The preceding paragraphs point out that the emotional skills critical to effective patient care actually translate to better leadership ability. In the dual role of caregiver and leader, the nurse manager interfaces laterally with colleagues and vertically with patients, subordinates, and corporate administrators. The interfaces are no longer unilateral but are increasingly collaborative. Nurse managers find themselves not simply giving orders and taking orders but rather engaging themselves and their staff, their superiors, their colleagues, and even their patients, in participative decision making. As shared leadership becomes formalized in many organizations, its collaborative principles already typify even informal interactions in the health care team. It is becoming the norm.
It has to. Without it, patients are patients, doctors are doctors, dietary aides are dietary aides, and administrators are administrators in the senseless world of poking, prodding, and speedy discharge that patients have come to know as "the health care system." Without collaboration and team decision making, patients, nurses, aides, and even doctors may have no idea what the goals are or where they are in relation to their accomplishment.
Admittedly, not all work is done by teams, but the team concept is becoming the norm in many organizations. In health care, diagrams of teams often show interactive, interdisciplinary representation with the client in the center. Because team can be misinterpreted to mean "a group of people working on the same thing," it is important to differentiate here between work groups and teams in organizations and to realize that the two are not synonymous. Teams include an interpersonal accountability that work groups do not always have. As such, the development of a team involves an element of risk that the formation of a work group does not (Katzenbach and Smith, 1993). However, despite the risk, analyst Lyle Spencer, Jr., asserts that the synergy of a well-developed team brings "huge leverage" to the organization (Goleman, 1998b, p. 217).
In today's dynamic organizations, and especially in health care, the synergistic contribution of effective teams is critical. While a work group may be sufficient for handling routine or stipulated agendas, such a group may lack the ability to optimally manage the complexities present in health care, with its multimodal emphasis on medicine, ethics, finance, and legal issues. Understanding, not just acknowledging the issues, however, requires emotional literacy (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso, 2000, 2002).
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Hypnosis has been defined as a state of heightened suggestibility in which the subject is able to uncritically accept ideas for self-improvement and act on them appropriately. When a hypnotist hypnotizes his subject, it is known as hetero-hypnosis. When an individual puts himself into a state of hypnosis, it is known as self-hypnosis.