Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

DIY Power Plant Dish System

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DIY Power Plant Dish System Summary


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Characteristic XRays Fluorescence Radiation

Since all the inner shells of an atom are filled, x-ray transitions do not normally occur between these levels. However, once an inner electron is removed by an atom (as in the case of photo-absorption which is of higher probability for K-shell electrons, as discussed in Section 4.2.1) the vacancy created is filled by outer electrons falling into it, and this process may be accompanied by emission of fluorescent radiation or Auger electron emission. The fluorescent x-rays emitted in the process of filling a K-shell vacancy are known as K x-rays and may be of significant impact on the dosimetry of low-energy photon emitters such as 12 I and 103Pd (see Section 4.2.1, Chapter 5, and Chapter 9).

Impaired insulin secretion and insulinstimulated glucose uptake

Glucose oxidation requires less oxygen than FFA oxidation to maintain ATP production. Thus, myocardial energy use is more efficient during the increased dependence on glucose oxidation with ischemia (approximately 11 more ATP is generated from glucose oxidation as compared with FFA oxidation). In the setting of relative insulinopenia (insulin resistance or frank DM) that is exacerbated by the stress of AMI, the ischemic myocardium is forced to use FFAs more than glucose for an energy source because myo-cardial glucose uptake is impaired acutely. Thus, despite acute hyperglycemia, a metabolic crisis may ensue as the hypoxic myocardium becomes less energy efficient in the setting of frank DM or insulin resistance.

Background And Significance

An obvious method to decrease the percentage of energy from fat is to substitute low-fat foods for high-fat foods. However, it is difficult for many people to limit their food choices to the low-fat varieties. Controlled laboratory-based experiments indicate that high-fat foods are overeaten because they are highly palatable. When a considerable amount of fat is removed from the diet, the diet is often bland and monotonous, and even those whose health status is dependent upon reducing their fat intake, such as cardiac patients, find it difficult to maintain long-term compliance (Drewnowski, 1990). Recent advancements in food technology, particularly the development of fat replacers, may offer one way of reducing fat and energy consumption while satisfying the preference for a high-fat diet. The advent of highly palatable reduced-fat or fat-free foods offers consumers choices that were not previously available, but because there have been few controlled studies of how these products...

Differences In Fat Preference

Dietary fat provides approximately 9 kcal g compared with 4 kcal g for carbohydrate or protein (Burton and Foster, 1991). The relatively high energy density of fat could be a factor in its overconsumption if there is a tendency to eat a certain volume or weight of food. For example, 100 g of potato chips (which are typically 60 energy from fat) has 538 kcal, while an equal amount of pretzels (which are typically about 8 energy from fat or less) has only 375 kcal. Several studies which have varied the fat content of foods (Duncan et al., 1983 Lissner et al., 1987 Kendall et al., 1991 Tremblay et al., 1991) have found that subjects consumed a nearly equal volume of food despite differences in energy density. Thus, the more energy-dense, high-fat diets were associated with increased daily energy intakes when compared to the low-fat diets. In some of the studies which have manipulated dietary fat (Duncan et al., 1983 Lissner et al., 1987 Kendall et al., 1991), subjects were given access...

Longerterm Fat Manipulations

Three controlled, laboratory studies (Duncan et al., 1983 Lissner et al., 1987 Kendall et al., 1991) have investigated the effects of high- and low-fat diets on energy intake and body weight over varying periods of time. In 1983, Duncan and colleagues fed lean and obese subjects a low-energy density diet comprised of traditionally low-fat foods (fruits, vegetables, and grains) and a high energy density diet for 5 d (0.7 kcal g vs. 1.5 kcal g). Subjects could eat the foods ad libitum. The results showed that both obese and non-obese groups significantly reduced their energy consumption on the low-energy diet. Nearly twice as many calories were consumed during the high-energy density diet compared to the low-energy density diet (3000 vs. 1570 kcal d). No data were supplied regarding weight change during the test periods. (meals and snacks) to 24 women who were divided into groups of 101 IBW. Subjects were each fed 3 diets low-fat 15 to 20 , medium-fat 30 to 35 , and high-fat 45 to 50 of...

Neuromuscular Reanimation

The main challenge to the creation of clinically viable FES comes neither from science nor engineering but largely from selecting realistic objectives and tactics. There are many useful and practical clinical problems that can be addressed, given our present understanding of neurophysiology and currently available technologies, but getting paraplegics to walk is not one of them. Paraplegia presents a heterogeneous set of conditions in a relatively small population of patients. Moving around by wheelchair is readily available, relatively cheap, safe, and actually more energy efficient than normal walking or running. Equal-access laws have removed most mobility barriers in public places. Conversely, moving the legs with electrical stimulation of the muscles is highly invasive, cumbersome to program and to use, and inefficient and slow, even in a laboratory environment. In an uncontrolled field environment, it is likely to be quite dangerous as a consequence of inadequate strategies for...

Bacterial Diversity

Although unified by many features of cell structure and function and clearly forming a monophyletic domain, the Bacteria encompass enormous physiological diversity and can be found in almost every conceivable ecological niche. These organisms are found in extreme environments ranging from Antarctic sea ice to superheated marine hydrothermal vents, from extremely dilute aqueous systems to solutions approaching salt saturation, from highly acidic waters approaching a pH value of 0 to alkaline waters with pHs in excess of 12, and from the near vacuum of the upper atmosphere to the crushing pressures of the Challenger Deep. Bacteria can even be found in the highly radioactive environment of nuclear power plant reactor chambers. Although a few very hot environments appear to be dominated by the Archaea, the bacteria are ubiquitous inhabitants of all other environments and are important (and sometimes the only) participants in numerous ecological processes. Bacteria dominate mineral cycling...

Thulium High Activity Seeds

The mono-isotopic (100 abundance) 169Tm has a thermal neutron cross-section of 105 b. Again there is a risk of neutron burn-up by the neutron capture in the produced 170Tm with a cross-section of 100 b and the need for longer irradiation times by the half-life of 128.6 days. Thulium-171, however, is a low-energy beta-emitter with a half-life of 1.9 years and a cross-section of 160 b, so it will reduce the 170Tm source strength and if irradiated long enough produce 172Tm with high-energy gamma-rays. Thulium is the least abundant of the rare-earth metals (approximately 0.007 Tm in monazite ores) and high-purity thulium is therefore expensive.

Alternative pharmaceutical processes

The lyophilization of peptides and proteins, although very useful and common, suffers from several disadvantages. A protein can denature or aggregate during the freezing step, as already. Also, lyophilization needs substantial capital investment, high energy input, and long process times. A crucial factor that determines the shelf life of a product is its final physical state, irrespective of the method used to remove the water. This offers alternatives to lyophilization, such as controlled evaporative drying. As an endothermic process, such a technique will allow control of the temperature of drying. In contrast, freezing is an exothermic process thus, latent heat of crystallization needs to be removed quickly to prevent ice from melting back into the product. Also, evaporation is faster, is more energy efficient, and requires less capital investment.66

Reductions in the fat content of red meat

Twenty years ago red meat and meat products were identified as major contributors to fat intake in the UK. Most of the visible (subcutaneous) fat in the meat was consumed. In the early 1980s the red meat industry began to shift production systems to favour less fat, reflecting more energy-efficient animal husbandry. For many years now there has been emphasis on reducing the fat content of our diets and this continued consumer demand for less fat further prompted the meat industry to consider ways of reducing the fat content of meat. The fat content of the carcase has been reduced in Britain by over 30 for pork, making British pork virtually the leanest in the world, 15 for beef and 10 for lamb, with further reductions anticipated for beef and lamb over the next 5-10 years. The fat content of fully trimmed lamb, beef and pork is now 8 , 5 and 4 respectively (Chan et al, 1995).

Calibration Using an InAir SetUp

This method is mainly appropriate for sources with high mean photon energies such as 198Au, 192Ir, 137Cs, and for 60Co with mean photon energies above 0.3 MeV. It is also appropriate for 169Yb nuclide sources with a mean photon energy of 0.093 MeV. However, it is problematic for the very low energy radionuclide sources such as 125I and 103Pd which have a mean

Clinical studies nonrandomized

Similar cross-sectional findings in Pima Indians living a more traditional lifestyle (in rural Mexico) also support these observations74. These simple but elegant studies suggest that such interventions can effectively reverse the trend toward greater energy consumption among indigenous populations.

Initial Assessment and Management

The first priority in treating patients with suspected spinal injuries is to identify life-threatening conditions that must be treated immediately. During medical stabilization, the patient is immobilized so that assessment and treatment can be safely performed. The patient is placed on a firm 'back board' and sandbags are placed beside the head and neck to immobilize the cervical spine. A hard cervical collar may also be applied. Complaints of pain should raise the suspicion of spinal injury. Even with low-energy trauma, fracture can occur in patients with poor-quality bone. Care must be taken to rule out injury, particularly

Energetic Calculations of Protein Structures Energy Calculation

Therefore, although the free-energy values of the unfolded state and of the native state are rather high, the difference between them is very small. To estimate the free-energy values with a reasonable accuracy, we must estimate the energy of the folded and unfolded state with a level of precision that is not currently achievable. Therefore, calculating the energy of every possible conformation of a protein chain to select the native low-energy state is impossible not only because of the enormous number of conformations but also because of the more fundamental problem of the lack of precision of our calculations. However, methods are available by which to obtain approximate estimates of the energy associated with a given protein conformation, and although they are too inaccurate to allow us to predict the structure of a protein a priori, they are useful in many applications.

Maximizing Survival Potential in Very High Risk Cardiac Surgery

The mechanisms of postischemic dysfunction are well defined 8 . After cardiac surgery myocar-dial stunning may impair contractile function for several days despite normal or near-normal coronary blood flow and oxygen supply 8,9 . Stunning causes transient systolic and diastolic dysfunction but with potential for full recovery. The underlying pathophysiology is less efficient oxygen use by the contractile apparatus. This inefficiency results from impaired calcium handling by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and reduced calcium sensitivity of the contractile proteins 10 . Myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) for excitation-contraction coupling is inappropriately high in stunned myocardium with a decrease in contractile efficiency (energetically inefficient) 11 . Potential mechanisms of persisting dysfunction include uncoupling between substrate metabolism and energy production, accelerated but useless energy consumption, or impaired energy transfer to the contractile proteins. Alterations in...

Monte Carlo Based Source Dosimetry

Monte Carlo-based dosimetry has been acknowledged as a valuable tool in brachytherapy, constituting one of the dosimetric prerequisites for routine clinical use of new low energy photon interstitial sources.1,2 In this chapter, the main principles of Monte Carlo photon transport simulations are presented. Dosimetry results are discussed in the energy range of 20 to 700 keV, that covers low energy 103Pd and 125I, medium energy 241Am and 169Yb, and higher energy 192Ir and 137Cs nuclides, but excludes the infrequently used 60Co (see Section 5.3 and Section In this energy range, electronic equilibrium may be safely assumed3,4 and therefore collision kerma is used to approximate absorbed dose, omitting secondary electron tracking. Electronic nonequilibrium exists only at points in close proximity (i.e., less than 1 mm) to higher energy 192Ir sources. Moreover, in this distance range a dose rate enhancement effect due to the beta spectrum emitted by 192Ir has been reported.5 These...

Experimental Dosimetry

(1) high dose gradients, (2) an extended dose rate range, and (3) photon energies typically lower than those in the standardized dosimetry of external beam fields, which spreads from those of high (60Co and 137Cs) and intermediate (198Au, 192Ir, and 169Yb), to those of low energy radionuclides (125I and 103Pd). Given these three characteristics of the radiation field, experimental brachytherapy dosimetry does place severe demands on candidate detectors 3 Table 10.1 summarizes the sensitivity of several detectors based on the data published by Perera et al.54,55 Based on these values, ionization chambers are not appropriate for measurements with low energy radio-nuclide sources such as 125I and 103Pd. Diodes (silicon) and plastic scintillators demonstrate higher sensitivity and very small dimensions thus allowing for an adequate spatial resolution. On the other hand, owing to the potential energy dependence of their response (Figure 10.4 and Figure 10.5) they have to be used...

Changes in Body Perception

This theme, which drew from the theories of energy conservation in physics of the mid-19th century, entailed that each person was invested with a finite quantity of energy and its misuse would lead to physical degeneration and mental depravity (35). This energy model of the body would be instrumental in the creation of a new spermatic economy, in which sperm like money and labor force had to be used optimally (36).

Non Hermitean Dual Mode Quantum Brain Dynamics

In an alternative non-Hermitean thermofield QBD, however, a peculiar trace may arise locally in addition to the dual-mode traces. Suppose a non mode input comes in and is recognized. This means that quanta are excited out of the non mode of a theta-vacuum, annihilated from the non theta-vacuum state. It follows from the energy conservation law that an equal number of quanta must be created in the corresponding mode. In the case of recognition, a non mode (default corresponds to a mode quantum. After a time the excited quanta dissipate their energy and fall back into the non mode of a different theta-vacuum, creating quanta there. But then an equal number of quanta must be annihilated from the mode. So a mode (default corresponds to a non mode quantum (and vice versa). Globally across theta-vacua, quanta are equal in number across dual-modes but locally in a particular theta-vacuum there may be dual-mode inequality, so long as the total energy remains constant, consistent with the...

Touch and sensory substitution

Must be emphasized, however, that the development and optimization of effective stimulators with low energy requirements will only be possible if the physiological characteristics of the sensory receptors involved in touch are taken into account. Thus the electromagnetic systems, usually tuned to a frequency of about 250 to 300 Hz, mainly stimulate in a diffuse fashion sensory receptors with wide receptor fields on the skin. There would be a great advantage in exploiting the great variety in the sensitivity of the different cell-types involved in touch, in order to enrich the transductive capacities of these tactile interfaces (see Shinoda et al. 1998).

Fitting Guided by Normal Mode Analysis

Normal-mode analysis (NMA) is a computational exploration of the natural motion of a structure given as a set of coordinates (Brooks and Karplus, 1983 Tama et al., 2002) or as a low-resolution density map (Chacon et al., 2003). In both cases the structure is represented as an elastic network, and the dynamical properties of the resulting object are investigated near its equilibrium. The analysis results in a set of principal motions or flexing of entire domains. A few low-energy modes are often typically represent motions or flexing of entire domains. A few low-energy modes are often sufficient to arrive at a satisfactory description of the experimentally observed dynamic behavior of large molecules, as demonstrated for some functionally relevant conformational changes of large macromolecular assemblies, such as virus swelling (Tama and Brooks, 2002) and the ribosomal ratchet motion (Tama et al., 2003 Wang et al., 2004 see also Ma, 2005). The demonstrated ability of NMA to predict...

Playfulness as a Youth Indicator

Playfulness has large time and energy costs. Indeed, biologists struggled for a long time to identify what possible benefits could offset the costs of play behavior, even for young animals. A consensus has emerged that most animal play is practice. Play-fighting, play-chasing, and play-fleeing are ways of practicing some of the most important skills that adult animals need for competing, eating, and avoiding being eaten. But once these basic skills are mastered, what possible selection pressure could favor the retention of playfulness into adulthood Playfulness is also a general fitness indicator. The energy and time costs of play were sufficient to make biologists wonder why play could ever have evolved even in young animals. These costs do not go away for adults if anything, they increase. Juveniles have to compete only for survival, but sexually mature adults also have to compete sexually and take care of offspring. The costs of playfulness for adults with so many demands on their...

Effectiveness Of Endovenous Laser Treatment

Durable occlusion of the treated saphenous vein segment is certainly a central goal of endovenous laser treatment. However, recanalization of the Great Saphenous vein can be observed and frequently it seems to be associated with low energy delivery during treatment.15 Figure 29.3 displays a so-far unpublished plot of otherwise published original data about three months follow-up of continuous laser treatment of Great Saphenous veins.15 It clearly displays that recana-lization is associated with low LEED values, and furthermore that veins with greater diameter require the delivery of more energy to stay occluded during the first three months after treatment. The line drawn in Figure 29.3 is the result of linear regression analysis of open boxes showing a slope of about 10 joule per cm GSV diameter. This indicates that

Functions and requirements

Estimations of thiamin requirements have been based on a variety of biochemical methods. The finding that urinary thiamin output falls below 15 mg d in people with beriberi provided the reference point against which other methods such as thiamin loading, glucose loading and transketolase (TKL) activation are all compared (Department of Health and Social Security, 1979). Early studies in men suggested that thiamin intakes of 0.4mg d were near to the minimum at low energy intakes (Williams, 1961). Epidemiological evidence suggested beriberi occurred when the intake of thiamin was 0.2mg 1000kcal or less (Williams et al, 1943). Later studies found that at a thiamin intake of 0.16mg 1000kcal both

The Calorimetricrespirometric CR ratio

For whole animals in normoxic conditions, their homeostatic mechanisms ensure that the CR ratio is the same as the above generalised oxycaloric equivalent 81 with the Cori cycle in the liver converting to glucose any lactate in the circulating blood after much of it has been oxidised in the muscle by the appropriate isoform of lactate dehydrogenase. It was noted some years ago 82, 83 that it is rare indeed for cultured, growing cells derived from vertebrate tissue to have a CR ratio close to the generalised oxycaloric equivalent. The only authenticated report of it is for hamster mature brown adipocytes that have a CR ratio of -490 kJ mol-1 O2 when treated with noradrenaline 84 . This hormone is known to stimulate thermogenesis in the brown fat by acting on the 33-kDa uncoupling protein (UCP also known as thermogenin) that resides in the inner mitochondrial membrane to open channels between the cytosol and the matrix 85 . In consequence, it caused the dissipation of the protonmotive...

Phytoremediation of Mercury Poisons

Doses to living tissue, they can be teratogenic (i.e., induce developmental malformations) in fetuses, as well as toxic or carcinogenic (cancer-causing) at any life stage. Second, unlike many organic compounds, heavy metals cannot be broken down into nontoxic subunits (although some can be modified into less harmful forms). Finally, heavy metal residues are widespread in the environment, originating from such diverse sources as leaded paints and gasolines, scrap metals, expended ammunition, power plant wastes, and industrial chemicals (leaked, discarded, or abandoned).

Sleep and hibernation

Most social insects are diurnal foragers. When they stay inside their nests at night, they perform nest duties like cleaning cells, care for the young or thermoregulation. Nevertheless, in honeybees the most active foragers pause in a state which closely resembles sleep. The phenomenon of sleep is not restricted to mammals, but can also be found in other vertebrates like birds or turtles and even in invertebrates 36, 37 . It may therefore not be too surprising to find sleep-like behaviour in honeybees 38 , but the adaptive value of sleep for organisms is still puzzling and has not been clarified up to now. It has been proposed that sleep facilitates restorative processes 39 . Growth hormones are released during sleep, and it maintains the integrity of the immune system 40, 41 . Important neuronal functions like memory capabilities depend on sufficient amounts of sleep 42 . On the other hand, sleep can be a means of saving energy for organisms during inactive phases 43 . Honeybees are...

Application to Mathematics The Riemann Hypothesis

Under thermofield logic, the real parts of dual-modes must add to one (due to energy conservation law). So as a non-Hermitean logic, when the real part of one mode increases, the real part of the other mode must decrease proportionally. It follows that the only place where the dual-modes can balance in amplitude is at Re 0.5. Furthermore, the dual-modes are mirror images, so their frequencies must balance too.

Introduction to Operational Conditions

Because of the low energy yield obtained from volatile acids by methane-forming bacteria, their growth rate is restricted, that is, the amount of substrate utilization per unit of organisms is high. Therefore, bacterial growth or sludge production is low and optimum operational conditions must be maintained for satisfactory rates of solids destruction and methane production. These factors are responsible for the rate-limiting reaction of the conversion of volatile acids to methane. However, if the substrates fed to the anaerobic digester were mostly slowly degrading particulate materials, then the rate-limiting reaction would be the hydrolysis of the particulate material.


Mass attenuation coefficients due to photoabsorption, fiph p, for selected compounds and mixtures, plotted as a function of incident photon energy, E. Absorption K-edges are indicated on the energy scale. The low energy region of 1 to 10 keV is given in the inset for water, soft tissue, and solid water. Data shown in Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3 indicate that the atomic photoelectric effect is the dominant interaction at low photon energies, especially for high-Z materials, such as are usually incorporated in a brachytherapy source. Photoabsorption in these high-Z materials generates characteristic x-ray fluorescence radiation, which is important for the low-energy photon transport computations. Figure 4.4 presents the fluorescence yield for the K shell, which is defined as the fraction of K-shell vacancies that are filled by photon emission rather than Auger electron ejection, as a function of atomic number Z, and shows how the fluorescence yield for the K shell rises from essentially...


The complaint of forgetfulness is usually generated by family members. Less often it comes directly from the patient. Primary care physicians should suspect cognitive impairment if the patient is vague, is repetitive, or has forgotten prior interactions. Poor memory is by far the most common presenting symptom in people with cognitive impairment, but the chief complaint is sometimes low energy, sadness, change in behavior, or hallucinations, and only on examination does the physician identify the presence of cognitive dysfunction.

Depression 141

Children who suffer from clinical depression lose interest in activities and have low energy, poor concentration, and sleeping problems. Some even fairly young children may feel so hopeless that they want to kill themselves. Major depression is almost always characterized by feelings of general sadness and total loss of pleasure for at least two weeks. There are a wide range of typical symptoms

Koichiro Matsuno

Abstract Evolutionary emergence of the genetic codes is a material manifestation of the indexical activity latent in chemical molecules. Descriptive access to the indexical activity of material origin is made possible in first and second person description. The first law of thermodynamics on energy conservation during its transformation, when referred to in second person description, manifests the activity for fulfilling energy conservation from within, while there is no such activity identifiable when accessed in the standard third person description. Focused on material activities accessible exclusively in second person description is the process of measurement internal to the material bodies. Internal measurement distinguishes between the two tenses, namely, present progressive and present perfect tenses. Once internal measurement precipitates a material representation accessible in the present perfect tense, the representation can be referred to even in the present tense in third...

Nutrition Claims

Provision was also made under the earlier drafts for use of such a claim as contains x less such a claim could well be relevent to a manufacturer of products containing fat replacements. Use of the term light in food labeling was also covered this is particularly attractive for products that have been produced with a lower energy or fat content in relation to standard products. Reference was made to the use of this term in conjunction with specifications already discussed for example to be described as light in respect of energy content, a product must comply with provisions stated for reduced or low energy and to be described as light in respect of other components, appropriate provisions relating to energy and the particular nutrient in question must be met.

Figure 418

As discussed in detail in Chapter 9, scatter dose rate gradually builds up with distance and reaches its maximum at about one photon mean free path. Therefore the contribution of scatter radiation for low energy emitters as 125I and 103Pd is limited close to the source. For intermediate energy emitters as 169Yb, where incoherent scattering predominates, scatter overcompensates photon attenuation. At the high end of the brachytherapy energy range, scattering compensates for attenuation. which is valid for radial distances of up to 10 cm.9 This procedure has proved capable for calculating the dose distributions around point 192Ir sources with clinical acceptable accuracy of within 1 . For low energy

Concluding Comments

Third, from an operational perspective, the nature of time differs at higher and lower levels - the arrow of time being bidirectional under energy conservation and unidirectional under the energy-consuming dynamics of biology. This is problematic for biological reductionism because a system with unidirectional time is asked to be described in terms of bidirectional time.

Cesium LDR Seeds

As a pure electron capture isotope cesium-131 is a promising option in producing sources with pure low energy photons. Especially its Ka x-rays at 29.5 and 29.8 keV with the high abundances of 21 and 39 and the Kp x-rays at 33.6-34.4 keV (12.8 ) are very interesting, though necessitating thin encapsulation to reduce attenuation. The short half-life of 9.689 days enables production of higher dose rate sources, shortening the dose delivery time. Cesium-131 is produced by neutron capture in 130Ba

Figure 72

The ESTRO Guidelines Report13 advises against using the in-air set-up calibration method for these low energy radionuclide sources, at least as a routine method. The IAEA-TECDOC-107912 considers this set-up explicitly The real problems with the low energy, low activity seed sources, 125I and 103Pa, are related to the very low measurement signals which can be achieved with the usual cavity chambers which are available in a brachytherapy clinic and to the uncertainties of their calibration factors at these low energies. The use of large volume spherical chambers (with as large as 1000 cm3 measuring volume) can solve these problems, but this is only practical in Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratories (ADCLs) and not in the clinical routine.

Ionization Chamber

DIN 6809-210 refers to the results of Pychlau39 who recommended a simple (linear) interpolation between the available air kerma calibration factors for the PTW-chamber. In his analysis, chambers with volumes of 0.125 to 30.0 cm3 were considered. He concluded, based on his own experimental results for 192Ir and using a PTW Type 233311.0 cm3 ionization chamber with a wall thickness of 0.5 mm PMMA, that the use of the 60Co calibration for a build-up cap of 3.0 mm requires an attenuation correction of 0.5 . When the cap was not used, an effect due to secondary electron contamination of 1.8 at a measurement distance of 5.0 cm was demonstrated. The use of this build-up cap and the corresponding correction is then recommended for all sources except for the very low energy ones of 103Pd and 125I.

Figure 717

For 192Ir calibration points, only the results for HDR afterloader sources are considered and not those for LDR wire sources. The 137Cs calibration point for the SDS chamber is based on our own data using an in-air calibration set-up to calibrate this chamber. There is a significant change in the calibration factor which is demonstrated when studying low energy sources such as 125I and 103Pd.

Figure 84

Sources such as 169Yb, changes in the effective energy in the range of 0.080 to 0.150 MeV (intermediate energies) will result in a more than 2 change in the value of the ratio of mass energy absorption coefficient of water to air. Concerning the very low energy radionuclides 125I and 103Pd, with effective energies in the range 0.020 to 0.030 MeV, the individual construction of the sources will significantly influence the spectrum of emitted photons, and thus the value of ( en P)a The absorption and scatter correction as,w(r) for water is distance and source type (photon spectrum) dependent.

Gpr 90 Dr0 0O

In order to be able to exclude low energy or contaminant photons such as characteristic x-rays originating in the outer layers of titanium or steel source cladding material, which are not tissue penetrating (they contribute insignificantly to absorbed dose at distances above 0.1 cm), TG-43 U1 uses a photon energy cut-off value 8 for defining the air kerma strength Sk (similar to the definition of the air kerma rate constant rs Equation 2.61, see also Chapter 5) For the low energy radionuclides 125I and 103Pd TG-43 U1 recommends the use of an energy cut-off value 8 5 keV. For the intermediate energy 169Yb, and high-energy sources of 198Au, 192Ir, 137Cs, and 60Co, a cut-off value 8 10 keV is commonly used (see also Chapter 5 and Chapter 7). For 192Ir a


Social insects (honey- and bumblebees, wasps, hornets, ants and termites) are interesting in many aspects, among them the energetic advantages of social life and conquering of unfavourable territories. Own investigations and data from lit er ature deal with the energy metabolism of these insects (except termites because of experimental difficulties), with locomotor activities, energy balances of foraging, energy saving by insulation of wasp nests compared with the afford to construct the wooden envelope, bee cluster strategy for surviving at low temperatures, and rearing of brood.

Simulated Annealing

Both in molecular dynamics and in Monte Carlo methods, the parameter T does not necessarily represent a physical temperature. In both techniques, higher T values allow a wider exploration of the conformational space lower T values ensure that the explored conformations have reasonably low energy. We, therefore, can start with a high temperature to allow the atoms to overcome larger barriers in molecular dynamics or to allow states with higher energy to be used for exploring new conformations in Monte Carlo methods. We then slowly decrease the temperature as the simulation proceeds, to progressively focus on areas with lower energy. The protocol used for decreasing the temperature (linear, stepwise, or a combination of both) depends on the specific method, but all are known under the name of simulated annealing.


The rotational devices are designed to spin at varying speeds within the thrombus causing fragmentation. This mechanism also can result in increased endothelial damage. Ultrasonic fragmentation occurs through the delivery of high-frequency, low-energy ultrasound. The ultrasound waves cause the aggregated fibrin strands to dissociate resulting in both increased permeability of the thrombus and exposure of new plasminogen activator sites on the fibrin strands. Thrombolytic drugs are forced into the thrombus by the radial pressure generated by the ultrasound waves.

Figure 911

Radial dose function, g(r), results for different monoenergetic point sources in a liquid water phantom of 15 cm radius are plotted vs. radial distance, r, in Figure 9.11. It can be seen that g(r) for photons in the low energy region shows a sharp fall-off, since in this energy range photoelectric absorption predominates. For photons in the intermediate energy range around 60 keV, incoherent scattering results in overcompensation of photon absorption as expected from the findings of Figure 9.8 and Figure 9.9.b. At the high end of the brachytherapy energy range scattering compensates for absorption, and g(r) values present only a slight variation with varying radial distance, r.


This extraordinarily efficient metabolism, combining both scavenging and a finely regulated degradation of the substrate cell, can explain the outstanding energy efficiency of intraperiplasmically growing bdellovibrios, which were shown to achieve a YATP (biomass yield per ATP molecule expended) of 26 when compared with 10.5 for bacteria grown on rich medium (Rittenberg and Hespell, 1975a).

Figure 922

Currently, 125I and 103Pd radioactive seeds are widely used as permanent implants for the treatment of early stages of prostate cancer, and a great number of source designs have become commercially available (see for example the AAPM RPC registry of low energy brachytherapy seeds at 125I and 103Pd seeds are generally of small dimensions and are mostly of cylindrical shape (about 4 mm long and 1 mm in diameter) using Ti as the encapsulation material. These sources often utilize high Z materials, such as Ag, Pd, Mo or Au, as radioopaque markers. Both 125I and 103Pd are low energy photon emitters (see Table 9.1), with an increased probability of x-ray emission following photoelectric absorption in the source core and encapsulation materials. This fluorescence radiation may be of significant impact on source dosimetry. For example, the x-ray characteristic radiation of approximately 4.5 keV emerging from the commonly used Ti encapsulation, although resulting in a significant contribution...

Figure 1013

Dosimetry of low energy I or Pd sources, where the photoelectric effect predominates, the choice of phantom material should be made with caution. Since the photoelectric effect cross-section is strongly dependent on effective atomic number, slight differences in the exact phantom material composition may result in significant differences in absorbed dose. Polystyrene and PMMA phantoms are not suitable for TLD dosimetry of low energy brachytherapy sources since their dose rate distributions deviate significantly from that of water.60 This necessitates significant conversion factors that can increase overall experimental uncertainty. Although it has been reported that dose rate distributions around low energy sources in solid water closely resemble that in water,60 Monte Carlo simulations later revealed that this is not the case.16,121 Solid water underestimates the dose rate relative to water and an appropriate correction is required.30 This correction may be calculated using Monte...

Figure 1014

In Figure 10.14, corresponding results in water, polystyrene, PMMA, and solid water are presented normalized at the 60Co gamma-ray energy. In this figure it can be seen that the relative energy response of TLD in all materials is flat down to approximately 200 keV. Moreover, this figure also indicates that polystyrene or PMMA phantoms are not suitable for TLD dosimetry of low energy emitting brachytherapy sources, as discussed above.

Figure 1024

With regard to polymer gel dosimetry of single brachytherapy sources it is worth mentioning that besides its advantages the method was only recently successfully employed for 125ILDR sources. While 137Cs and 192Ir sources are characterized from relatively increased photon energies and from air kerma strengths in the order of tenths to thousands p.Gy m2h-1 (1 Gy m h 1 U), interstitial brachytherapy 125I seeds are low energy LDR sources with air kerma strength in the order of 1 U. Prolonged irradiation times are therefore needed to achieve acceptable measurement accuracy with 125I seeds since delivery of 1 Gy dose to water, at the reference distance of 1 cm along the transverse source bisector, corresponds to an irradiation time in the order of tenths of days for 125I compared with tenths of hours for 137Cs and tenths of

The Mad Dog Strategy

Against the mad dog strategy, any insult, however slight, risks retaliation. But mad dog despots don't incur the time and energy costs of having a fixed low anger threshold the uncertainty does most of the work of intimidating subordinates. Despotism is the power of arbitrary life and death over subordinates. If a despot can't kill people at random, he isn't a real despot. And if he doesn't kill people at random, he probably can't retain his despotic status. Social proteanism lies at the root of despotic power.

Locomotor activities

The difference between the heat production rate of a resting animal and that of a maximally active one during exercise is called the metabolic scope. In terrestrial vertebrates, the metabolic scope is up to 10, i.e. the difference in the heat production rate during locomotion and rest is 10-fold. As resting insects have heat production rates which lie in the normal range expected for small invertebrates (between 0.1 and 10 mW g) but exceptionally high rates during flight, the difference between heat production rates at rest and activity is up to 100 - fold. The amount of energy spent for flight activities is therefore the biggest part of their individual energy budget. Numerous accounts have been undertaken to measure energy consumption of insects during flight 24-28 . Nearly all of them followed indirect approaches like respirometry or thermometry. Nevertheless, it is possible to determine the heat production rates of some insects directly in an isoperibolic heat flow calorimeter 29...


Respiration is one of many cellular processes. For the purpose of this text, respiration is considered to be the degradation of substrate to obtain cellular nourishment. During respiration large compounds of high energy content are broken down to small compounds of low energy content (Figure 4.1). Much of the energy lost by the large compounds is captured by the respiring organisms. This capture results in a gain in the amount of useful energy.

Smoke And Flame

Since the mitochondrion acts as the cell's power source, think of it as a factory or coal-burning power plant. Like any power plant, there are inputs and output. The inputs for the mitochondria include sugars (usually in the form of broken-down carbohydrates) and fatty acids. The mitochondria turn this fuel into energy. To continue with the power plant analogy, the burning of the lumps of coal produces inevitable output. The intra-cellular output is a combination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), water, heat, and molecules called free radicals. and transport chemical energy within cells consider it the electrical current that is generated by the power plant. (ATP is also known by biochemists as the molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer.) The free radical molecules could be thought of as the smoke that escapes the plant as the fuel is burned.1 By that token, if oxygen radicals damaged the mitochondrial DNA and this information is needed to maintain the power plant, then...

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