitable for a particular product type, is essential if product development is to be carried out in an efficient manner. Moreover, any adjustments in other ingredients present in the standard full-fat formulation need to be guided by a knowledge of their functionality. It is important to be especially flexible as far as the processing method is concerned, since, in some cases, small adjustments in the standard method might be required, whereas in others, the optimal solution might be to consider other technological options (e.g., through technology transfer, or by devising a new technology altogether).

Background And Significance

An obvious method to decrease the percentage of energy from fat is to substitute low-fat foods for high-fat foods. However, it is difficult for many people to limit their food choices to the low-fat varieties. Controlled laboratory-based experiments indicate that high-fat foods are overeaten because they are highly palatable. When a considerable amount of fat is removed from the diet, the diet is often bland and monotonous, and even those whose health status is dependent upon reducing their fat intake, such as cardiac patients, find it difficult to maintain long-term compliance (Drewnowski, 1990). Recent advancements in food technology, particularly the development of fat replacers, may offer one way of reducing fat and energy consumption while satisfying the preference for a high-fat diet. The advent of highly palatable reduced-fat or fat-free foods offers consumers choices that were not previously available, but because there have been few controlled studies of how these products...

Consumer Attitudes To Diet And Health

In 1993, the Leatherhead Food Research Association (Leatherhead Food RA) in the U.K. undertook a program of qualitative and quantitative consumer research based on group discussions and in-home interviews, respectively, in order to gain a better insight into consumer issues affecting market developments in reduced-fat foods and, as a consequence, the potential market need for fat replacers (Cathro, 1993). In group discussions, respondents agreed that the high fat content of many foods was one of the most important health issues facing them today. Quantitatively, 58 of 509 respondents interviewed in the home rated dietary fat intake as the most important health issue. This was followed by additives (49 ) and sugar contained in foods (41 ), while salt and fiber were rated as the least important issues, cited by 24 and 16 of respondents, respectively. One of the most worrying aspects about fat intake and cholesterol from a consumer's point of view was that there were no outward signs of...

A1 Introduction And Historical Perspective

The first maltodextrin to be commercialized was an acid hydrolyzed dent corn starch with a DE of 15 produced in 1959 by the American Maize Products Company (Amaizo). Other companies, including CPC International and the Grain Processing Corporation (GPC), were also prominent in the early development of maltodextrins. The potential use of a-amylase in the preparation of maltodextrins was investigated in the 1960s by researchers at CPC International (Alexander, 1992). The early products were marketed primarily as carriers and bulking agents for use in dry food mixes. It was not until the mid-1970s that it was first suggested by a group of scientists working at the former East German Academy of Sciences that low-DE maltodextrins prepared from potato starch could be used as fat replacers in foods (Richter et al., 1976a and b). The German scientists have since patented their process (discussed in more detail below) and a factory (VEB St rkefabrik Kyritz ) manufacturing low-DE maltodextrins...

A4 Physical And Functional Properties

The more subtle differences in the fine chemical structure between maltodextrins is reflected in small but important differences in physical properties. The molecular associations involved in gelation and other physical phenomena associated with maltodextrins have been studied extensively on a fundamental level using techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical spectroscopy, small-angle and wide-angle X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin resonance, and NMR spectroscopy (Kasapis et al., 1993a Levine and Slade, 1986 Reuther et al., 1983 and 1984 Schierbaum et al., 1990). For example, Kasapis and colleagues compared the gelation behavior of the low-DE potato maltodextrins Paselli SA2 (DE 2) and Paselli SA6 (DE 6) over a range of temperatures and concentrations, using both visual and mechanical spectroscopic techniques to determine the time required for the formation of self-supporting networks (gels). The results showed that at equivalent...

A7 Nutritional Toxicological And Legislative Aspects

FDA has recognized the use of maltodextrins in foods under the Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 (21 CFR 184.4444). Most commercial fat replacers derived from starch carry label designations of either modified starch or maltodextrin (Table 6A.1). For example, A.E. Staley Manufacturing Co.'s Stellar (from corn), Sta-Slim 142 and 143 (from potato), Sta-Slim 150 and 151 (from tapioca), and Sta-Slim 171 (from waxy maize) are labeled as food starch modified. On the other hand, Avebe's Paselli SA2 (from potato) can be labeled as maltodextrin, as discussed in Chapter 6B.

B7 Nutritional And Toxicological Aspects

Low-DE maltodextrins, including Avebe's Paselli SA2, are fully digestible and provide, like all digestible carbohydrates, 4 kcal g. The pre-prepared gels, consisting of one part maltodextrin and three parts water, have only 1 kcal g which is only 1 9 of the caloric value of fats and oils. Since low-DE maltodextrins are made from slightly degraded starch and do not constitute novel chemical entitites, no specific toxicological studies have been necessary. Nutritional studies showing the effect of using maltodextrins as fat replacers on fat and calorie intake are scarce. However, a recent study using rats has shown that the use of Paselli SA2 as a fat replacer in reduced-fat foods was effective in achieving an overall reduction in fat intake in the diet (Harris, 1994). Further discussion of the results of the Harris study can be found in Chapter 2. The use of complex carbohydrates, such as potato maltodextrins, to replace fats and oils in the diet has been strongly recommended by many...

B8 Legislative And Labeling Status

Maltodextrins are all-natural food ingredients that have not been chemically modified. In Europe, they are allowed for use in foods as food ingredients and are not classified as food additives therefore, they have no E-number in European countries. In the U.S., maltodextrins are approved direct food substances (FDA CFR 21, 1983). In 1995, the FDA affirmed the GRAS status of maltodextrin derived from potato starch as a direct human food ingredient. Maltodextrins such as Avebe's Paselli SA2 can be labeled as either starch or maltodextrin, depending on local food legislation. These regulations are in contrast to those pertaining to certain chemically modified food starches which are also marketed as fat replacers, e.g., A.E. Staley's Sta-Slim range, which need to be labeled as modified starch when used in a reduced fat food product.

Olestra And Its Impact

Meanwhile, the nonavailability of olestra in the 1980s had the effect of stimulating developments in fat replacers in other directions. In the late 1980s, when the trend had shifted toward developing food products containing even lower amounts of fat, and in the midst of the hype associated with synthetic fat substitutes at that time, fat mimetics, such as those derived from starch, were at a serious disadvantage because they could not fulfill all the criteria for an optimal (ideal) fat replacer. Furthermore, under the influence of olestra, which had been submitted to the FDA for approval, the whole climate of opinion then was dominated by the perceived need to find a single ingredient that had the potential of replacing fat across the whole spectrum of product applications. Thus, fat replacement reached something of an impasse a market existed for low-fat foods, but while synthetic fat substitutes were not approved for use in food, other ingredients, such as starch-derived fat...

A3 Chemical Composition

These cause a lower pasting temperature, higher viscosity, and improved clarity (BeMiller, 1993 Swinkels, 1985 Whistler et al., 1984). All of these gross compositional characteristics may influence the processing tolerance and ultimately the texture and flavor of foods containing starch-derived fat replacers. Manufacturers of fat replacers derived from starch frequently make claims of superior fat-mimetic performance in their product literature. Yet, the hard experimental evidence (relating superior functionality in real food systems to a unique chemical structure, for example) is often lacking. Consequently, the food product developer could be forgiven for thinking that all commercial maltodextrins currently on the market have more-or-less the same chemical composition and consequently have very similar fat-mimetic properties that are unlikely to be improved by further research and development. However, emerging experimental evidence (discussed in more detail in Section 6A.4)...

Formulation Optimization

The major challenge in the development of reduced-fat foods is to achieve fat reduction while matching as closely as possible the eating qualities of the traditional full-fat product. This involves the creative use of established functional ingredients, including the range of fat replacers now available. For most food products, reduction of fat is associated with an increase in water content. The first need, therefore, in order to mimic the quality of the full-fat product, is to attempt to structure the water phase, through the use of such functional ingredients as proteins, starches and other thickeners, gums, stabilizers, gelling agents, bulking agents, emulsi-fiers and fibers. The choice of ingredients will depend on product type and the level of fat reduction intended, and needs to be carefully balanced against their effects on the multiplicity of product characteristics. The strategy requires a thorough knowledge of the ingredients available, and an understanding of the structure...

A62 Other Food Applications

One of the most common applications for maltodextrins as fat mimetics is in pourable and spoonable low-fat salad dressings. In reformulating these types of products, special attention needs to be paid to developing new flavor systems, combating increased trans-lucency and avoiding excessive setback during storage due to starch retrogradation. Another common application for maltodextrins as fat replacers is in soups, sauces, and gravies. In addition to mimicking the creamy mouthfeel of fat in these products, the maltodextrin of choice needs to be resistant to heat and to freeze-thaw cycling (if destined for a frozen food product). In dry mix applications, ability to hydrate quickly and retain its properties with minimal stirring and after heating is important (Yackel and Cox, 1992). Specific formulations for a low-fat salad dressing and a butter sauce are given in Chapter 6B. Low-fat frozen desserts such as sorbets and ice milk have been available for years but they have always lacked...

The Editors

Professor Roller has published over 40 refereed papers and patents and is a frequent invited speaker at international conferences. Her main research interests are in the application of biotechnology to food processing with special emphasis on developing new and upgrading old food ingredients using enzymes and microorganisms. The enzy-mic modification of food polysaccharides to prepare novel fat replacers, gelling agents, and thickeners is an important focus of her research work. The main research interests of Dr. Jones have continued to be in the fields of food emulsions, fat reduction, food texture, food rheology, and overall structure function relationships in foods. She has published and presented over 70 papers and patents, and has been an invited speaker to numerous international meetings throughout Europe, in the Middle East and in the United States. Her first paper on fat reduction in foods was published in 1977. Since then, she has maintained her interest in technological...


One of the main characteristics of the ingredients used to replace fat is that they lack similarity both in terms of chemical structure and in a specific physical structure. All they have in common is that under certain conditions, they are able to replace fat and fulfill at least some of the functional properties associated with fat in a given product. By definition, therefore, they represent a disparate group of ingredients for which it is not easy to provide a simple classification. An additional problem is that the group as a whole is quite unbalanced in which some subgroups of ingredients of similar chemical structure and functional properties comprise a large number while others may contain only one or two ingredients developed so far. In short, a systematic approach (i.e., based on a single feature or characteristic) cannot be used because too many ingredients would be excluded. Furthermore, there is the issue as to whether to include in any classification all ingredients...

Lowfat Diet Research

Much of the research regarding dietary fat intake has predated the development of many fat replacers. This section reviews research that has manipulated dietary fat intake. Some studies have used foods naturally low in fat (fruits, vegetables, and grains) to reduce the fat content of the diet. Others have used certain fat-replaced products that were available at the time of study or a combination of naturally low-fat foods and fat-replaced foods. The following studies will be used to illustrate the effects of reducing the fat content of the diet on both energy and fat intake.


The research cited in this chapter regarding currently available fat replacers supports the notion that such products may aid in reducing dietary fat intake but perhaps not overall energy intake. Most studies using traditional low-fat foods and currently available fat-replaced foods have resulted in compensation for energy reductions, but not macro-nutrient compensation. Results from sucrose polyester studies are equivocal in respect to energy and fat compensation, with some reporting energy compensation while others do not. More tightly controlled, laboratory-based human studies are needed to determine how useful fat replacement will be in reducing overall fat and energy intakes. These caveats stated, fat-replaced foods could aid motivated individuals to reduce their intake of dietary fat and energy. In this regard, fat replacers may prove to be a useful tool in reducing fat intake, but as with most novel approaches more detailed investigations should be conducted to determine the...

Rheological Matching

Chocolate, on the other hand, is a much more difficult product because it is not an emulsion, but a fat-continuous suspension, the structure of which depends on the polymorphic behavior of the cocoa butter. This means that a fat replacement strategy involving hydrophilic fat replacers is not feasible, since the addition of even a small amount of water results in a significant increase in viscosity such that it would be impossible to process. But, even in this case, there are some avenues left to be explored. For instance, as illustrated by Daget and Vallis (1994), by modifying the fat composition and replacing some fat with a bulk filler (demineralized whey powder), fat content can be reduced from 35 to 25 . However, in the particular case of chocolate, if a more meaningful fat reduction is to be achieved, it is even more necessary to use the holistic approach than for any other product category, and there is the problem regarding compositional standards, and hence the labeling,...

Nutrition Labeling

Many food products on the market contain details of nutritional characteristics of the food in question it is likely that foods containing fat replacers will carry such information to emphasize their properties. Nutrition labeling requirements in European Union countries have been harmonized by means of EC Directive 90 496 EEC on nutrition labeling. All of the Member States have now implemented the appropriate legislation into their national laws, as the Directive came into force on 1 October 1993 the U.K. introduced its implementing regulations, the 1994 Food Labeling (Amendment) Regulations, in March 1994. Full implementation of the Directive took place on March 1, 1995. Essentially, nutrition labeling on foods will remain voluntary unless a nutrition claim is made for that food. As many foods containing fat replacers are likely to make such claims concerning their low- or reduced-fat content, provisions relating to nutrition labeling will be applicable to them. If nutrition...

Nutrition Claims

Certain Member States in the European Union already have, or would like to have, national provisions, be they regulations or guidelines, controlling the use of nutrition claims on food labels, for example low fat, reduced fat, or fat free. The use of such claims is of particular relevance to those food products containing fat replacers. Development processed, altered, reformulated, or formulated to lower or not include a nutrient in the food. Of particular interest for manufacturers of products containing fat replacers are reduced and low calorie and fat claims. Reference can be made to low calorie where the food has a reference amount (which varies depending on the food type) greater than 30 g or 2 tablespoons and can only provide a maximum of 40 calories per reference amount, or where the reference amount is 30 g or 2 tablespoons or less and must not provide more that 40 calories per reference amount and per 50 g. Relative claims for reduced calorie can be given where at least 25...

A8 Future Prospects

In recent years, there has been a general trend in the food industry to replace chemical methods of processing with those relying increasingly on enzymic treatment. This trend has been fueled by increasing consumer demand for more natural methods of processing that have a less damaging impact on the environment and has been underpinned by the increased availability of highly specific enzymes at a very low cost. For the ingredient manufacturer, perhaps the most attractive aspect of enzymic preparation of maltodextrins is the potential to tailor the structure of starch for specific applications. Although acid conversion of starch leads to remarkably reproducible saccharide compositions for any given degree of hydrolysis, it is precisely this reproducibility and the random action of acid that limits the usefulness of the method. With the range of specific enzymes, substrates, and processing control measures now available, it should be possible to select an optimized processing mix to...

B6 Applications

In the following section, the use of low-DE maltodextrins in a range of specific food product sectors is discussed and illustrated using formulations containing some of the commercially available maltodextrins, including Paselli SA2 (Avebe), Paselli Excel (for delicately flavored foods) and C*Pur 01906 (Cerestar). The Paselli range of fat replacers is recommended for use in soups, sauces, dressings, dips, dairy applications, and bakery products (cakes, frostings). Cerestar's C*Pur 01906 is recommended for use in salad dressings (hot and cold produced), low-fat spreads, ice cream, and meat products (De Coninck, 1993). Roquette Fr res' Lycadex 100 is also available and is recommended for use in applications where solid fat (e.g., shortening, butter, margarine) has to be replaced or where the fat replacer has to contribute to a creamy, plastic, or spreadable texture, as in salad dressings, cooked meats, low-fat spreads, cheeses, and ice cream (Roquettes Fr res, 1991).

Adherence to components of the extracellular matrix

One of the principal functions of the ECM is to serve as substrate for the adherence of eukaryotic cells within animal tissues. The ECM is composed of polysaccharides and numerous proteins including fibronectin, vitronectin, laminin. elastin, collagen, fib-rinogen, tenascin, entactin, and others. Thin flexible mats of specialized ECM, known as basal laminae or basement membranes, underlie all epithelial cells and surround individual fat cells, muscle cells, and Schwann cells. Binding of ECM proteins is one of the primary mechanisms used by many pathogenic bacteria to adhere to host tissues. Bacterial adhesins have been identified which recognize specific components of the ECM and a few adhesins, such as the Opa50 protein of Neisseria and the YadA adhesin of Yersinia enterolitica, are able to recognize multiple ECM components. Some bacterial adhesins preferentially recognize immobilized, cell-bound ECM components over soluble forms. The YadA adhesin expressed by Y. enterolitica, for...

Diet Enriched With Omega3 Fatty Acids Alleviates Convulsion Symptoms in Epilepsy Patients

Summary Researchers investigated whether taking a dietary supplement that contained omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA's) would alleviate and or reduce the frequency of epileptic seizures in people with central nervous system diseases who were taking anticonvulsant drugs. Participants were patients hospitalized in Israel, all of whom had profound mental retardation and epilepsy secondary to another primary central nervous system disease. Researchers developed a spread containing 65 percent n-3 PUFA's that was added to the daily diet. Of the 21 patients, only 5 were willing to eat the spread. They ate it at breakfast for 6 consecutive months. Researchers examined their medical features, drug therapy, and seizure frequency before and after the 6-month trial. All five patients showed significant improvement and alleviation in seizure frequency and strength. There were no adverse effects noted among any of the participants. The researchers conclude that n-3 PUFA's can alleviate...

Role of combination therapy in diabetes and dyslipidemia

In patients who have diabetic lipemia or severe hypertriglyceridemia, fibrates are the drug of choice in addition, dietary and lifestyle measures should include a very low fat diet, alcohol restriction, physical activity, glycemic control, and weight management. Many patients are unable to lower triglyceride levels to a safe range (

Treatment after device placement

In the early days of weaning, the additional administration of antioxidants, enzymes (brome-laine, trypsine, rutoside), phospholipids, and fatty acids (omega-3 fatty acids) was regarded as un-proven adjuvant supplementation however, the number of articles has dramatically increased that certify favorable effects on cardiac function and oxidative stress reduction 46-62 . As heart failure per se is correlated with a high degree of oxidative stress, the use of a mechanical assist device enhances that further. According to the still preliminary experience, the nutritional supplementation reduces the number of infections and possibly the number of thromboembolic events, makes the blood cells shear stress resistant, improves the rhe-ology by cell membrane stabilization, and reduces the proinflammatory cytokines 63-65 .

Reasons for elevated ffa levels in insulinresistant states

The release of FFA into the circulation is directly proportionate to the size of fat cells. Thus, increasing adiposity is accompanied by greater release of FFAs into the circulation. A chronically elevated FFA level is believed to be a cause of IR. This is illustrated by the observation that IR can be induced in normal subjects by the infusion of Intralipid (Pfizer, New York, NY) for several hours, which raises the FFA concentration, mimicking the obese state. The mechanisms that are responsible for the effects of a chronically elevated FFA level on insulin sensitivity are beyond the scope of this review, but the interested reader is referred to a recently published review on this topic (10).

Targeting tgrich lipoprotein reduction as a means of achieving nonhdlc goal

Fibrates, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acids all effectively lower VLDL-C and other TG-rich lipoproteins. Fibrates work by stimulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha. This results in enhanced lipoprotein lipase expression, reduced hepatic production of Apo C-III, and enhanced hepatic fat oxidation. In addition, fibrates increase the production rates of Apo A-I and Apo A-II. Studies of lipoprotein kinetics have shown that fibrate therapy increases the clearance rates for VLDL, IDL, and LDL particles, but surprisingly, appears to have little effect on VLDL secretion (27). The long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), found in high concentrations in the oils of cold water fish, have been known for years to have a hypotriglyceridemic effect when consumed in high doses (1-4 g day of EPA + DHA). Recently, a prescription preparation of n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (Omacor , Reliant Pharmaceuticals, Liberty...

Trials examining glycemic management techniques

The ORIGIN trial (Outcome Reduction with Initial Glargine Intervention) is a multicenter international study that will randomize in a 2 x 2 factorial design 10,000 people 50 years of age or older at high risk for CVD who have early type 2 diabetes mellitus as defined by an HbAlc level less than 9 if drug nai've or a lower Alc if treated with one oral antidiabetic agent. Persons who have prediabetes with either impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) will also be included. For the first randomization, patients will be assigned to treatment with insulin glargine titrated to normalize fasting glucose to 95 mg dL versus standard care, which generally will involve metformin or sulfonylurea therapy, at least in patients who have fasting hyperglycemia with sequential conventional tactics aiming at achieving Alc 7 . Patients also will be randomized to a supplement of omega-3 polyunsatu-rated fatty acids versus placebo. The primary endpoint is combined CV...

Chromium As A Nutritional Supplement

Recently a paradigm has emerged in which recommendations are being made for intakes of dietary substances that are not considered essential because of their apparent health benefits, for example omega-3 fatty acids for cardiovascular health and fiber for gastrointestinal health. Also, dietary intake recommendations for some essential nutrients are being made or being suggested that far exceed those required to prevent deficiency pathology because of apparent health benefits, for example calcium to prevent bone loss and selenium for the prevention of some types of cancer. Terms such as functional foods, nutraceuticals, and phytonutrients are prevalent in discussions of diet in the promotion of health not involving the prevention of deficiency pathology. Thus, the lack of evidence for chromium essentiality does not preclude the concept that chromium is a bioactive element, and when supplemented in higher than physiological (supra nutritional) amounts may have beneficial effects....

Glucose6phosphate dehydrogenase G6PD deficiency 201

Glitazones Being studied for the treatment of lipodystrophy, glitazones belong to a class of drugs called the thiazolidinediones and are best known for their ability to make cells more sensitive to insulin. Glitazones have also been shown to help correct the function of adipocytes (fat cells).

Type Of Pancreatitis Initial Damage In The Pancreas And Fibrosis Pattern

It has been shown that the initial event in alcoholic pancreatitis is focal autodigestive necrosis of interstitial fat cells, which may involve adjacent vessels, especially veins, and other tissue compartments of the pancreas.18 The inflammatory reaction and the hemorrhaging that follows the tissue necrosis initiate fibrosis (Figure 16.2).19 As discussed above, the most important known mediators of fibrosis are cytokines. The cells from which fibrogenic cytokines such as transforming growth factor (TGF) p1 and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)6,7 may be released are macrophages and other inflammatory cells, which accumulate in large numbers around the necrotic areas, and platelets in areas of hemorrhagic necrosis. The cytokines generated by these cells mainly exert their paracrine effects on

Chromiumiii Diabetes And Insulin Response

Cefalu et al. in 1999 indicated that chromium picolinate supplementation can improve insulin sensitivity in clinically obese and pre-diabetic individuals 34 . In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, 29 subjects at risk of developing type 2 diabetes were given either 1000 g chromium picolinate per day or placebo for 8 months. The patients who received the chromium picolinate supplements showed a significant increase in insulin sensitivity at 4 and 8 months. Results were seen in the absence of significant changes in body fat distribution, demonstrating that chromium picolinate can beneficially affect insulin sensitivity independent of changes in weight or body fat percentage, therefore yielding a direct influence on muscle insulin action 34 . In a similar study conducted by Anderson et al. in 1997, 180 people being treated for type 2 diabetes supplemented with 200 or 1000 g of chromium picolinate or placebo a day. Supplemental chromium demonstrated dramatic effects on...

Regulation Of Pancreatic Secretion

The enteroinsular axis has also been characterized. GIP is also called glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. On absorption of glucose, galactose, sucrose, or fat (corn oil), the duodenum secretes GIP.29-32b GIP has been identified as a possible incretin, which is an endocrine factor from the gut with insulinotropic activity. The direct metabolic effects of GIP include antagonizing the lipolytic action of glucagon in fat cells, reducing glucagon-induced increase of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, and reducing hepatic glucose output without a concomitant rise in plasma insulin.33 Incretins are released by nutrients and stimulate insulin secretion in the presence of elevated blood glucose levels. The connection between the gut and the pancreatic islets has been coined the enteroinsular axis. Because the enteroinsular axis acts as a feedback loop for suppression of pancreatic secretion, Isaksson and Ihse34 have proposed its use in the treatment of pain induced by pancreatic...

Cytoarchitecture of the Wall of Air Sacs

The wall of the ASs consists mainly of a simple epithelium supported on a thin layer of connective tissue (e.g.Walsh and McLelland 1974).The epithelium consists of squamous cells but, near the ostia, ciliated cuboidal and columnar cells occur (e.g. Fletcher 1980). In the domestic fowl, pseudostratified, ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells extends as a broad band from the PB into the AAS (Cook and King 1970). On the surface of the CaTAS, Cook et al. (1987) observed a pseudostratified, ciliated, cuboidal-to-columnar epithelium. In penguins, the epithelium of the ASs is generally tall, almost cuboidal. The epithelial cells are joined by junctional complexes at the luminal aspect and laterally by interdigitation. Microvilli project into the luminal space and electron-dense lysosome-like granules occur in the cytoplasm (e.g. Carlson and Beggs 1973 Walsh and McLelland 1974). Scanty muscle cells and clusters of fat cells have been reported in the walls of the ASs of some species...

The Extracellular Matrix

The extracellular matrix is composed of fibers and macromolecules with associated cells. Fibroblasts constitute a major cell type. In the normal situation, small numbers of macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes may lie scattered at random. Mast cells, plasma cells, and fat cells may be present. Collagen fibers and to a lesser extent elastic fibers are distributed in the matrix.

Good Fats Bad Fats

For years, scientists regarded fat in the diet as universally bad for your brain. But we now know that only some fats are bad for your memory, whereas others are actually beneficial. Your brain can suffer under the influence of saturated fats (found mainly in meat and dairy products) and trans fats (found mostly in processed foods with partially hydrogenated oils). But your brain can thrive on unsaturated fats, which come from nuts, most vegetable oils, and fish oils. A report in the Archives of Neurology in 2003 revealed that large amounts of saturated fats and trans fats were associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, whereas eating large amounts of unsaturated fats decreased risk. The study included a random sample of 815 people ages sixty-five and older with normal cognitive function. After four years, people who consumed the most saturated fat or trans fats were approximately twice as likely to develop Alzheimer's disease as were people who consumed the lowest...

FollowUp Treatment

Nits should not be confused with hair debris such as fat plugs or hair casts. Fat plugs are bright white irregularly shaped clumps of fat cells stuck to the hair shaft. Hair casts are long, thin cylinder-shaped segments of dandruff encircling the hair shaft they are easily dislodged.


The primary goal of lipid management is to achieve the patient's LDL-C treatment goal. After this, if the TG concentration is still 200mg dL, non-HDL-C (total-C minus HDL-C) becomes a secondary target for intervention. The non-HDL-C goal may be met intensifying efforts to lower LDL-C. This can be accomplished by adding or increasing the dose of statin therapy, adding plant sterols stanols and viscous dietary fibers to the diet, or using a cholesterol absorption inhibitor. An alternative approach to achieving the non-HDL-C goal is to use an agent (fibrate, niacin, or omega-3 fatty acids) that primarily lowers the levels of TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C and IDL-C).

Fat Loss XL

Fat Loss XL

In this 3 part video set and guide you will discover how to maximize how much fat you're able to lose using various techniques, as well as come to know the myths and false notions of dieting, and fad diets.

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