Electromagnetic Energy Ebooks Catalog

EMF Protection

This ebook is the complete guide to learning about electrical sensitivity and how to prevent getting it in your life. You will learn what electrical sensitivity is, and what causes it. Once you have started learning about it you will learn how to get rid of it and protect yourself from the dangers of electrical sensitivity. You will also learn how to heal yourself. This book is the product of careful research by the scientific and medical communities into the dangers and preventative measures of electrical sensitivity. ES is one of the most under-diagnosed conditions in the world right now, and this ebook is designed to education people as to how it works and how to prevent it. Do not let it take hold of your family; take control and prevent it now! Do not let yourself get any more hurt; learn about this condition and fight it!

How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity Summary

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Author: Lloyd Burrell
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The Influence of the Brains Electromagnetic Field on Neural Firing

The field across a neuronal membrane will inevitably be the product of the field generated by membrane dynamics (the ion pumps) but also the fields generated by the resting states and firing of all the other neurons in the vicinity. Mostly, the influence of the endogenous fields will be quite weak - maybe up to a millivolt of induced voltage across the neuronal membrane 34 - and so will only be capable of influencing the probability of firing if the neural membrane is already close to the critical firing potential. However, in a busy brain it is very likely that many neurons will be in that state, so the electromagnetic field that the brain's activity generates will inevitably influence neural dynamics. This will create a self-referring feedback loop that, I propose, is the physical substrate of consciousness. Unfortunately investigating the role of the brain's endogenous electromagnetic field on information processing in the brain presents huge experimental challenges, as it is not...

The Brains Electromagnetic Field

At rest, the neuronal membrane forms a dipole in which the inside of the membrane is negatively (about -65 mV) charged in relation to the outside of the membrane. This charge difference is maintained by the action of ion pumps that pump cations (principally sodium and calcium) out of the neuron. Brain neurons are densely packed, with about 104 neurons mm2 so the fields of adjacent neurons will not be discrete but form a complex overlapping field made up of the superposition of the fields of millions of neurons in the vicinity. The electrical field at any point in the brain will be a superposition of the induced fields from all of the neurons in the vicinity and will depend on the geometry and the dielectric properties of neurons and tissue. The combined activity of all the neurons in the brain generates a complex electromagnetic field whose strength can be estimated from theoretical principles and measured during EEG or MEG, and is about 20-250 V m 34 . When any neuron receives a...

Ionizing Radiation

Although not a chemical agent as such, ionizing radiation, such as x-rays or alpha particles from ingested alpha emitters, causes chemical reactions that have toxic, even fatal, effects. The toxicologic effects of radiation have to do with its physical and chemical interactions with matter and the biological consequences that result. Ionizing radiation alters chemical species in tissue and can lead to significant and harmful alterations in the tissue and in the cells that make up the tissue. Radon and radium, two radioactive elements of particular concern for their potential to expose humans to ionizing radiation, are discussed in Chapter 10. There is not room here to discuss the detailed mechanisms by which exposure to radiation causes adverse responses. Much of the effects of radiation result from its interaction with water to produce active species that include superoxide (O-), hydroxyl radical (HO ), hydroperoxyl radical (HOO), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These species oxidize...

Good Practice for Radiation Protection in the Operating Room

The possibility of radiation risk, however remote, must be considered potentially, both internal and external radiation exposure may arise. Staff may be irradiated by virtue of their proximity to the radioactive patient and may also come into direct Table 1. Source of radiation exposure relevant legislative limits Table 1. Source of radiation exposure relevant legislative limits

Good Radiation Protection Practice in the Pathology Laboratory

Histopathology staff members can also potentially be exposed to both internal and external radiation by virtue of their work practices. However, the initial sample preparation is typically very rapidly executed and should therefore present little scope for any measurable radiation exposure. Subsequent to this initial stage, preparatory fixing of the specimen in formalin for a period of not less than 48 h will lead to a reduction in the radioactive content of the specimen by a factor of approximately 250. Thus, normal histological analysis of multiple tissue samples entails negligible further exposure to radiation. After a total of 1 week's storage, all tissue specimens will have decayed so that they will now contain less than 1 Bq activity and may safely be disposed of as nonradioactive waste.

Quantum Processing by Microtubules and Neurocognition

Hameroff further proposes that microtubules are the place where reductions of quantum states can take place in an effective way 25 . Microtubules are, in theory, capable of extending coherent superposition states to adjacent microtubules by way of MAP bridges and to neighboring neurons by way of gap junctions or electromagnetic fields. The question has been raised whether quantum states can survive long enough in the thermal environment of the brain to affect neurocognition 64 . Tegmark estimated that decoher-ence caused by the noisy environment typical of the brain is likely to disrupt tubulin superpositions in under 1012 s. Microtubule protein functions take on the order of nanoseconds moreover, neurophysiologycial events range in the order of milliseconds. Hence, it was Tegmark's contention that tubulin superpositions are much too short to significantly contribute to neurophysio-logical processes in the brain. Hagan et al. 21 argue that Tegmark's criticism is misplaced and that the...

An Electromagnetic Fingerprint of Transport Along Microtubules

Becoming increasingly abstract and independent from sensory inputs over time. Lastly, the subjective feels of this widespread pattern of electromagnetic energy can be specified according to those key physical properties of microtubules that influence the transport of proteins to synapses. Factors influencing kinesin-mediated transport include the protein conformation of tubulin and the nature of the C-termini (see 58 Priel et al., this volume). Not only is the protein conformation of tubulin critical to effective transport, motor proteins appear to alter the conformation of tubulin. Kinesin binding and that of the low molecular weight MAP, tau, significantly alter the direction of the protruding protofilament ridges along microtubules, which in turn influences their further binding abilities 52 . More than mere local adaptation to binding, microtubules may alter their conformation ahead of kinesin processivity 35 , supporting the notion of long-range cooperative effects between...

Extrapolations to Mesoscopic and Macroscopic Levels

If quantum-mechanical properties of atoms can affect the behavior of whole proteins through the influence of electromagnetic waves, wave interference, and quantum entanglement, does this introduce the possibility of quantum nonlocal relationships at larger scales There is some empirical evidence suggesting this may be possible. A number of studies have been done using Faraday cages. These cages effectively block electromagnetic radiation. Hence correlations between elec-trophysiological activity in cells or in human subjects in different Faraday cages might be attributable to manifestations of quantum coupling or entanglement, bearing in mind that alternative explanations are possible.

Crosslinked Thermoplastics

A special case found in some modified plastics used for medical devices is that of cross-linked thermoplastics. This is where a thermoplastic is irradiated with ionizing radiation to release free radicals and induce the formation of three-dimensional cross-linked structures in a thermoplastic. This modification can have a dramatic effect on the properties and performance of the plastic material. Common applications of this process in medical devices are irradiated polyester tubing for angioplasty balloons and irradiated UHMWPE for joint implants.4

Peripheral Structural Changes Resulting from Surgical Ablation

Current treatment protocols for tumors involving structures of the peripheral speech mechanism include surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy, alone or in combination. The choice of modality usually depends on tumor location, disease stage, cell type, and other factors. Each treatment modality is associated with some additional morbidity that can significantly affect structure, function, cosmesis, and quality of life. Surgery carries a clear potential for anatomical and physiological changes that may directly alter speech and swallowing, while at the same time creating significant cosmetic deformities. Similarly, radiotherapy is commonly associated with a range of side effects. Radiation delivered to the head and neck affects both abnormal and normal tissues. Salivary glands may be damaged, with a resulting decrease in salivary flow leading to a dry mouth (xerostomia). This decrease in saliva may then challenge normal oral hygiene and health, which may result in dental caries...

The Quantum Mechanical Atomic Model

The quantum theory was introduced by Planck in 1900 in order to describe the quantization of the energy emitted by a black body the quantum hypothesis. In 1905, Einstein, based on Planck's quantum hypothesis, succeeded in explaining the photoelectric effect (see Section 4.2.1) by assuming that the energy of light is bounded in light particles, photons, whose energy is quantized as described by Planck. The particle nature of the electromagnetic radiation was further needed to explain the observation made in 1922 by Arthur Holly Compton (1892-1962), known as the Compton effect or Compton scattering (see Section 4.2.3). In summary, it was founded that some effects, such as interference could be explained on the basis of the wave nature of light whereas the explanation of others, such as the photoelectric effect, required the assumption of the particle nature of light. This was termed the wave-particle duality.

Characteristic XRays Fluorescence Radiation

Owing to historical reasons, x-rays immediately bring to mind the electromagnetic radiation produced in an x-ray tube or linear accelerator where electrons are rapidly decelerated in the anode (see Section 4.5). These x-rays present a continuous energy spectrum (bremsstrahlung) spreading from zero up to a maximum energy, which depends on the applied acceleration potential (e.g., for 100 kV potential the maximum energy of the spectrum is 100 keV). Superimposed on this continuous spectrum are discrete x-ray line spectra, called characteristic x-rays, since they are emitted by the atoms of the anode (in general characteristic x-rays are those emitted by atoms while 7-rays are those emitted by nuclei).

Atmospheric Chemistry

Energy, E, of a photon of visible or ultraviolet light is given by the equation, E hv, where h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of light, which is inversely proportional to its wavelength. Ultraviolet radiation has a higher frequency than visible light and is, therefore, more energetic and more likely to break chemical bonds in molecules that absorb it.) A molecule that has absorbed a photon of electromagnetic radiation has excess energy and is said to be in an excited state. Such a molecule is designated with an asterisk to distinguish it from an unexcited molecule, which is said to be in the ground state. For example, a molecule of NO2 that has absorbed a photon of ultraviolet radiation is denoted NO2*. Such a species may be highly reactive typically NO2* dissociates to yield NO and reactive O atoms, the process that initiates photochemical smog formation (see below).

Gamma Decay and Internal Conversion

Alpha and beta decays discussed in previous sections (Section 3.4.1 and Section 3.4.2) reveal that the daughter nucleus in such decays is usually created in an excited state. These states are usually short living and de-excite spontaneously emitting electromagnetic radiation named y-rays from the Greek letter y (gamma) the decay is called y decay. There are single transitions when a nucleus emits a single y-ray and at once falls to the ground state (see Figure 3.8 and Figure 3.10 through Figure 3.12) or cascade transitions when excitation is removed by a successive emission of several y-rays (see for example the decay scheme of 60Co and 192Ir in Chapter 5). The energy, Ey, of the y-rays is determined by the difference AE in the nuclear rest energy of the two levels involved

Center for Family Support

Like television, cellular phones operate at the lowest end of the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. They conform to guidelines set by the Federal communications commission for acceptable emission levels of electromagnetic radiation. The signals emitted by cellular phones have a frequency between 840 mH and 880 mH, located at the high end of the radio band (also called high-frequency radio waves).

Evaluation and Treatment

Ultrasound allows for observation of the motion of the tongue (Sonies, 1991). Additionally, the shadow reflected from the hyoid bone permits the examiner to observe and to measure the displacement of the hyoid. The advantages to using ultrasound for assessing the oral stage of the swallow are the absence of exposure to ionizing radiation and the fact that the parent can hold an infant or small child and feed the child a familiar food while the examination is being performed. The information obtainable with ultrasound is restricted to the oral stage of deglutition. When a small child has a tracheotomy tube, it is often extremely difficult to obtain a good ultrasound image, because the tracheostomy tube prohibits good transducer placement.

Microtubules and Quantum Entanglement A Possible Basis for Memory and Consciousness

Entanglement can occur over long distances when there is a classical channel of information and a pre-existing entanglement. Qubits performing local operations can even send information to entangled qubits via classical channels49. This kind of long-range quantum entanglement relies on a physical connection between the brain regions, for example, axonal connectivity between cortical areas or electromagnetic energy flow from one brain region to another. Microtubules binding to nCAMs that traverse the synapse may provide a physical link between the cytoskeleton in sending and receiving neurons.50 This degree of entanglement might be expected to be medium to strong because of possible nCAM linkages between microtubules, but also limited to couplings between small groups of subsynaptic zones in widely different brain regions because of the limited nature of point-to-point connections.

TNF Receptors and Trail Apo2L

Recombinant human TRAIL (10 mg kg administered once daily for 7 d) (97). One of the most exciting features of TRAIL therapy is the strong positive interaction effect of TRAIL with chemotherapeutic agents or ionizing radiation. TRAIL treatment has been shown to sensitize tumor cells derived from acute leukemia, breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma to chemotherapeutic agents (98-105). In an in vitro setting, TRAIL has been shown to induce apoptosis in normal primary hepatocytes (106). In light of this observation, it remains to be seen whether TRAIL therapy offers a margin of safety in humans, as is seen in mice and monkeys.

Box 163 Radiation Can Cause Mutations

In 1986 an accident destroyed one of the nuclear reactors at Chernobyl in Russia with a resulting release of tons of radioactive materials into the air. Thirty-one people are reported to have died from radiation exposure, and millions of people were exposed to radiation dispersed across the surrounding countryside. Increased thyroid cancer and detectable DNA alterations in children of parents who were exposed to the radiation, as well as reports of increased mutation rates in plants in the region, all support the idea that chronic exposure to low levels of radiation can result in mutations at a level that should be of concern to us. Surprisingly, long-term follow-up of the children of the survivors exposed briefly to high levels of radiation when nuclear weapons were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 showed an apparently lower increase in the mutation rate than was expected. However, there is more than one way to look at mutation rates, and the studies in question only...

Human factors in functional neuroimaging

Electromagnetic fields can cause heating of tissue if applied with sufficient intensity and over enough time. This is typically not an issue, as most MRI scanners have built-in safeguards to prevent too much RF power deposition into the subject. However, should there be any metal conductors inside the RF coil, they can become quite hot because of induced currents, and they cause burns even at RF power levels that would otherwise be harmless to the participant. This is the same principle that underlies the production of sparks when you put metal objects in the microwave oven. Third, in some rare instances, changes in the magnetic field produced by the gradient coils can induce electric currents in long nerves causing them to depolarize and produce mild twitching. This is referred to as peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) and occurs only rarely during fast imaging sequences but is more likely at higher field strength. A safety concern particular to the PET environment is radiation...

Destructive Genetic Alterations

It should be kept in mind that cellular DNA is susceptible to damage from spontaneous processes that are not caused by xenobiotic toxicants. These include hydrolysis reactions, oxidation, nonenzymatic methylation, and effects from background ionizing radiation. To cope with these insults, organisms have developed a variety of mechanisms to repair DNA. These fall into two broad categories, the first of which is reversal, consisting of direct repair of a damaged site (such as removal of a methyl group from a methylated DNA base, see below). The second category of coping with damage to DNA is excision, in which a faulty sequence of DNA bases is removed and replaced with a new segment, a process called nucleotide excision, or base excision, in which the damaged base molecule is removed and replaced with the correct one. In both cases, the remaining strand of DNA is used as a template to replace the correct complementary bases on the damaged strand.

Mode Of Action Of Endovenous Laser Treatment

Initially, diode lasers with wavelengths of 810 nm,1 940 nm,1-4 and 980 nm,5 but also a 1064 nm Nd YAG solid state laser,6 were used for endovenous laser treatment. All these laser wavelengths are predominantly absorbed by the oxygenized and deoxygenized hemoglobin of red blood cells present within the vein lumen. Water absorption does not play a major role with these wavelengths. Remarkably, the absorption of hemoglobin in this part of the electromagnetic spectrum is high enough that a blood film of a thickness of only 200-300 microns absorbs more than half of the emitted laser energy.7 Actually, during endovenous laser treatment, these absorption characteristics, in combination with typical values of laser irradiance emitted by the predominantly used flat tipped laser fibers of 600 micron diameter, leads to the formation of steam bubbles4 within the vein lumen. These steam bubbles are not static but they are in vigorous movement once they start to be produced (see Figure 29.1). A...

Targeting Aggressive Tumors

Researchers are hopeful that the RAS family or associated pathways can become productive targets for novel therapeutics, although no such drugs are currently routinely employed in cancer patients. The frequency with which RAS mutations occur in common cancers and their association with resistance to ionizing radiation make for a potentially powerful target. Already approved for use in treating patients with hypercholesterolemia, lovastatin is a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor that also blocks the processing of RAS (88). Application of lovastatin has been shown to increase radiosensitivity in cell lines harboring mutant RAS (89), and trials are under way to assess its applicability as an adjunctive therapy in a number of cancers. Also under way are attempts at inhibiting RAS processing by other farnesyltransferase inhibitors a necessary event in ras postranslational modification. Inhibition of this step results in the radiosensitization of cells in vivo (90). Currently in various stages of...

Tumor suppressor genes

It has been well established that the p53 tumor suppressor gene plays a critical role in cell cycle transition, DNA repair and apoptosis, and that p53 or genes that affect p53 function are mutated in most human tumors (37,38). It is also well documented that wild-type p53 is necessary to activate the signal transduction pathways involving apoptosis. The role of p53 is, therefore, important in assessing the response of tumors to ionizing radiation and chemotherapy (38). Growth arrest in wild-type p53 is dependent on the activation ofp21 through inhibiting cyclin complexes and arresting cells in the G1- to S-phase transition (39-41). Through the activation of bax and downregulation of bcl-2, p53 plays a key role in apoptosis (42-44). However, the complex role of p53 can present opposing forces with respect to response to ionizing radiation. Xia et al. suggested that this might be the result of the fact that any decrease in apoptosis seen in p53-deficient cells might be offset by a...

Computerized Tomographic Venography

Computerized tomographic venography has many of the same advantages as MRV when compared to duplex ultrasound. It does involve, however, the use ionizing radiation and for imaging peripheral veins the use of intravenous iodinated contrast agents. In imaging peripheral and pelvic veins the accurate timing of image acquisition in relation to contrast injection is often difficult and multiple runs may be necessary to acquire all the desired veins. In larger veins one can also be faced with the inflow of noncontrast blood from a branch vein into a vein with blood containing contrast, which creates a wash in artifact that can be mistaken for thrombus. For these reasons MRV usually is considered a more appropriate modality when duplex testing is felt to be inadequate. However, some do employ a technique known as combined computerized tomographic venography and pulmonary arteriography (CCTVPA). Computerized tomographic pulmonary arteriography (CTPA) has become the test of choice in many...

Other Growth Factor Receptors 431 Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) plays a central role in mediating cell adhesion, cell growth, and protection from apoptosis (102-105). Overexpression of IGF-1R has been demonstrated in vitro to be associated with radiation resistance. For example, in mouse embryo fibroblast cell lines overexpressing IGF-1R, Tezuka et al. demonstrated clonogenic radiation resistance and resistance to the induction of apoptosis after gamma irradiation (106). Peretz and his colleagues have demonstrated a link between ATM function and IGF-1R expression, suggesting that reduced expression of IGF-1R contributes to the radiosensitivity of AT cells (105). It was also demonstrated in their experiment that interference with the IGF-1R pathway by either expression of a dominant negative IGF-1R construct or treatment of cultured cells with a neutralizing antibody to the extracellular domain can sensitize cells to ionizing radiation. High levels of IGF-1R was shown to confer radioresistance...

Culture Selection And Development

It is very rare that an isolate from the environment produces the desired product cost-effectively. Often, cultures make only minute quantities of the product. Increasing the productivity of the initial isolates requires a program of genetic improvement. Classical mutation and selection methods are used with most cultures selected from the environment because little is known about their genetics and whether the cultures possess cloning vectors such as plasmids, transposons, or temperate bacteriophage. Typically, a mutagen, such as ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation, or a chemical mutagen, is applied and the culture is grown in the presence of a selective growth inhibitor or toxin. The survivors are isolated and tested. This is usually an iterative process mutant strains are screened, remutagenized, and reselected several times, often using higher concentrations or different selective agents, until a culture with commercial potential is obtained. Even after a process is successfully...

The safety of irradiated food

Irradiated food does not become radioactive and this is now accepted even by opponents of the procedure. The limitation of allowable isotope sources to cobalt-60 and caesium-137 and the limitation of the maximum energy of electrons to 10MeV and of the maximum nominal energy for X-rays (bremsstrahlung or braking radiation) to 5MeV provides adequate safeguards. Even if the nominal energy for X-rays is increased to 10MeV the theoretically induced radioactivity would be much less than the natural activity there already is in food due mainly to the presence of potassium-40. Furthermore, it would be very difficult to measure such sparse induced activity in the presence of the natural radioactivity. It can be generally stated that the safety record of the radiation processing industry is slightly higher than that of other branches. There have been only a few accidents related to radiation exposure or radioactive contamination and the reason for all of them was a conscious violation of safety...

Differential Diagnosis

The differential for pancytopenia and a hypocellular bone marrow includes constitutional and acquired aplastic anemia, starvation, hypothyroidism, and rarely, hematopoie-tic malignancies, most commonly myelodysplastic syndrome. Acquired aplastic anemia may be idiopathic or secondary to environmental toxins (benzene), radiation exposure, acute viral infection, or an idiosyncratic reaction to certain medications including nonster-oidal analgesics, antithyroid and psychotropic drugs, penicillamine, and gold salts. Finally, pancytopenia is a potential side effect of myelosuppressive chemotherapy agents. Based on the temporal association and the bone marrow findings, the diagnosis for this patient was azathioprine-induced bone marrow suppression.

Protein Oxidation Products

Oxidative changes also contribute to the loss of sensory and nutritional quality of protein-rich foods. During processing and prolonged frozen storage, the food proteins may be oxidized due to the activity of singlet oxygen (1O2), superoxide anion radical (O2 '), and hydoxyl radical (' OH). These reactive oxygen species are formed by enzymatic processes and catalytic action of cations, light, and ionizing radiation. Lipid radicals and lipid oxidation products also have an important impact. In some foods, the residues from H2O2 used in processing may oxidize the proteins. Polyphenols are readily oxidized to quinones by oxygen at neutral and alkaline pH. The quinones act as strong oxidizing agents in different products. The rate of change in proteins is controlled by the activity of the oxidizing agents and inhibitors, the presence of sensitizers, e.g., chlorophyll, methylene blue, erythrosine, and riboflavin, different prooxidants and antioxidants, temperature, and the sensitivity of...

Seven Clues to the Nature of Consciousness

In this chapter I examine seven clues to the nature of consciousness and explore what they reveal about the underlying physical substrate of consciousness. The consciousness clues are it impacts upon the world it is a property of living brains but no other structure brain activity may be conscious or unconscious the conscious mind appears to be serial learning requires consciousness but recall doesn't conscious information is bound and consciousness correlates with synchronous firing of neurons. I discuss field theories of consciousness and introduce the conscious electromagnetic field (CEMI) theory that suggests that consciousness is a product of the brain's electromagnetic field. I show that the CEMI field theory successfully accounts for each of the seven clues to the nature of consciousness. Finally, I show that although current quantum mechanical theories of consciousness are also field theories, they are physical untenable and should be discarded.

Why Do we Need a Theory of Consciousness

The approach in this chapter will be to examine seven clues to nature of consciousness and discuss how the conscious electromagnetic field theory (CEMI field theory) makes sense of those clues. Space constraints do not permit me to examine the other theories of consciousness against these clues, but it would be an interesting exercise for the reader to attempt this, at least for their favorite theory. The first clue, is what I have already discussed, the fact that consciousness has an effect on the world. Any theory must include a physical mechanism that allows our conscious mind to interact with the matter of our brain.

The effects of microwave radiation on food

Action of matter with the electromagnetic field always results in an energy transfer and therefore in a temperature change. However, some effects are specific to the interaction with electromagnetic energy and cannot be achieved by conventional heating. Other effects are identical to interaction with thermal energy i.e. by conventional conductive or convective heating. For microwaves, the optical and geometrical effects during exposure of matter can result in locally high and low power levels and therefore in hot spots and cold spots. In many cases, researchers were unaware of such phenomena and therefore their conclusions on microwave-specific effects were incorrect. The objects exposed to microwaves can be considered as antennae if they are geometrically separated and are small compared to the wavelength(s) they will not be 'seen' by microwaves, in the same way as a radio or TV antenna must be of correct size for optimal reception. As a consequence, many reported observations about...

Field Theories of Consciousness

Yet it has been known for more than a century that the brain generates its own electromagnetic (em) field, a fact that is widely utilized in brain scanning techniques such as EEG. In two papers published in 2002 I described the conscious electromagnetic field theory 35, 34 , which was an extension of the CEMI field theory outlined in my book Quantum Evolution 33 . The theory has much in common with the electromagnetic field theory of consciousness proposed by Dr. Susan Pockett in her book The Nature of Consciousness A Hypothesis 38 . The neurophysiologist E. Roy John has also recently published a theory of consciousness involving electromagnetic fields 26 . The key insight of these theories is the realization that, as well as generating chemical signals that are communicated via conventional synapses, neural firing also generates perturbations to the brain's electromagnetic field.

Why dont External Fields Influence our Minds

The high conductivity of the cerebral fluid creates an effective Faraday cage that insulates the brain from most natural exogenous electric fields. A constant external electric field will thereby induce almost no field at all in the brain 2 . Alternating currents from technological devices (power lines, mobile phones, etc.) will generate an alternating induced field, but its magnitude will be very weak. For example, a 60 Hz electrical field of 1000 V m (typical of a powerline) will generate a tissue field of only 4 x 10 5 V m inside the head 2 , clearly much weaker than either the endogenous electromagnetic field or the field due to thermal noise in cell membranes. Magnetic fields do penetrate tissue much more readily than electric fields but most naturally encountered magnetic fields, and also those experienced during nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning, are static (changing only the direction of moving charges) and are thereby unlikely to have physiological effects. Changing...

Cox2 inhibitors in combination with radiotherapy

There is a large body of evidence that PGs regulate a variety of protective homeostatic functions guarding cells and tissues from different types of injury, including radiation (126,127), and that PG production is associated with tumor resistance to therapy (128,129). For example, exogenous administration of PGE2 prior to the irradiation of mice increased the survival of intestinal epithelial cells (130). PGs or their stable analogs were shown to protect a variety of other normal cells from radiation, including hematopoietic stem cells (131), dermal cells (132), and spermatogonia. In vitro, PGs were shown to protect both normal and cancer cell lines from radiation injury (126,128,129,133). The radioprotective effect of PG requires ligand-receptor binding, because in vitro protection could not be demonstrated in cells lacking PG receptors or when the receptors were blocked (131). Multiple mechanisms are involved in the cellular protection afforded by PGs. One mechanism is repair of DNA...

Quantum Fields and Seething Uncertainty

The theories describing force fields such as electromagnetism through the interaction of wave-particles are the most succinct theories ever invented by the human mind. Richard Feynman and others discovered the field is generated by uncertainty itself through particles propagated by a rule based on wave spreading. These particles are called virtual because they have no net positive energy and appear and disappear entirely within the window of quantum uncertainty, so we never see them except as expressed in the force itself. This seething tumult of virtual particles exactly produces the familiar effects of the electromagnetic field and other fields as well. We can find the force between two electrons by integrating the effects of every virtual photon that could be exchanged within the limits of uncertainty and of every other possible virtual particle system, including pairs of electrons and positrons coming The virtual particles of a force field and the real particles we experience as...

Radiation Therapy A Merging Of Biology And Physics

Radiation oncology requires a solid knowledge of two important basic sciences radiobiology and physics. Radiobiology is the study of the biologic and molecular basis for radiation therapy, such as the cellular response to radiation exposure in differing conditions and time schemes. You will learn how to select different types of radiation, choose appropriate energies, and calculate dose delivered to a patient. You will become familiar with a variety of isotopes used in the oncology clinic.

Southern tickassociated rash illness 461

Solar warning index A daily warning index forecasting the ultraviolet light radiation exposure for major cities in the United States designed to help people avoid skin cancer. The index is issued daily to forecast the amount of dangerous ultraviolet light that will reach the Earth's surface at noon the next day. The scale is one to 10 in most areas, rising to one to 15 in regions that receive stronger solar radiation. The higher the number, the greater the danger.

Fluorescence in situ hybridization

Fluorescence The emission of one or more photons by a molecule or atom activated by the absorption of a quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Typically the emission, which is of longer wavelength than the excitatory radiation, occurs within 10-8 s phosphorescence is a phenomenon with a longer or much longer delay in re-radiation. Note that gamma rays, X-rays, UV, visible light and IR radiations may all stimulate fluorescence.

Medulla oblongata Full name of the medulla

Scientists are studying the possibility of using melatonin as a treatment for conditions including jet lag, cancer, sleep disturbances, stress, and poor memory. In some studies, melatonin appears to inhibit tumor growth and may be of value in untreatable cancer patients whose disease has spread. There has even been some suggestion that melatonin may help to overcome the negative health consequences of electromagnetic fields.

Light Absorption and Light Energy Transfer in Prokaryotes

The chlorophyll-based photosystems of bacteria convert electromagnetic energy into a redox gradient. The redox reactions are initiated by absorption of electromagnetic energy, leading to a transition of specific molecules into an excited electronic state. An increase in the electronic energy of a molecule requires more energy than changes in vibrational or rotational states. Since the energy of light quanta is inversely related to their wavelength (Planck's Law), molecules absorb electromagnetic radiation of short wavelengths (ultraviolet and visible light) during changes in electronic energy, and longer wavelengths during changes in vibrational (near infrared radiation) and rotational energy (far infrared radiation and microwaves). Changes in the electronic state of molecules, and thus photochemi-cally driven redox reactions by light absorption, can only occur by absorption of quanta of wavelengths < 1240 nm (i.e., an energy larger than 1 eV per electron). This fact obviously...

Technical Considerations For Ivc Filter Insertion

Recently, the use of transcutaneous duplex ultrasonogra-phy to visualize the IVC for placement of filters has been adapted in several centers.46-48 This technique has several advantages, including the ability to perform the procedure at the bedside, particularly in the intensive care unit, avoiding the use of contrast material with its potential neph-rotoxicity and ionizing radiation. The femoral veins, iliac veins, and the IVC usually can be visualized using duplex

Nativistic Perception and Directed Perception

Over the years that I have taught a course called Cognition and the Visual Arts I have found two aspects of viewing art that were most instructive. The first, nativistic perception (also known as bottom-up processing to cognitive scientists because it begins with basic physical stimuli), deals with the way the eye and brain work in matched synchrony. Each transforms electromagnetic energy into neuro-chemical codes. As pedantic as that phrase might seem, technically speaking it is exactly what happens. Nativistic perception ofvisual events is based on the fact that people have certain inborn ways of seeing in which visual stimuli, including art, are initially organized and perceived. Causally speaking, nativistic perception is hardwired in the sensory-cognitive system.

Quantum Mind and Transactional Supercausality

Necessarily link an emitter and an absorber. The theory of virtual and real particles demonstrates that real and virtual particles are, in principle, indistinguishable. If we oscillate the electromagnetic field we elicit a radio broadcast. Virtual photons generating the electromagnetic field have become real ones telling us the news. If the universe emerged from a single wave function all real particles may also be entangled. Even if the universe expands forever and some quanta, such as photons, are disseminated into space, causing a permanent disparity between emitters and absorbers, the kinds of excitons we naturally associate with phase correlations in global brain dynamics are all transient excitations, both emitted and absorbed by the brain and its neurons as boundary conditions as an integral part of dynamical systems feedback.

NFkB Activation Pathway

Nfkb Pathway

The transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) was the first latent cytoplasmic factor to be discovered and is really at the crossroads of life and death in its central role as a modulator of inflammation, angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and survival (95). It is activated by the same stimuli that induce apoptosis, such as ionizing radiation, chemotherapy, and TNF-a, and, in most cases, counteracts this apoptosis through an inhibitory cell survival response (see Fig. 2) (96-101). There is some evidence that NF-kB plays a proapoptotic role in certain scenarios for instance, in p53-mediated apoptosis (102). However, most data support the antiapoptotic role of NF-kB, particularly in the context of chemotherapy exposure (6-8,103). NF-kB is classically a heterodimer consisting of p65 and p50, but another three, less studied, family members have been identified (c-Rel, Rel B, and p52). When inactive p65 is bound in the cytoplasm by an inhibitor...

The CEMI Field Theory

It is clear that very weak electromagnetic field fluctuations are capable of modulating neuron-firing patterns. These exogenous fields are weaker than the perturbations in the brain's endogenous electromagnetic field that are induced during normal neuronal activity. The conclusion is inescapable the brain's endogenous electromagnetic field must influence neuronal information processing in the brain. Information in neurons is therefore pooled, integrated and reflected back into neurons through the brain's electromagnetic field and its influence on neuron-firing patterns. This self-referral loop has physical and dynamic properties that precisely map with consciousness and are most parsimoniously accounted for if the brain's electromagnetic field is the physical substrate of consciousness. Conscious volition results from the influence of the brain's electromagnetic field on neurons that initiate motor actions. The conscious electromagnetic information (CEMI) field theory thereby proposes...

Microtubules as Cavities

As a result of the ordered structure of the water environment in the interior of MTs, there appear collective coherent modes, the so-called dipole quanta 25 . These arise from the interaction of the electric dipole moment of the water molecule with the quantized radiation of the electromagnetic field 26 , which may be self-generated in the case of MT arrangements 80, 120 . Such coherent modes play the role of cavity modes in the quantum optics terminology. These in turn interact with the dimer structures, mainly through the unpaired electrons of the dimers, leading to the formation of a quantum coherent solitonic state that may extend even over the entire MT network. As mentioned above, such states may be identified 80 with semiclassical solutions of the friction equations (4.5). These coherent, almost classical, states should be viewed as the result of decoherence of the dimer system due to its interaction coupling with the water environment 147 . Such a dimer water coupling can lead...

Overview of the Contributions

Johnjoe McFadden outlines conscious electromagnetic field theory (CEMI) revealing seven clues to the nature of consciousness. The author argues that if consciousness is an epiphenomenon then, as scientists, we must turn aside and leave the topic to the philosophers and theologians to make sense of. However, consciousness does generate observable phenomena and thus belongs to the realm of empirical science. One undeniable example is that consciousness has had a major impact on the lives of philosophers, scientists and theologians who have studied the subject. In his chapter, McFadden examines the seven clues to the nature of consciousness and discusses how the conscious electromagnetic field theory (CEMI field theory) makes sense of them. As McFadden cogently argues, any successful theory of consciousness needs to include a physical mechanism enabling our conscious mind to interact with the matter of our brain.

Last Word Concerning Quantum Theories of Consciousness

The em fields are not of course the only kind of field. Any quantum system may be described by a field and there is a great deal of interest in the possibility of quantum matter fields in the brain. However, whereas there is no doubt that electromagnetic fields exist in the brain there is no evidence for large-scale quantum coherence of matter in the brain on the scale that is necessary for quantum consciousness. There are also very real theoretical problems with understanding how quantum coherence in microtubules could be maintained for biological time scales 43 . The difficulty in maintaining Interestingly, the Cx36 KO mice provide evidence that supports the CEMI field theory proposal that electromagnetic fields are the substrate for conscious binding. As already discussed, synchronous neuronal firing is a correlate of attention and awareness and fast transmission of signals through gap junctions has previously been proposed to mediate synchrony. However, high-frequency synchronous...

Functional Brain Imaging

Several techniques are now available to study the functional anatomy of speech and language processing by measuring neurophysiological activity noninvasively. This entry reviews the four dominant methods, electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), which measure the extracranial electromagnetic field, and positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which measure local changes in blood flow associated with active neurons. Each of these techniques has inherent strengths and weaknesses that must be taken into account when designing and interpreting experiments.

The principles of microwave heating

In order to understand the physical principles behind the radiation energy transfer, it is necessary to understand that electromagnetic energy comes in portions called 'photons' or 'quanta' that are discrete but very small quantities. An impinging photon must match exactly the energy difference between several allowed atomic energy states of the electrons in the treated material otherwise, no energy is absorbed and the object is 'transparent' to the electromagnetic wave. This is the reason that food, which is mainly water with regard to microwave heating, can be heated, but glass or plastic containers remain cold. (A mother heating a baby's bottle in a microwave oven and testing the temperature by sensing its surface temperature with her cheek may not realise that the milk is boiling inside.) In addition, the 'heat capacity' of the substance must be considered. It determines the heating effect some food components such as fat do not absorb the microwave energy as efficiently as water...

Medical Teaching And Training Models

20 The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) defines a tissue substitute as any material that simulates a body of tissue in its interaction with ionizing radiation, and a phantom as any structure that contains one or more tissue substitutes and is used to simulate radiation interactions in the human body (http www.cirsinc.com overview.html).

For the Seven Clues to the Nature of Consciousness

A distinctive feature of the CEMI field theory is the proposal that consciousness corresponds to only that component of the brain's electromagnetic field that impacts on motor activity. This does not imply that the brain's electromagnetic field acts directly on motor neurons (which may of course be located outside the brain) but only that electromagnetic field information is communicated to the outside world via motor neurons 35 . The site of action of the brain's electromagnetic field is most likely to be neurons in the cerebral cortex involved in initiating motor actions, such as the areas that control speech, or the areas involved in laying down memories that may later be reported via motor actions (such as speech). Indeed, there is a good deal of evidence 1, 37 that all verbal thought is accompanied by subvocalizations (i. e. motor cortex activity accompanied by appropriate but normally undetectable vocal tract activity). This informational download via the brain's electromagnetic...

Appendix B Researching Alternative Medicine

Energy therapies focus on energy fields originating within the body (biofields) or those from other sources (electromagnetic fields). Biofield therapies are intended to affect energy fields (the existence of which is not yet experimentally proven) that surround and penetrate the human body. Some forms of energy therapy manipulate biofields by applying pressure and or manipulating the body by placing the hands in or through these fields. Examples include qi gong, reiki and therapeutic touch. Bioelectromagnetic-based therapies involve the unconventional use of electromagnetic fields to treat illnesses or manage pain. These therapies are often used to treat asthma, cancer, and migraine headaches. Types of electromagnetic fields which are manipulated in these therapies include pulsed fields, magnetic fields, and alternating current or direct current fields.

Targets of the proteasome

This UPP-mediated process takes place indirectly through degradation of NF-kB's inhibitor protein, IkB, by the proteasome (47). IkB is bound to NF- kB, and the inactive IkB NF-kB complex remains in the cytoplasm under normal conditions. However, when the cell is stressed by any number of factors (chemotherapy, ionizing radiation, TNF- a, lipo-polysaccharides, etc.), IkB is phosphorylated, ubiquinated, and, subsequently, degraded by the proteasome (48). NF- kB is then released for its translocation into the nucleus where it activate multiple target genes, including cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and antiapoptotic factors that can lead to cell proliferation, survival, and potential tumor metastasis. Therefore, stabilization of IkB via proteasome inhibition can aid in overcoming chemore-sistance and promote cell apoptosis, even in chemorefractory tumors.

Conclusions and the Way Forward

There is no such thing as a theory that cannot be tested. In my first CEMI field paper, I highlighted eight predictions that were consequent on the theory 34 . In my follow-up paper 35 , I discussed the implications of the theory for artificial intelligence (AI) and the possibility of engineering consciousness into an artificial system. Crucial areas that need to be tackled are the development of a mathematical model to examine the interaction between neurons and the brain's electromagnetic field analysis of the interaction between ion channels and the brain's em field at a quantum-field level exploration of the role of fields in information processing performed by biological neurons and exploration of the potential role of electromagnetic fields in AI. With appropriate support, these issues could all be tackled within the coming years. Hopefully we will soon discover whether our minds are really electric.

Magnetic resonance imaging MRI Also called

There is no known danger with MRI, other than the effect of the electromagnetic field on metal such as implants or metal clips, on magnetic credit-card strips, analog watches, and so on. It cannot be Researchers do not yet know how the magnetite relates to the human nervous system, although some scientists suspect it might provide a clue to the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and disease. EMFs have been linked to certain disorders such as cancer, but in the past critics have questioned this possibility because they believed the human body contains no magnetic material.

Radiationresistant Microorganisms

Radiation from the sun drives photosynthetic reactions, thus ensuring primary production throughout the global ecosystem. Although the visible spectrum leads to biomass production, visible light and other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (particularly short-wavelength) also cause cellular damage. Damage to cells primarily occurs directly to nucleic acids (e.g., UV-induced thymine-dimer formation and strand breakage) or indirectly through the production of reactive oxygen species (e.g., H2O2, O2 0OH, and 1O2), which cause damage to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Due to the prevalence of natural radiation, most cells have developed a range of DNA-repair and other protective mechanisms to facilitate their survival.

Bilateral cognition

Underlying the simulation is the assumption that the higher forms of cognition are not of a fundamentally different character from lower level processes such as visual perception or motor control. On the contrary, given what is known about neurons, it is extremely likely that the types of neuronal processes known to contribute to sensory perception and motor output are also involved in all forms of cognition as well. This is indeed the essence of Crick's astonishing hypothesis (1994) there is nothing higher than neuronal circuitry Therefore, unless we have clear indication that other factors (such as glial metabolism, electromagnetic fields or quantum effects) have empirically verifiable effects on cognition - and therefore that neuronal activity is not the sole substrate underlying all mental phenomena, we are logically obliged to address both lower level phenomena, such as perception, and higher level phenomena, such as human cognition using language, in computer simulations. There...

Abortive infection

Any of four different coefficients that indicate the ability of a substance to absorb electromagnetic radiation. Absorbance is defined as the logarithm of the ratio of incident and transmitted intensity, and thus it is necessary to know the base of the logarithm used. Scattering and reflectance are generally ignored when dealing with solutions. 2. Ratio of the amount of a substance absorbed (uptake) to the administered quantity (intake). absorption spectrum Spectrum of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation (usually visible and UV light) absorbed by a substance. Absorption is determined by existence of atoms that can be excited from their ground state to an excited state by absorption of energy carried by a photon at that particular wavelength.

Conclusions

A number of authors in this book propose that quantum computing plays a role in human consciousness, although the counterview is also represented. A large number of contributors provide various arguments for microtubules being pivotal to consciousness, in particular, because they may well form the central nervous system of the cell. Quantum computations in microtubules, or in other brain proteins, may be a viable tenet, but how does the scientific community proceed to prove or disprove such an idea Secondly, how does one extrapolate from essentially biophysical studies on brain proteins to assessments of higher cognitive functions in individuals alone or in groups Within a single brain or mind, one might imagine that nonlocal quantum interactions occur in relation to neural connections or electromagnetic waves linking different neurons or brain areas. Considering small groups of individuals or large societies, we again have classical communication of information between individuals...

Carotid artery

The cAT scan provides a clearer and more detailed picture of the body than x rays by themselves, and it tends to minimize the amount of radiation exposure. It is the preferred initial examining procedure in the diagnosis of stroke approximately 70 percent of strokes will be visible within seven days. Although a stroke does not usually require an emergency cAT scan, it can provide valuable information about the presence of hemorrhage if bloodthinners are being considered as a possible treatment. magnetic resonance imaging is less accurate in diagnosing acute hemorrhage and may miss the presence of blood in the subarachnoid space.

Visual Prostheses

The problem is that the retinal cells are very small biophysical theory predicts that they should be difficult to stimulate electrically. Initial experiments in patients with intact retinas (who were undergoing removal of the eye because of malignant tumors) appeared to confound this prediction because microampere currents produced sensations of light. In fact, this is an unsurprising consequence of introducing small biases in a system of photoreceptors and intraretinal circuitry that employs spontaneous activity to create very high sensitivity to weak but coherent incident energy, such as light reflected from dimly illuminated objects. The transduction systems of both the intact retina and the intact cochlea are built in this way. It has long been known that the first sensations induced by weak electromagnetic fields are visual and auditory auras. In the absence of this background activity from the receptors, however, the postsynaptic neurons that...

Cavities

QED cavities are well known for their capacity to sustain in their interior coherent modes of electromagnetic radiation. Similarly, one expects that such coherent cavity modes will occur in the thin interior regions of MTs bounded by the protein dimer walls. Indeed, as was discussed in 80 , these modes are provided by the interaction of the electric dipole moments of the ordered-water molecules in the interior of MT with the quantized electromagnetic radiation 25, 26 . Such coherent modes are termed dipole quanta. It is the interaction of such cavity modes with the electric dipole excitations of the dimers that leads to the formation of coherent (dipole) states on the tubulin dimer walls of MTs. A review of how this can happen, and what purely quantum effects can emerge from the QED nature of MTs, will be the main topic of this section.

MRI physics

The raw signals in both NMR and MRI are produced the same way. As we will soon explain in more detail, a sample (e.g., a brain) is placed in a strong magnetic field and radiated with a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field pulse. The nuclei absorb the energy only at a particular frequency, which is dependent on their electromagnetic environment, and then return it at the same frequency. The returned energy is detected by the same antenna that produced the RF field. Pulse sequences, or particular patterns of manipulations of the RF pulse and other magnetic fields, are used to acquire data that can be localized in the 3-D space of the brain.

Optics

The two basic laws of optics are the law of reflection 9 0r (the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection) and the law of refraction, also known as Snell's law n1sind1 n2sin02 where n refers to the refractive index of medium i and 9 is the angle between the normal and the incident and refracted beams see Fig. 4.9. Both these laws refer to specular processes (i. e. the boundary between the media can be assumed smooth) and can be derived from Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic waves incident on a boundary 49 .

Reductionism

Among the many aspects of nature that have fallen to this approach, one can mention planetary motion (based on the concepts of mass and gravity and on Newton's laws of motion), electromagnetic radiation (based on the concepts of electric charge, electric fields, and magnetic fields related through Maxwell's electromagnetic equations), atomic and molecular structures (based on the concepts of mass, electric charge, Planck's constant, and Schrodinger's equation for the dynamics of quantum probability amplitudes), and nerve impulse propagation (based on the concepts of voltage, membrane permeability, ionic current, and the Hodgkin-Huxley equations for the dynamics of current flow through a voltage-sensitive membrane).

Follicular Lesions

Follicular neoplasms typically present as a solitary thyroid nodule. Whether FC can develop from a preexisting benign thyroid nodule is controversial, but it is interesting to note that there is an increase in the number of FCs in endemic goiter areas. Patients with follicular neoplasms are usually middle-aged women who are serologically euthyroid those with FC tend to be a decade older, with an average age of 40 to 55 years. Potential risk factors for the development of FC include female gender, advanced age, childhood radiation exposure (although most of these patients develop PTC), and possibly Cowden's syndrome and certain HLA types.

Axons and Dendrites

Libet 142 , McFadden 156 , Pockett 176 ) that the brain's complex electromagnetic field (global LFPs and surface potentials) constitutes the NCC. However, as Koch 129 points out, the brain's electromagnetic field per se is a crude and inefficient means of communication. On the other hand, dendritic activities that generate LFPs and or surface potentials may indeed best represent the NCC. Eccles 47 as well as Pribram 182 suggested that dendrites host consciousness, with axonal spikes conveying the results of consciousness.

Beautiful Colors

Plate 4 shows the segment of the electromagnetic spectrum visible to humans. Note that this is a small band of the total range of energy, as if we were standing behind a theatrical curtain only slightly opened. We are perceptually insensitive to the teeming energies outside of that range. But things that we can see are displayed to us in a delightful range of beautiful colors. (Unabashed romanticism We just learned that seeing colors closed an evolutionary circuit with nature. But seeing is much more than detecting electromagnetic waves ofdiffering frequencies in order to adapt more successfully.) Other waves of the electromagnetic spectrum range from gamma rays and X rays, which are tiny, to AM radio waves and the waves of microwave transmission, which are very broad. It is within the narrow slit of the visible spectrum that all visual experiences are compressed from the shimmer of a swimming fish, to the morning sun, to the yellow signpost on the interstate highway, to the sight of...

Magic bullet

An MRI is better than a CT scan at detecting diseases of the brain and spinal cord. An expensive technique, MRI is painless, harmless, and does not involve exposure to ionizing radiation. Nor is there a need, as in radiological (X-ray) imaging, to inject a radiopaque contrast medium such as barium sulfate to provide a visual contrast between the tissue or organ being filmed and the surrounding tissue. MRI may not be suitable for people with heart pacemakers, joint pins, surgical metal clips, artificial heart valves, IUDs, shrapnel, or any other electronic or metal implants.

Angiogenesis markers

The commonly evaluated molecular markers for angiogenesis include the microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). A number of very interesting and significant laboratory and clinical studies employing cell lines transformed to overexpress VEGF have been performed to evaluate angiogenic molecular markers as they relate to radiation sensitivity. Gupta's group demonstrated that VEGF enhanced endothelial cell survival and VEGF-positive xenografts were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. Treatment with anti-VEGF antibody, on the other hand, enhanced radiation sensitivity (20). It was demonstrated that blockade of the VEGF stress response enhanced the antitumor effects of radiation (21). Geng et al. also presented evidence that inhibition of VEGF signaling can lead to reversal of radiation resistance (22). Many studies have provided strong evidence that overexpression of VEGF relates to radiation resistance. Its reversal might be achieved...

Figure 1016

The degree of polymerization upon radiation exposure (i.e., the rate at which the aforementioned chemical reactions proceed) depends, among other things, on radical concentration, and this presignifies a dependence of polymer gel dose response on radiation characteristics (energy and dose rate). An important factor to be stressed with regard to radical concentration is the presence of oxygen in a gel. Upon radiation exposure oxygen leads to the formation of peroxide radicals which consume other radicals in fast reactions and thus inhibit polymerization initiation.

Aerobic metabolism

In addition to these normal metabolic sources, environmental compounds can divert single electrons to generate oxygen radicals. These redoxcycling compounds undergo enzymatic reduction and are then reoxidized by O2, a cyclic process that generates a flux of superoxide catalytically (Fig. 66.1). The variety of these superoxide-generating compounds is large and includes many types of quinones, naphthoquinones, and nitroquinolones, which can act as efficient sources of oxidative stress. Several physical agents can impose oxidative stress ionizing radiation produces ROS by radiolysis of water, whereas ultraviolet light produces H2O2 through photochemical reactions involving various chromophores, including the amino acid tryptophan.

Mutations

As a rule, chromosomes transmit the genes located on them unchanged from generation to generation. However, spontaneous changes in the gene complement, called mutations, may occur in somatic cells (somatic mutations) or in the germ cells (germ cell or germline mutations). In addition to spontaneous mutations, there occur induced mutations, as a result of, for example, ionizing radiation or chemical substances (so-called mutagens). The frequency of mutation in, e. g., a gene is on average between 1 10000 and 1 100000. There are several types of mutations

BRCA1 and BRCA2

Given the frequency with which these genes are mutant in human cancers, much attention has focused on the possible role of RAS mutations in promoting chemoresistance. However, no constant associations between RAS and any chemotherapeutics have been verified. The role for RAS in mediating sensitivity to ionizing radiation is better established. That role is significant, given that radiation is a primary tool in combating cancer and that response to radiation is a strong predictor of the patient's treatment prognosis. (73). A number of studies have shown that the RAS oncogene is associated with resistance to radiation and that this resistance seems to occur through the RAS signaling pathway mediated by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) (74). Although this association creates attractive possibilities for potential targeted therapies, it is not currently employed for

KGF in Mucositis

Intestine Injury And Regeneration

In a mouse model of oral mucositis, the ventral tongue epithelium was irradiated with X-rays to induce ulcer formation. Recombinant human KGF (rHuKGF) given before, after, or during the radiation exposure significantly reduced the incidence of oral mucosal ulceration (65). The maximum protection was observed when KGF was given either from d -3 to+1 or from d 0 to +2 with radiation given on d 0. In a similar model, mouse tongue ulceration was induced by five daily doses of fractionated irradiation followed with graded test doses of X-ray to approximate the fractionated irradiation in a clinical setting. rHuKGF given before radiotherapy, during fractionated radiotherapy, over the weekend break, or in a combination of these schedules, significantly enhanced oral mucosal radiation tolerance (66). Interestingly, KGF appeared to be ineffective when given at the time of ulcer manifestation (67), suggesting that appropriate scheduling might be needed for optimal clinical management of...

Diagnosis

Most information necessary for endovascular entry closure, i.e., location of the entry tear, shape and size of the landing zones, and diameter and tortuosity of the access route, is obtained by CT. In addition involvement of aortic branches can be shown in most cases. Especially, multislice CT with EKG synchronization could detect and evaluate the entry tear itself even in acute cases in which the intimal flap usually moves rapidly and is sometimes hard to be identified on conventional CT. Some prefer MRI to CT because it does not need radiation exposure 29 however, its spatial resolution is not high enough even with the latest software and hardware. In addition, it cannot be used for follow-up of patients who underwent endovascular repair with endografts made of magnetic material such as stainless steel. Therefore, MRI would be preserved only for those patients with renal insufficiency or contrast medium allergy.

Occupation

There is no convincing link between occupational radiation exposure, or asbestos exposure, among asbestos workers and pancreatic cancer.2,91 Earlier studies of workers employed in rubber manufacturing have shown small increased risks, but a more recent cohort analysis of rubber workers exposed to nitrosamines did not find any excess risk of pancreatic can-cer.92-94 Some studies of occupations with exposure to petroleum products or products of incomplete combustion have found increased risks.95-99 A number of studies have evaluated occupational solvents such as formaldehyde and chlorinated hydrocarbons in relation to pancreatic cancer mortality or incidence. A recent meta-analysis of formaldehyde exposure and pancreatic cancer found a small increased risk among embalmers meta-relative risk (MRR) 1.3, 95 CI 1.0-1.6 , pathologists, and anatomists (MRR 1.3, 95 CI 1.0-1.7), but no increased risk among industrial workers who typically have the highest exposures.100 Another meta-analysis of...