References

Arisz WH (1969) Intercellular polar transport and the role of the plasmodesmata in coleoptiles and Vallisneria leaves. Acta Bot Neerl 18:14-38 Baluska F, Cvrckova F, Kendrick-Jones J, Volkmann D (2001) Sink plasmodesmata as gateways for phloem unloading. Myosin VIII and calreticulin as molecular determinants of sink strength? Plant Physiol 126:39-46 Baluska F, Hlavacka A, Volkmann D, Menzel D (2004) Getting connected: actin-based cell-

to-cell channels in plants and animals. Trends Cell Biol 14:404-408 Baluska F, Samaj J, Napier R, Volkmann D (1999) Maize calreticulin localizes preferentially to plasmodesmata in root apex. Plant J 19:481-488 Beebe DU, Turgeon R (1991) Current perspectives on plasmodesmata: structure and function. Physiol Plant 83:194-199 Behnke H-D (1991a) Distribution and evolution of forms and types of sieve-element plastids in the dicotyledons. Aliso 3:167-182 Behnke H-D (1991b) Non-dispersive protein bodies in sieve elements: a survey and review of their origin, distribution and taxonomic significance. IAWA Bull 12:143-175 Blackman LM, Boevink P, Santa Cruz S, Palukaitis P, Oparka KJ (1998) The movement protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus traffics into sieve elements in minor veins of Nico-tiana clevelandii. Plant Cell 10:525-537 Blackman LM, Harper JDI, Overall RL (1999) Localization of a centrin-like protein to higher plant plasmodesmata. Eur J Cell Biol 78:297-304 Blackman LM, Overall RL (1998) Immunolocalisation of the cytoskeleton to plasmodesmata of Chara corallina. Plant J 14:733-741 Blackman LM, Overall RL (2001) Stucture and function of plasmodesmata. Aust J Plant Physiol 28:709-727

Boevink P, Oparka KJ, Santa Cruz S, Martin B, Betteridge A, Hawes C (1998) Stacks on tracks: the plant Golgi apparatus traffics on an actin/ER network. Plant J 15:441-447 Bostwick DE, Dannenhoffer JM, Skaggs MI, Lister RM, Larkins BA, Thompson GA (1992) Pumpkin phloem lectin genes are specifically expressed in companion cells. Plant Cell 4:1539-1548

Botha CEJ, Cross RHN (2000) Towards reconciliation of structure with function in plasmodesmata—who is the gatekeeper? Micron 31:713-721 Botha CEJ, Hartley BJ, Cross RHM (1993) The ultrastructure and computer-enhanced digital image analysis of plasmodesmata at the Kranz mesophyll-bundle sheath interface of Themeda triandra var. imberbis (Retz) A. Camus in conventionally fixed leaf blades. Ann Bot 72:255-261

Brandizzi F, Snapp EL, Roberts AG, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Hawes C (2002) Membrane protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi in tobacco leaves is energy dependent but cytoskeleton independent: evidence from selective photo-bleaching. Plant Cell 14:1293-1309 Cantrill LC, Overall RL, Goodwin PB (1999) Cell-to-cell communication via plant en-

domembranes. Cell Biol Int 23:653-661 Carr DJ (1976) Historical perspectives on plasmodesmata. In: Gunning BES, Robards AW (eds) Intercellular communication in plants: studies on plasmodesmata. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 291-295

Carrington JC, Kasschau KD, Mahajan SK, Schaad MC (1996) Cell-to-cell and longdistance transport of viruses in plants. Plant Cell 8:1669-1681 Citovsky V, Zambryski P (1993) Transport of nucleic acids through membrane channels:

snaking through small holes. Annu Rev Microbiol 47:167-197 Clark AM, Jacobsen KR, Bostwick DE, Dannenhoffer JM, Skaggs MI, Thompson GA (1997) Molecular characterization of a phloem-specific gene encoding the filament protein, Phloem Protein 1 (PP1), from Cucurbita maxima. Plant J 12:49-61 Cook ME, Graham LE, Botha CEJ, Lavin CA (1997) Comparative ultrastructure of plas-modesmata of Chara and selected bryophytes: toward an elucidation of the evolutionary origin of plant plasmodesmata. Am J Bot 84:1169-1178 Crawford KM, Zambryski PC (2000) Subcellular localization determines the availability of non-targeted proteins to plasmodesmatal transport. Curr Biol 10:1032-1040 Cronshaw J, Sabnis DD (1990) Phloem proteins. In: Behnke H-D, Sjolund RD (eds) Sieve elements: comparative structure, induction and development. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 257-283 Cutler SR, Ehrhardt DW, Griffitts JS, Somerville CR (2000) Random GFP:cDNA fusions enable visualization of subcellular structures in cells of Arabidopsis at a high frequency. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:3718-3723 Dannenhoffer JM, Schulz A, Skaggs MI, Bostwick DE, Thompson GA (1997) Expression of the phloem lectin is developmentally linked to vascular differentiation in cucurbits. Planta 201:405-414

DeWitt ND, Sussman MR (1995) Immunocytological localization of an epitope-tagged plasma-membrane proton pump (H+-ATPase) in phloem companion cells. Plant Cell 7:2053-2067

Ding B (1997) Cell-to-cell transport of macromolecules through plasmodesmata: a novel signalling pathway in plants. Trends Cell Biol 7:5-9 Ding B (1999) Tissue preparation and substructure of plasmodesmata. In: van Bel AJE, van Kesteren WJP (eds) Plasmodesmata: structure, function, role in communication. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 37-49 Ding B, Haudenshield JS, Hull RJ, Wolf S, Beachy RN, Lucas WJ (1992a) Secondary plas-modesmata are specific sites of localization of the Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein in transgenic tobacco plants. Plant Cell 4:915-928 Ding B, Haudenshield JS, Willmitzer L, Lucas WJ (1993) Correlation between arrested secondary plasmodesmal development and onset of accelerated leaf senescence in yeast acid invertase transgenic tobacco plants. Plant J 4:179-189 Ding B, Itaya A, Woo Y-M (1999) Plasmodesmata and cell-to-cell communication in plants. Int Rev Cytol 190:251-316 Ding B, Lucas WJ (1996) Secondary plasmodesmata: biogenesis, special functions and evolution. In: Smallwood M, Knox JP, Bowles DJ (eds) Membranes: specialized functions in plants. BIOS Scientific, Oxford, pp 489-506 Ding B, Turgeon R, Parthasarathy MV (1991) Plasmodesmatal substructure in cryofixed developing tobacco leaf tissue. In: Bonnemain JL, Delrot S, Dainty J, Lucas WJ (eds) Recent advances in phloem transport and assimilate partitioning. Ouest Editions, Nantes, pp 317-323

Ding B, Turgeon R, Parthasarathy MV (1992b) Substructure of freeze-substituted plas-

modesmata. Protoplasma 169:28-41 Ding B (1998) Intercellular protein trafficking through plasmodesmata. Plant Mol Biol 38:279-310

Ding B, Itaya A, Qi Y (2003) Symplasmic protein and RNA traffic: regulatory points and regulatory factors. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:596-602

Duckett CM, Oparka KJ, Prior DAM, Dolan L, Roberts K (1994) Dye coupling in the root epidermis of Arabidopsis is progressively reduced during development. Development 120:3247-3255

Ehlers K, Knoblauch M, van Bel AJE (2000) Ultrastructural features of well-preserved and injured sieve elements: minute clamps keep the phloem transport conduits free for mass flow. Protoplasma 214:80-92 Ehlers K, Kollmann R (1996) Formation of branched plasmodesmata in regenerating

Solanum nigrum protoplasts. Planta 199:126-138 Ehlers K, Kollmann R (2001) Primary and secondary plasmodesmata: structure, origin, and functioning. Protoplasma 216:1-30 Ehlers K, van Bel AJE (1999) The physiological and developmental consequences of plas-modesmal connectivity. In: van Bel AJE, van Kesteren WJP (eds) Plasmodesmata: structure, function, role in communication. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 243-260

Ehlers K, Wang Y, Günther S, van Bel AJE (2004) Programming of plasmodesmal deployment and development. Plasmodesmata 2004, fifth international conference, Pacific Grove, CA, p 26

Eleftheriou EP (1990) Monocotyledons. In: Behnke H-D, Sjolund RD (eds) Sieve elements: comparative structure, induction and development. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 139-159

Eleftheriou EP, Hall JL (1983) The extrafloral nectaries of cotton. I. Fine structure of the secretory papillae. J Exp Bot 34:103-119 Erwee MG, Goodwin PB (1983) Characterisation of the Egeria densa Planch. leaf sym-plast. Inhibition of the intercellular movement of fluorescent probes by group II ions. Planta 158:320-328

Erwee MG, Goodwin PB (1984) Characterization of the Egeria densa leaf symplast: response to plasmolysis, deplasmolysis and to aromatic amino acids. Protoplasma 122:162-168

Erwee MG, Goodwin PB (1985) Symplastic domains in extrastelar tissues of Egeria densa

Planch. Planta 163:9-19 Esau K (1969) The phloem. Encyclopedia of plant anatomy. Bornträger, Berlin Escobar NM, Haupt S, Thow G, Boevink P, Chapman S, Oparka KJ (2003) High-throughput viral expression of cDNA-green fluorescent protein fusions reveals novel subcellular addresses and identifies unique proteins that interact with plasmodesmata. Plant Cell 15:1507-1523 Evert RF (1990) Dicotyledons. In: Behnke H-D, Sjolund RD (eds) Sieve elements: comparative structure, induction and development. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 103-137

Fisher DB (1990) Measurement of phloem transport rates by an indicator-dilution technique. Plant Physiol 94:455-462 Fisher DB (1999) The estimated pore diameter for plasmodesmal channels in the Abutilon nectary trichome should be about 4 nm, rather than 3 nm. Planta 208:299-300 Fisher DB (2000) Long-distance transport. In: Buchanan B, Gruissem W, Jones R (eds) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, pp 730-784 Franceschi VR, Ding B, Lucas WJ (1994) Mechanism of plasmodesmata formation in characean algae in relation to evolution of intercellular communication in higher plants. Planta 192:347-358 Ghoshroy S, Lartey R, Sheng J, Citovsky V (1997) Transport of proteins and nucleic acids through plasmodesmata. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 48:27-50

Gilbertson RL, Lucas WJ (1996) How do viruses traffic on the vascular highway? Trends Plant Sci 1:260-268

Gillespie T, Boevink P, Haupt S, Roberts AG, Toth R, Valentine TA, Chapman S, Oparka KJ (2002) Functional analysis of a DNA-shuffled movement protein reveals that microtubules are dispensable for the cell-to-cell movement of Tobacco mosaic virus. Plant Cell 14:1207-1222

Gillespie T, Oparka KJ (2005) Plasmodesmata—gateways for intercellular communication in plants. In: Fleming A (ed) Intercellular communication in plants. Annual Plant Reviews, vol 16. Blackwells, Oxford Glockmann C, Kollmann R (1996) Structure and development of cell connections in phloem cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides needles. I. Ultrastructural aspects of modified primary plasmodesmata in Strasburger cells. Protoplasma 193:191-203 Goodwin PB (1983) Molecular size limit for movement in the symplast of the Elodea leaf. Planta 157:124-130

Gorshkova EN, Erokhina TN, Stroganova TA, Yelina NE, Zamyatnin AA, Kalinina NO, Schiemann J, Solovyev AG, Morozov SY (2003) Immunodetection and fluorescent microscopy of transgenically expressed hordeivirus TGBp3 movement protein reveals its association with endoplasmic reticulum elements in close proximity to plasmodes-mata. J Gen Virol 84:985-994 Grabski S, Defeijter AW, Schindler M (1993) Endoplasmic reticulum forms a dynamic continuum for lipid diffusion between contiguous soybean root cells. Plant Cell 5:25-38

Gunning BES, Hughes JE (1976) Quantitative assessment of symplastic transport of pre-

nectar into the trichomes of Abutilon nectaries. Aust J Plant Physiol 3:619-637 Gunning BES, Overall RL (1983) Plasmodesmata and cell-to-cell transport in plants. Bioscience 33:260-265

Gunning BES, Robards AW (1976) Intercellular communication in plants: studies on plas-

modesmata. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Hashimoto T, Inze D (2003) Cell biology: how unique is the plant cell? Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:517-519

Haupt S, Cowan GH, Ziegler A, Roberts AG, Oparka KJ, Torrance L (2005) Two plant-viral movement proteins traffic in the endocytic recycling pathway. Plant Cell 17:164-181 Haywood V, Kragler F, Lucas WJ (2002) Plasmodesmata: pathways for protein and ribonu-

cleoprotein signaling. Plant Cell 14:S303-S325 Heinlein M, Epel BL (2004) Macromolecular transport and signaling through plasmodes-

mata. Int Rev Cytol 235:93-164 Heinlein M, Padgett HS, Gens JS, Pickard BG, Casper SJ, Epel BL, Beachy RN (1998) Changing patterns of localization of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus movement protein and replicase to the endoplasmic reticulum and microtubules during infection. Plant Cell 10:1107-1120

Hepler PK (1982) Endoplasmic reticulum in the formation of the cell plate and plasmod-

esmata. Protoplasma 111:121-133 Himber C, Dunoyer P, Moissiard G, Ritzenthaler C, Voinnet O (2003) Transitivity-dependent and -independent cell-to-cell movement of RNA silencing. EMBO J 22:4523-4533

Holdaway-Clarke TL, Walker NA, Hepler PK, Overall RL (2000) Physiological elevations in cytoplasmic free calcium by cold or ion injection result in transient closure of higher plant plasmodesmata. Planta 210:329-335 Iqbal M (1995) Ultrastructural differentiation of sieve elements. In: Iqbal M (ed) The cambial derivatives. Bornträger, Berlin, pp 241-270

Ishiwatari Y, Fujiwara T, McFarland KC, Nemoto K, Hayashi H, Chino M, Lucas WJ (1998) Rice phloem thioredoxin h has the capacity to mediate its own cell-to-cell transport through plasmodesmata. Planta 205:12-22 Ishiwatari Y, Honda C, Kawashima I, Nakamura S, Hirano H, Mori S, Fujiwara T, Hayashi H, Chino M (1995) Thioredoxin h is one of the major proteins in rice phloem sap. Planta 195:456-463 Itaya A, Woo Y-M, Masuta C, Bao Y, Nelson R, Ding B (1998) Developmental regulation of intercellular protein trafficking through plasmodesmata in tobacco leaf epidermis. Plant Physiol 118:373-385 Jeffree CE, Yeoman MM (1983) Development of intercellular connections between opposing cells in a graft union. New Phytol 93:491-509 Jones MGK (1976) The origin and development of plasmodesmata. In: Gunning BES, Robards AW (eds) Intercellular communication in plants: studies on plasmodesmata. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 81-105 J0rgensen KE, M0ller JV (1979) Use of flexible polymers as probes of glomerular pore size. Am J Physiol 236(2):F103-F111 Kempers R, van Bel AJE (1997) Symplasmic connections between sieve element and companion cell in the stem phloem of Vicia faba L have a molecular exclusion limit of at least 10 kDa. Planta 201:195-201 Kollmann R, Glockmann C (1985) Studies on graft unions. I. Plasmodesmata between cells of plants belonging to different unrelated taxa. Protoplasma 124:224-235 Kollmann R, Glockmann C (1991) Studies on graft unions. III. On the mechanism of secondary formation of plasmodesmata at the graft interface. Protoplasma 165:71-85 Kollmann R, Glockmann C (1999) Multimorphology and nomenclature of plasmodesmata in higher plants. In: van Bel AJE, van Kesteren WJP (eds) Plasmodesmata: structure, function, role in cell communication. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 149-172 Kollmann R, Yang S, Glockmann C (1985) Studies of graft unions II. Continuous and half plasmodesmata in different regions of the graft interface. Protoplasma 126:19-29 Kragler F, Lucas WJ, Monzer J (1998) Plasmodesmata: dynamics, domains and patterning. Ann Bot 81:1-10

Kuhn C, Franceschi VR, Schulz A, Lemoine R, Frommer WB (1997) Macromolecular trafficking indicated by localization and turnover of sucrose transporters in enucleate sieve elements. Science 275:1298-1300 Lalonde S, Boles E, Hellmann H, Barker L, Patrick JW, Frommer WB, Ward JM (1999) The dual function of sugar carriers: transport and sugar sensing. Plant Cell 11:707-726 Lazarowitz SG, Beachy RN (1999) Viral movement proteins as probes for intracellular and intercellular trafficking in plants. Plant Cell 11:535-548 Lazzaro MD, Thomson WW (1996) The vacuolar-tubular continuum in living trichomes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) provides a rapid means of solute delivery from base to tip. Protoplasma 193:181-190 Le Maire M, Aggerbeck LP, Monteilhet C, Andersen JP, Moller JV (1986) The use of high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of size and molecular weight of proteins: a caution and a list of membrane proteins suitable as standards. Anal Biochem 154:525-535 Lee JY, Yoo BC, Rojas MR, Gomez-Ospina N, Staehelin LA, Lucas WJ (2003) Selective trafficking of non-cell-autonomous proteins mediated by NtNCAPP1. Science 299:392-396 Lopez-Saez JF, Gimenez-Martin G, Risueno MC (1966) Fine structure of the plasmodesm. Protoplasma 61:81-84

Lucas W (1999) Plasmodesmata and the cell-to-cell transport of proteins and nucleopro-tein complexes. J Exp Bot 50:979-987

Lucas WJ, Ding B, van der Schoot C (1993) Plasmodesmata and the supracellular nature of plants. New Phytol 125:435-476 Lucas WJ, Gilbertson RL (1994) Plasmodesmata in relation to viral movement within leaf tissue. Annual Review Of Phytopathology 32:387-411 Lucas WJ, Wolf S (1993) Plasmodesmata: the intercellular organelles of green plants.

Trends Cell Biol 3:308-315 Lucas WJ, Yoo BC, Kragler F (2001) RNA as a long-distance information macromolecule in plants. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2:849-857 Madore MA, Oross JW, Lucas WJ (1986) Symplasmic transport in Ipomea tricolor source leaves. Plant Physiol 82:432-442 Martens HJ, Schulz A, Roberts AG, Oparka KJ (2001) ER-targeted GFP, expressed under the SUC2 promoter, stays in companion cells of source and transport phloem. Plas-modesmata 2001, fourth international conference, Cape Town, South Africa, pp 26-27 Martindale VE, Salisbury JL (1990) Phosphorylation of algal centrin is rapidly responsive to changes in the external milieu. J Cell Sci 96:395-402 Mas P, Beachy RN (1999) Replication of tobacco mosaic virus on endoplasmic reticulum and role of the cytoskeleton and virus movement protein in intracellular distribution of viral RNA. J Cell Biol 147:945-958 McLean BG, Hempel FD, Zambryski P (1997) Plant intercellular communication via plasmodesmata. Plant Cell 9:1043-1054 Mezitt LA, Lucas WJ (1996) Plasmodesmata cell-to-cell transport of proteins and nucleic acids. Plant Mol Biol 32:251-273 Mlotshwa S, Voinnet O, Mette MF, Matzke M, Vaucheret H, Ding SW, Pruss G, Vance VB

(2002) RNA silencing and the mobile silencing signal. Plant Cell 14:S289-S301 Monzer J (1990) Secondary formation of plasmodesmata in cultured cells: structural and functional aspects. In: Robards AW, Lucas WJ, Pitts JD, Jongsma HJ, Spray DC (eds) Parallels in cell-to-cell junctions in plants and animals. NATO ASI series H, vol 46. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 185-197 Monzer J (1991) Ultrastructure of secondary plasmodesmata formation in regenerating

Solanum nigrum protoplast cultures. Protoplasma 165:86-95 Nelson RS, van Bel AJE (1998) The mystery of virus trafficking into, through and out of vascular tissue. Prog Bot 59:476-533 Olesen P (1979) The neck constriction in plasmodesmata. Planta 144:349-358 Olesen P, Robards AW (1990) The neck region of plasmodesmata: general architecture and functional aspects. In: Robards AW, Lucas WJ, Pitts JD, Jongsma HJ, Spray DC (eds) Parallels in cell-to-cell junctions in plants and animals. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 145-170 Oparka KJ, Prior DAM, Santa Cruz S, Padgett HS, Beachy RN (1997) Gating of epidermal plasmodesmata is restricted to the leading edge of expanding infection sites of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Plant J 12:781-789 Oparka KJ, Prior DAM, Wright KM (1995) Symplastic communication between primary and developing lateral roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot 46:187-197 Oparka KJ, Roberts AG, Boevink P, Santa Cruz S, Roberts IM, Pradel KS, Imlau A, Kot-lizky G, Sauer N, Epel BL (1999) Simple, but not branched, plasmodesmata allow the nonspecific trafficking of proteins in developing tobacco leaves. Cell 97:743-754 Oparka KJ, Turgeon R (1999) Sieve elements and companion cells: traffic control centers of the phloem. Plant Cell 11:739-750 Oparka KJ (2004) Getting the message across: how do plant cells exchange macromolec-ular complexes? Trends Plant Sci 9:33-41

Overall RL (1999) Substructure of plasmodesmata. In: van Bel AJE, van Kesteren WJP (eds) Plasmodesmata: structure, function, role in communication. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 129-148 Overall RL, Blackman LM (1996) A model of the macromolecular structure of plasmodesmata. Trends Plant Sci 1:307-311 Overall RL, Gunning BES (1982) Intercellular communication in Azolla roots. II. Electrical coupling. Protoplasma 111:151-160 Overall RL, Wolfe J, Gunning BES (1982) Intercellular communication in Azolla roots.

I. Ultrastructure of plasmodesmata. Protoplasma 111:134-150 Palevitz BA, Hepler PK (1985) Changes in dye coupling of stomatal cells of Allium and

Commelina demonstrated by microinjection of Lucifer Yellow. Planta 164:473-479 Radford JE, Vesk M, Overall RL (1998) Callose deposition at plasmodesmata. Protoplasma 201:30-37

Radford JE, White RG (1998) Localization of a myosin-like protein to plasmodesmata. Plant J 14:743-750

Raven JA (1991) Long-term functioning of enucleate sieve elements: possible mechanisms of damage avoidance and damage repair. Plant Cell Environ 14:139-146 Robards AW (1976) Plasmodesmata in higher plants. In: Gunning BES, Robards AW (eds) Intercellular communication in plants: studies on plasmodesmata. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 15-57 Robards AW, Lucas WJ (1990) Plasmodesmata. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 41:369-419

Roberts AG (2005) Plasmodesmal structure and development. In: Oparka KJ (ed) Plas-

modesmata. Blackwells, Oxford Roberts AG, Oparka KJ (2003) Plasmodesmata and the control of symplastic transport.

Plant Cell Environ 26:103-124 Roberts IM, Boevink P, Roberts AG, Sauer N, Reichel C, Oparka KJ (2001) Dynamic changes in the frequency and architecture of plasmodesmata during the sink-source transition in tobacco leaves. Protoplasma 218:31-44 Robinson-Beers K, Evert RF (1991) Fine structure of plasmodesmata in mature leaves of sugarcane. Planta 184:307-318 Ruan YL, Xu SM, White R, Furbank RT (2004) Genotypic and developmental evidence for the role of plasmodesmatal regulation in cotton fiber elongation mediated by callose turnover. Plant Physiol 136:4104-4113 Ruiz-Medrano R, Xoconostle-Cazares B, Kragler F (2004) The plasmodesmatal transport pathway for homeotic proteins, silencing signals and viruses. Curr Opin Plant Biol 7:641-650

Ryabov EV, Oparka KJ, Santa Cruz S, Robinson DJ, Taliansky ME (1998) Intracellular location of two groundnut rosette umbravirus proteins delivered by PVX and TMV vectors. Virology 242:303-313 Sakuth T, Schobert C, Pecsvaradi A, Eichholz Z, Komor E, Orlich G (1993) Specific proteins in the sieve-tube exudate of Ricinus communis L. seedlings: separation, characterization and in vivo labelling. Planta 191:207-213 Santa Cruz S (1999) Perspective: phloem transport of viruses and macromolecules: what goes in must come out. Trends Microbiol 7:237-241 Schobert C, Baker L, Szederkényi J, Großmann P, Komor E, Hayashi H, Chino M, Lucas WJ (1998) Identification of immunologically related proteins in sieve-tube exudate collected from monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Planta 206:245252

Schulz A (1999) Physiological control of plasmodesmal gating. In: van Bel AJE, van Kesteren WJP (eds) Plasmodesmata. Structure, function, role in cell communication. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 173-204 Schulz A (2005) Role of plasmodesmata in solute loading and unloading. In: Oparka KJ

(ed) Plasmodesmata. Blackwells, Oxford Schumacher W (1936) Untersuchungen über die Wanderung des fluoresceins in den haaren von Cucurbita pepo. Jahr Wiss Bot 82:507-533 Sjolund RD, Shih CY (1983) Freeze-fracture analysis of phloem structure in plant tissue cultures. I. The sieve element reticulum. J Ultrastruct Res 82:111-121 Stadler R, Brandner J, Schulz A, Gahrtz M, Sauer N (1995) Phloem loading by the PmSUC2 sucrose carrier from Plantago Major occurs into companion cells. Plant Cell 7:1545-1554

Stadler R, Wright KM, Lauterbach C, Amon G, Gahrtz M, Feuerstein A, Oparka KJ, Sauer N (2005) Expression of GFP fusions in Arabidopsis companion cells reveals non-specific protein trafficking into sieve elements and identifies a novel post-phloem domain in roots. Plant J 41:319-331 Staehelin LA (1997) The plant ER: a dynamic organelle composed of a large number of discrete functional domains. Plant J 11:1151-1165 Staehelin LA, Hepler PK (1996) Cytokinesis in higher plants. Cell 84:821-824 Terry BR, Matthews EK, Haseloff J (1995) Molecular characterization of recombinant green fluorescent protein by fluorescence correlation microscopy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 217:21-27 Terry BR, Robards AW (1987) Hydrodynamic radius alone governs the mobility of molecules through plasmodesmata. Planta 171:145-157 Thompson GA, Schulz A (1999) Macromolecular trafficking in the phloem. Trends Plant Sci 4:354-360

Thorsch J, Esau K (1981a) Changes in the endoplasmic reticulum during differentiation of a sieve element in Gossypium hirsutum. J Ultrastruct Res 74:183-194 Thorsch J, Esau K (1981b) Nuclear degeneration and the association of endoplasmic reticulum with the nuclear envelope and microtubules in maturing sieve elements of Gossypium hirsutum. J Ultrastruct Res 74:195-204 Tian GW, Mohanty A, Chary SN, Li S, Paap B, Drakakaki G, Kopec CD, Li J, Ehrhardt D, Jackson D, Rhee SY, Raikhel NV, Citovsky V (2004) High-throughput fluorescent tagging of full-length Arabidopsis gene products in planta. Plant Physiol 135:25-38 Tilney LG, Cooke TJ, Connelly PS, Tilney MS (1991) The structure of plasmodesmata as revealed by plasmolysis, detergent extraction, and protease digestion. J Cell Biol 112:739-747

Tomenius K, Clapham D, Meshi T (1987) Localization by immunogold cytochemistry of the virus-coded 30K protein in plasmodesmata of leaves infected with tobacco mosaic virus. Virology 160:363-371 Tucker EB (1982) Translocation in the staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea. I. A study of cell ultrastructure and cell-to-cell passage of molecular probes. Protoplasma 113:193-201 Tucker EB (1990) Calcium-loaded 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid blocks cell-to-cell diffusion of carboxyfluorescein in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea. Planta 182:34-38 Tucker EB, Spanswick RM (1985) Translocation in the staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea. II. Kinetics of intercellular transport. Protoplasma 128:167-172 Tucker JE, Mauzerall D, Tucker EB (1989) Symplastic transport of carboxyfluorescein in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea is diffusive and includes loss to the vacuole. Plant Physiol 90:1143-1147

Turner A, Wells B, Roberts K (1994) Plasmodesmata of maize root-tips: structure and composition. J Cell Sci 107:3351-3361 Tyree MT (1970) The symplast concept. A general theory of symplastic transport according to the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. J Theor Biol 26:181-214 van Bel AJE (1996) Interaction between sieve element and companion cell and the consequences for photoassimilate distribution. Two structural hardware frames with associated physiological software packages in dicotyledons? J Exp Bot 47:1129-1140 van Bel AJE (2003) The phloem, a miracle of ingenuity. Plant Cell Environ 26:125-149 van Bel AJE, Kempers R (1997) The pore/plasmodesm unit; key element in the interplay between sieve element and companion cell. Prog Bot 58:278-291 van Bel AJE, Knoblauch M (2000) Sieve element and companion cell: the story of the comatose patient and the hyperactive nurse. Aust J Plant Physiol 27:477-487 van der Schoot C, Rinne P (1999) The symplasmic organization of the shoot apical meristem. In: van Bel AJE, van Kesteren WJP (eds) Plasmodesmata. Structure, function, role in cell communication. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 225-242 van der Schoot C, van Bel AJE (1989) Glass microelectrode measurements of sieve tube membrane potentials in internode discs and petiole strips of tomato (Solanum lyco-persicum L.). Protoplasma 149:144-154 Voinnet O, Vain P, Angell S, Baulcombe DC (1998) Systemic spread of sequence-specific transgene RNA degradation in plants is initiated by localized introduction of ectopic promoterless DNA. Cell 95:177-187 Volk GM, Turgeon R, Beebe DU (1996) Secondary plasmodesmata formation in the minor-vein phloem of Cucumis melo L. and Cucurbita pepo L. Planta 199:425-432 Volkmann D, Mori T, Tirlapur UK, König K, Fujiwara T, Kendrick-Jones J, Baluska F (2003) Unconventional myosins of the plant-specific class VIII: endocytosis, cytokinesis, plasmodesmata/pit-fields, and cell-to-cell coupling. Cell Biol Int 27:289-291 Waigmann E, Lucas WJ, Citovsky V, Zambryski P (1994) Direct functional assay for tobacco mosaic virus cell-to-cell movement protein and identification of a domain involved in increasing plasmodesmal permeability. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:1433-1437 Waigmann E, Turner A, Peart J, Roberts K, Zambryski P (1997) Ultrastructural analysis of leaf trichome plasmodesmata reveals major differences from mesophyll plasmodes-mata. Planta 203:75-84 Waigmann E, Zambryski P (1995) Tobacco mosaic virus movement protein-mediated protein transport between trichome cells. Plant Cell 7:2069-2079 Waigmann E, Zambryski P (2000) Trichome plasmodesmata: a model system for cell-to-

cell movement. Adv Bot Res/Adv Plant Pathol 31:261-283 White RG, Badelt K, Overall RL, Vesk M (1994) Actin associated with plasmodesmata.

Protoplasma 180:169-184 Wolf S, Deom CM, Beachy RN, Lucas WJ (1989) Movement protein of tobacco mosaic virus modifies plasmodesmatal size exclusion limit. Science 246:377-379 Wright KM, Roberts AG, Martens HJ, Sauer N, Oparka KJ (2003) Structural and functional vein maturation in developing tobacco leaves in relation to AtSUC2 promoter activity. Plant Physiol 131:1555-1565 Xoconostle-Cazares B, Yu X, Ruiz-Medrano R, Wang HL, Monzer J, Yoo BC, McFar-land KC, Franceschi VR, Lucas WJ (1999) Plant paralog to viral movement protein that potentiates transport of mRNA into the phloem. Science 283:94-98 Yahalom A, Lando R, Katz A, Epel BL (1998) A calcium-dependent protein kinase is associated with maize mesocotyl plasmodesmata. J Plant Physiol 153:354-362 Yoo BC, Kragler F, Varkonyi-Gasic E, Haywood V, Archer-Evans S, Lee YM, Lough TJ, Lucas WJ (2004) A systemic small RNA signaling system in plants. Plant Cell 16:1979-2000

Zambryski P, Crawford K (2000) Plasmodesmata: gatekeepers for cell-to-cell transport of developmental signals in plants. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 16:393-421 Zamyatnin AA Jr, Solovyev AG, Sablina AA, Agranovsky AA, Katul L, Vetten HJ, Schie-mann J, Hinkkanen AE, Lehto K, Morozov SYu (2002) Dual-colour imaging of membrane protein targeting directed by poa semilatent virus movement protein TGBp3 in plant and mammalian cells. J Gen Virol 83:651-662 Zee S-Y (1969) Fine structure of the differentiating sieve elements of Vicia faba. Am J Bot 17:441-456

Plant Cell Monogr (4)

D.G. Robinson: The Plant Endoplasmic Reticulum

DOI 10.1007/7089_061/Published online: 24 February 2006

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment