EDTA Therapy for Vascular Disease

Chelation Natural Miracle For Protecting Your Heart

Chelation therapy has been conclusively shown to be up to 82 Percent Effective at dissolving the plaque that blocks arteries! In the ebook Chelation Natural Miracle For Protecting Your Heart you'll discover: The frustrating reason many doctors are ignoring Edta chelationor even openly rejecting it. The deadly heart surgeries even the American Heart Association admits are unnecessary. The hidden signs and symptoms of heart attacks and strokes? Are you in danger right now?. The average number of years stripped away by heart and vessel disease. Can you get them back?. The newest set of risk factors for heart disease (they'll likely surprise you!). Shady government practices that protect Big Pharma and keep Edta chelation out of the public eye. How the Roman Empire could have been savedif only they'd known about Edta chelation. Why Edta chelation is guaranteed to be safeeven in extremely high doses. (It puts aspirin to shame!). The shocking truth about plaque in young childrenand how to keep your little ones safer. Why dentists, artists and welders need Edta chelationand whether your workplace is dangerous too. The differences between IV and oral chelationand which kind of Edta is right for you. Other forms of chelationand how these little-known treatments can dramatically boost your health.

Chelation Natural Miracle For Protecting Your Heart Summary


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Chelation Therapy

Chelation therapy uses infusions, or slow injections, of a chemical called ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). This process is sometimes used to remove toxic levels of lead, iron, or other metals from the body. (The metals exit the body via the urine.) Some experts think that the oxidation of LDL cholesterol requires interaction with such metals. The idea behind chelation for cardiovascular disease is that removing some of these metals from the bloodstream will also reduce oxidation and this antioxidant effect might improve blood vessel function. By some estimates, as many as 500,000 Americans are spending more than 3 billion per year on chelation. But little scientific research has assessed its value for heart disease. In 2000, the American Heart Journal published a review of small studies and concluded that chelation was ineffective for heart disease. As is the case with many alternative remedies, clinical trials are needed to 43 prove or disprove the effectiveness of this...

Amplification and Further Characterization of the Positive Clones

Southern blot lysis buffer 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM Tris, pH 8.0, 10 mM EDTA in ultrapure water. Sterilize by autoclave. Extemporaneously add 0.5 (w v) sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), 0.05 (w v) PK. 2. Prehybridization (and hybridization) solution 0.25 (w v) fat-free milk powder, 4X sodium chloride sodium phosphate EDTA (SSPE 4X SSPE 600 mM NaCl, 40 mM NaH2PO4, 5 mM EDTA ), 1 (w v) SDS, 0.01 (w v) denatured salmon sperm in ultrapure water. To be prepared extemporaneously.

Materials And Methods

RNA-protein binding reactions were performed by incubating 10 or 1 pmol of biotinylated RNA with 300 ng of recombinant purified protein in binding buffer (12 glycerol, 20 mM TrisHCl pH 7.4, 50 mM KCl, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT) for 30 min at 25 C. Reactions were loaded on a 4 non denaturing PAGE. After electro-phoresis, the gel was blotted onto positively charged nylon membranes (BrightStar-Plus,

Other Potential Chromiumcontaining Biomolecules

In 1959 Wacker and Vallee reported a ribonucleoprotein from liver the material contained 0.1 chromium in addition to a few other metals 187, 188 . Chromium could not be removed by the addition of chelating agents. The purity of the material is unfortunately impossible to gauge from the report. RNA from a number of other sources was then examined all RNA samples contained appreciable quantities of chromium, suggesting chromium accumulates in or is specifically associated with RNA 187, 188 . These observations are worthy of re-examination. Does Cr3+ just accumulate with RNA because of a propensity for chelating phosphate-type ligands or is there a specific role for chromium This possible binding of chromium to nucleic acids could also potentially be related to possible toxic aspects of the metal (see Chapters 9-12).

Recovery of Expressed Protein

Nondenaturing lysis buffer, pH 6.8 25 mM Tris-HCl, 150 mM NaCl, 10 (v v) glycerol, 2 (v v) of 100 mM phenylmethyl sulfonylfluoride (PMSF) stock solution (dissolved in isopropanol), and 1X Complete (Roche) protease inhibitors. The latter will result in a final concentration of 1 mM EDTA (a metalloprotease inhibitor), but additional EDTA may be added (up to 5 mM final) if high levels of metalloprotease activity are suspected. Complete protease inhibitors can also be used at 2X concentration.

Genomic organisation of the p53 gene

The product is a 53 kDa phosphoprotein containing 393 amino acids. Five highly conserved regions of the protein have been identified, termed regions I, II, III, IV and V, corresponding to codons 13-19, 120-143, 172-182, 238-259, and 271-290 (Nigra et al., 1989 Levine et al., 1991,1994 Vogelstein and Kinzler, 1992) and these occur in exons 4, 5, 7 and 8. Mutations of p53 encountered in human neoplasms have been found to be clustered in hotspots in the conserved regions II-V (Nigra et al., 1989) and therefore these are regarded as important functional domains and represent the sequence-specific DNA-binding domain of the protein extending from amino acid residue 90 to 290 (Bargonetti et al., 1993 Halazonetis and Kandil, 1993 Pavletich et al., 1993 Wang Y et al., 1993). This core DNA binding domain contains 10 cysteine residues, suggesting the involvement of metal ions. Indeed, DNA binding is abolished by metal-chelating agents and the core domain contains zinc therefore it...

Tissue Remodeling And Enzymatic Activity

Chronic dermal ulcers are characterized by excessive proteolytic activity, which degrades extracellular matrix and growth factors and their receptors. The MMP family of proteases (all of them can be inhibited by metal chelation) are positioned on extracellular matrix proteins in an inactive proform. They play an important role in cell differentiation and development.20 MMPs may be released from preexisting pools (cytoplasmic granules) upon stimulation and endocytosis or may be newly synthesized by several types of cardiovascular cells.21 The inactive pro-enzymes can be activated by other proteinases, including those produced by mast cells.22 MMPs have multiple binding sites but cleave collagen at unique sites.23 The MMP levels in wound fluids from chronic wounds tend to be significantly higher than from acute wounds and healing is associated with reduced MMP activity.24

Chelating and reducing agents

Some anions and cations will directly bind to the protein. For example, divalent cations will often bind to certain proteins and lower their solubility. Removal of these ions by a chelating agent such as EDTA may help to maintain protein solubility. Also, EDTA will inhibit the metal-catalyzed oxidation of sulfhydryl groups. aFGF contains three cysteine residues thus, small amounts of EDTA have been reported to stabilize aFGF against heat-induced aggregation. For the same reason, reducing agents such as dithiothreitol and p-mercaptoethanol can stabilize aFGF.43 Although EDTA has acceptability as a pharmaceutical excipient, the reducing agents may not be acceptable. Such agents are more likely to be used to dissociate covalent aggregates in basic research investigations.

Location And Ultrastructure

Additionally, secondary cell wall polymers have been recognized as components which facilitate a specific interaction between the S-layer monomers and the cell shape determining peptido-glycan sacculus. Most commonly, in gram-positive bacteria, a complete disintegration of S layers into monomers can be obtained by treatment of intact cells or cell walls with high concentrations of H-bond-breaking agents (e.g. urea or guanidine hydrochlo-ride). S layers from gram-negative bacteria frequently disrupt upon application of metal chelating agents (e.g. EDTA and EGTA), cation substitution (e.g. Na+ to replace Ca2+), or pH changes (e.g. pH 4.0). From extraction and disintegration experiments it can be concluded that the bonds holding the S-layer subunits together are stronger than those binding the crystalline array to the supporting envelope layer. There are some indications that S layers of some archaea (e.g. Thermoproteus species, and Methanospirillum hungatei) are...

Firefly Luciferase Assay

Flash lysis buffer 25 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 8 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EDTA, 1 Triton X-100, 15 glycerol, add fresh before use 1 mM DTT, 0.2 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). 4. Sustained lysis buffer 50 mM Tris-Ac, pH 7.8, 10 mM MgAc, 0.1 mM EDTA, 1 Triton X-100, 15 glycerol, add fresh before use 4 mM DTT, 0.2 mM PMSF.

Contact sensitivity Allergic response to contact with irritant usually a hypersensitivity

Contact sites A csA Developmentally regulated adhesion sites that appear on the ends of aggregation-competent Dictyostelium discoideum (see Acrasidae) - at the stage when the starved cells begin to come together to form the grex. Originally detected by the use of Fab fragments of polyclonal antibodies, raised against aggregation-competent cells and adsorbed against vegetative cells, to block adhesion in EDTA-containing medium. (Cell-cell adhesion mediated by contact sites A, unlike that mediated by contact sites B, is not divalent cation-sensitive.) The fact that a mutant deficient in csA behaves perfectly normally in culture is puzzling.

Differential Diagnosis

A significant decline of platelet count following 5-14 days of heparin exposure is consistent with the development of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). However, thrombocytopenia can occur in many clinical conditions (Table 60.1), and a careful review of clinical and laboratory data is required before accepting a diagnosis of HIT. First, a low platelet count from an automated hematology analyzer must be confirmed by reviewing the peripheral blood smear to rule out pseudothrombocytopenia. Ex vivo platelet clumping may be caused by autoantibodies that only bind platelets when calcium ions are chelated by the anticoagulant in the collection tube (EDTA), or in the presence of the drug abcix-imab, a monocloncal antibody that blocks platelet aggregation. A rarer cause of inaccurate automated platelet counts occurs in patients with congenital macrothrombocytopenia (May-Hegglin anomaly). If the peripheral smear exam confirms thrombocytopenia, then the possible etiologies listed in Table...

Approaches to improve oral delivery

Various approaches are under investigation for oral delivery of proteins.36 These include site-specific drug delivery, chemical modification, bioadhesive polymers, penetration enhancers, protease inhibitors, carrier systems, or the use of novel formulation approaches these approaches are all discussed next. Mutifunctional matrices that may offer protection against almost all the barriers at the same time are also under investigation. These matrices are based on polymers that exhibit mucoadhesive properties, a penetration-enhancing effect, and protease inhibitor properties. In addition, they may provide sustained delivery. Examples include noncovalent binding polymers such as the anionic (e.g., alginate, polyacrylic acid, chitosan-eth-ylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA , or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), cationic (e.g., chitosans), or nonionic mucoadhesive polymers. Also, cova-lent-binding polymers such as the thiolated polymers or thiomers can be used. Thiomers are formed by the...

Bioadhesive drug delivery systems

Vasopressin (DGAVP) in the vertically perfused intestinal loop model of the rat.72 Chitosan-EDTA conjugates have also been synthesized, have been reported to have excellent mucoadhesive properties as well as protease inhibitor properties, and may function as penetration enhancers.73 Minitablets of salom calcitonin, chitosan, and chitosan conjugates have been made, and plasma calcium levels were monitored after oral administration to rats. The strongest and most sustained reduction in plasma calcium levels was observed (Figure 7.2) with a formulation containing chitosan-pepstatin A conjugate, chitosan-4 thiobutylamidine conjugate, and reduced glutathione.74 Lectin-conjugated silicon microdevices that have bioadhesive properties and can allow highly localized and unidirectional release of drugs have also been investigated these micromachined drug delivery vehicles can be made using microfabrication technology.75

Use of Chromatin Immunoprecipitation for Investigating TR Action in Development

Lysis buffer 1 sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 10 mM EDTA, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.1, 1 mM PMSF, 1 g mL aprotinin, 1 g mL pepstatin A. Add protease inhibitors just before use. 5. ChIP dilution buffer 0.01 SDS, 1.1 Triton X-100, 1.2 mM EDTA, 16.7 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.1, 167 mM NaCl, 1 mM PMSF, 1 ig mL aprotinin, 1 g mL pepstatin A. Add protease inhibitors just before use. 6. Salmon sperm DNA protein A agarose slurry 500 L packed beads, 200 g sonicated salmon sperm DNA, 500 g bovine serum albumin (BSA), 1.5 mg recombinant protein A as a 50 gel slurry in Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer containing 0.05 sodium azide. 7. TE 10 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0. 9. Low salt complex wash buffer 0.1 SDS, 1 Triton X-100, 2 mM EDTA, 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.1, 150 mM NaCl. 10. High salt complex wash buffer 0.1 SDS, 1 Triton X-100, 2 mM EDTA, 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.1, 500 mM NaCl. 11. LiCl immune complex wash buffer 0.25 M LiCl, 1 Nonidet P-40 (NP40), 1 deoxycholate, 1 mM EDTA, 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.1.

Edman degradation See Edman reagent

EDTA Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Often used as the disodium salt. Chelator of divalent cations logi0 Kapp for calcium at pH 7 is 7.27 (5.37 for magnesium) See EGTA. EDTA-light chain Myosin light chains (18 kDa) from scallop muscle (two per pair of heavy chains), easily extracted by calcium chelation. Although the EDTA-light chains do not bind calcium they confer calcium sensitivity on the myosin heavy chains.

EGS See external guide sequence

EGTA Ethyleneglycol-bis (2-aminoethyl) N,N,N,N,-tetra-acetic acid) Like EDTA a chelator of divalent cations but with a higher affinity for calcium (log Kapp 6.68 at pH 7) than magnesium (log Kapp 1.61 at pH 7). Will also bind other divalent cations. Note the 'apparent association constant', Kapp, is used because protons compete for binding and the association constant varies according to pH. Thus,

Mechanism of ocular penetration

Ocular absorption can take place through the mucous membrane of the conjunctiva and the nasolacrimal system. For insulin, the nasal mucosa has been found to contribute four times more than the conjunctival mucosa to systemic absorption after ocular administration.176 As peptides and proteins are hydrophilic drugs, they do not partition well into the cell membrane. Their primary transport pathway is paracellular (i.e., leakage through the intercellular lateral spaces). However, some transcellular absorption by pinocytosis or through noncorneal (scleral) absorption can also take place. Chelation of calcium or inflammation of the eye can cause a widening of the intercellular spaces, thus opening tight junctions and enhancing the paracel-lular transport of peptides and proteins.170,177

Ocular route for systemic delivery

In the presence of penetration enhancers, therapeutic amounts of insulin can be absorbed through the nasolacrimal system following ocular administration. Several studies have now shown that control of blood glucose levels is possible using insulin eyedrops.176 183 187-193 In a study that evaluated several enhancers, their order of efficacy to improve insulin absorption was saponin fusidic acid polyoxyethylene 9-lauryl ether ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) glycocholate decamethonium Tween 20. Although saponin was most effective, the lowest possible level effective enough for increased insulin absorption should be used to avoid local irritation.189 In a chronic study, insulin eyedrops with polyoxyethylene 9-lauryl ether or Brij-78 were instilled into rabbit eyes twice a day over a 3-month period. During this period, no tolerance or allergic responses developed. Also, no sign of eye irritation, corneal damage, hyperemia, conjunctivitis, or iritis was observed, suggesting that...

Comparative evaluation of mucosal routes

Hydrolysis of enkephalins in nonoral mucosal homogenates has been reported to be very similar to their hydrolysis in ileal homogenates. The principal peptidases responsible for hydrolysis were aminopeptidases, but dipeptidyl peptidase and dipeptidyl carboxylpeptidase were also involved. The enkephalins were hydrolyzed most rapidly in rectal and buccal homo-genates, followed by the nasal and then the vaginal homogenates, but the differences were small.214 The use of enzyme inhibitors and dihydrofusi-dates to facilitate the transmucosal delivery of Leu-Enk through rabbit mucosae has been investigated. Phosphato-dihydrofusidate had the greatest effect for all the mucosae, and STDHF had a significant effect only on the rectal permeation. Sodium glycodihydrofusidate was also used and had significant effects on rectal and vaginal mucosae. A combination of amastatin, EDTA, and thimerosal had the greatest stabilizing effect when Leu-Enk was treated with an extract of the enzymes in the...

Indicators Of Exposure To Xenobiotics

The two major kinds of samples analyzed for xenobiotics exposure are blood and urine. Both of these sample types are analyzed for systemic xenobiotics, which are those that are transported in the body and metabolized in various tissues. Xenobiotic substances, their metabolites, and their adducts are absorbed into the body and transported through it in the bloodstream. Therefore, blood is of unique importance as a sample for biological monitoring. Blood is not a simple sample to process, and subjects often object to the process of taking it. Upon collection, blood may be treated with an anticoagulant, usually a salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and processed for analysis as whole blood. It may also be allowed to clot and be centrifuged to remove solids the liquid remaining is blood serum. A method has been published for the determination of a variety of metals in diluted blood and serum using inductively coupled plasma atomization with mass spectrometric detection.3 Blood...

Aggregation behavior of insulin

Chelation of zinc ions by EDTA has been reported to cause hexamers to deaggregate to dimers. Because three dimers result from dissociation of hexamer, the enzymatic degradation of insulin by a-chymotrypsin was enhanced threefold in the presence of EDTA.107 Similarly, sodium glycocho-late, a bile salt, may be capable of dissociating insulin oligomers to monomers, and this may partly explain the role of bile salts as enhancers of insulin bioavailability across mucosal barriers. In studies with zinc insulin (hexamers) and sodium insulin (dimers), the rate of degradation by a-chymot-rypsin in the presence of bile salts was increased by a factor of 5.4- and 2.1-fold, respectively. These values are close to the 6- and 2-fold increases that would be expected by the complete dissociation of hexamers and dimers to monomers.108

Meat and micronutrients 9111 Iron in meat

The enhancing effect of meat on non-haem iron bioavailability is commonly referred to as the 'meat factor'. The exact mechanism by which the 'meat factor' works still remains unknown despite the fact that numerous efforts have concentrated on this topic. Research indicates that the mechanism of the 'meat factor' may not be due solely to a single factor but due to a number of contributing factors which work together promoting non-haem iron bioavailability. These factors include the release of cysteine-rich small molecular weight peptides during the proteolysis of meat the ability of these peptides to reduce ferric iron to the more soluble ferrous iron the chelation of soluble non-haem iron by these peptides and the ability of meat to promote gastric acid secretion and gastrin release better than other food components do (Mulvihill, 1996).

Arsenic in drinking water

So what can the people of this region do One answer is to dig deeper wells that go below 200 m or shallower wells that reach down only 20 m. In this way the contaminated layer of ground water can be avoided. Once the population has access to uncontaminated water then the arsenic in their body is quickly lost indeed giving them anti-arsenic chelating agents is not necessary because the body will detoxify itself. Those who display the skin conditions associated with arsenic can be treated with lotions and antibacterial ointments and slowly the condition will improve. The Indian government has issued chlorination tablets that will oxidize the arsenic in water, converting it from AsO33- to AsO43-, which forms an insoluble salt with the iron which is also present in the water.

Watersoluble vitamins

Thiamin is unstable in alkaline solutions and becomes increasingly unstable as the pH increases. The stability of the vitamin in low pH solutions such as fortified fruit drinks is very good. In common with that of some other vitamins, the stability of thiamin is adversely affected by the presence of copper ions. This effect can be reduced by the addition of metal-chelating compounds such as calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (EDTA). The heavy metals only appear to influence thiamin stability when they are capable of forming complex anions with constituents of the medium. Work with sequestrants has shown that ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (EDTA) has a significant effect on the reduction of ascorbic acid oxidation, with the optimal level of EDTA required to inhibit the oxidation of vitamin C in blackcurrant juice being a mole ratio of EDTA to Cu + Fe of approximately 2.3.15,16 Unfortunately, EDTA is not a permitted sequestrant for fruit juices in many countries. The amino...

Chromatographic Purification

First change 250 mL 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, 1 M urea, 5 (w v) sucrose, and 1 mM PMSF, pH 8.5. b. Second change 250 mL 50 mM Tris-HCl, 0.5 mM EDTA, 0.5 M urea, and 2.5 (w v) sucrose, pH 8.5. c. Third change 250 mL 10 mM Tris-HCl, 0.5 mM EDTA, 0.25 M urea, and 1 (w v) sucrose, pH 8.5. 3. Do not freeze the purified inclusion bodies to be used at a later date for solubilization. It is always advisable to isolate, purify, and refold the protein into a soluble form without freezing the protein. For quantification of the amount of protein in inclusion bodies, completely solubilize them in detergent solution (1 SDS in the case of r-hGH), and undertake a protein estimation using the detergent-compatible protein assay kit as described. Add detergent to the protein standard solution to minimize error. The presence of EDTA interferes with the Micro-BCA protein assay.

Minamata Bay disaster

Treatment for those afflicted with Minamata disease consisted first of giving chelating agents such as BAL or EDTA (see Glossary) that would bind strongly to the metal and aid its excretion. If and when the patient showed signs of responding and recovery, then large doses of B vitamins were given in the hope of saving undamaged nerve tissue. However, these methods of treatment had limited success and even those who recovered were severely handicapped, and often badly deformed, for the rest of their lives. When cells of the central nervous system are damaged they never recover. Victims had to resign themselves to a life of trembling, clumsiness, tiredness, sleepless nights, and partial blindness. A few did improve with time, but others slowly deteriorated.

Mechanisms of copper absorption

Copper uptake by the intestinal mucosa is strongly influenced by chelation of copper ions by amino acids. Chelation may even be a mandatory requirement for copper absorption.64 Yet, although dietary amino acids can enhance copper absorption, when present in excess they may result in copper malabsorption, possibly by competing with binding proteins on the enterocyte membrane. The ratio of chelate to metal may determine whether there is a net inhibition or promotion of copper uptake. In one human study, methionine supplementation was found to increase copper absorption.72 Animal studies have provided less straightforward results. One study of rats found that excess dietary methionine decreased indices of copper status.73 Jejunal copper uptake has been found to be decreased by high levels of dietary proline or histidine,74 while excessive cystine and cysteine have been shown to exacerbate the effects of dietary copper deficiency.75 Cysteine is thought to decrease copper bioavailability...

Effects of lead poisoning

Lead poisoning can be readily detected and once detected it can be treated. It can be detected in a number of ways, from simply measuring the amount of lead present in the body to measuring specific biochemical markers (biomarkers) in the blood, for example. The metabolic disturbances involved in the interference with the production of haemoglobin can be used for diagnostic tests. Treatment of lead poisoning is by removal of the source of lead and possibly the use of chelating agents which bind to and remove the lead from the body (except the bone) by allowing it to be eliminated into the urine.

Penetration enhancers

Penetration enhancers can enhance oral absorption by their action on the transcellular or paracellular pathway. For effects on the transcellular pathway, surfactants and fatty acids may alter membrane lipid organization and may thus increase oral transport. Surfactants can be incorporated into lipid bilayers, thus changing the physical properties of the cell membranes. For effects on the paracellular pathway, chelating agents can disrupt the integrity of occluding junctional complexes by chelating calcium or magnesium around tight junctions.76 Exposure of Caco-2 cell monolayers to SDS has been

Interactions Reducing Absorption

Metallic cations significantly reduce oral absorption of fluoroquinolones by chelation in the gut. Coadministration of antacids notably combinations of aluminum and magnesium hydroxide (Maalox) from 2 hours before to 6 hours after dosing consistently reduces bioavailability by 30-90 . Sucralfate has similar effects. Such combinations may result in therapeutic failure 109 . Oral iron and, to a lesser extent, multivitamin-zinc complexes reduce quinolone bioavailability 110 .

Results And Discussion

Viral particles released to the culture medium by BEV-infected Equine dermis (Ederm) cells were concentrated by centrifugation over a 20 sucrose cushion at 25000 rpm for 2 h. The pellet was resuspended in TEN buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1 mM EDTA, 150 mM NaCl) and layered over a 15-45 sucrose gradient that was centrifuged at 25000 rpm for 2 h. The fraction containing the virions was concentrated by ultracentrifugation. The characteristic polymorphism of torovirus particles was observed after negative staining of the purified preparation, and spherical, oval, elongated, kidney-shaped particles could be seen (Figure 1A, B). At higher magnification, surface projections or peplomers could be observed with more detail (Figure 1C, D).

Aquatic Chemistry

Figure 2.6 summarizes the more important environmental chemical aspects of aquatic chemistry. As shown in this figure, a number of chemical phenomena occur in water. Many aquatic chemical processes are influenced by the action of algae and bacteria in water. For example, it is shown that algal photosynthesis fixes inorganic carbon from HCO- ion in the form of biomass (represented as CH2O ), in a process that also produces carbonate ion, CO2-. Carbonate undergoes an acid-base reaction to produce OH- ion and raise the pH, or it reacts with Ca2+ ion to precipitate solid CaCO3. Most of the many oxidation-reduction reactions that occur in water are mediated (catalyzed) by bacteria. For example, bacteria convert inorganic nitrogen largely to ammonium ion, NH+, in the oxygen-deficient (anaerobic) lower layers of a body of water. Near the surface, which is aerobic because O2 is available from the atmosphere, bacteria convert inorganic nitrogen to nitrate ion, NO-. Metals in water may be bound...


Because Wilson's disease is invariably fatal if untreated and because effective treatment resolves most problems and allows prolonged survival, every patient with Wilson's disease must begin uninterrupted lifelong therapy. A low copper diet is most important during the first year of therapy, with avoidance of such foods as shellfish, nuts, mushrooms, legumes, and organ meats such as liver. The mainstay of therapy is chelation of copper and the drug D-penicillamine is usually started first. Dosing of 250-500 mg day is escalated in 250-mg increments every 4-7 days to a total of 1-1.5 g day in divided doses given 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. The drug chelates hepatic copper and allows rapid urinary excretion. Although most patients tolerate D-penicillamine, it often has hypersensitivity-type side effects, some of which are too serious to allow its continued use. In such cases another effective chelating agent, trientine, can be used. A third orally active chelating agent,...

Buffer system

Besides pH control, the buffer system used can also affect the solubility of the protein. A drastic example is the solubility of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). At pH 6.0 and a buffer concentration of 20 mM, the rank order for the solubility of tPA was observed to be imidazole phosphate histidine succinate ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) citrate, with a 50-fold difference in solubility from imidazole to citrate. Furthermore, the solubility was dependent on ionic strength, increasing about 15-fold as the amount of sodium chloride in a succinate buffer was increased from 0 to 0.3 M.21 When the salt concentration is much greater than that of the buffer, the salt may become the effective buffer in the reaction.20

Amino acids

Small neutral amino acids (e.g., Gly) or those containing charged side chains (e.g., Asp, Glu, Arg, Lys, His) are most effective in increasing solubility. In contrast, large amino acids with apolar side chains either may have no effect or may even decrease solubility. Again, the mechanism is not clear, but they may bind directly to protein or may exert an indirect effect by chelation of metal ions.25,55

Mucosal permeability

Increased formation of circulating IgA-CC in HSPN can be the consequence of transmucosal penetration of exogenous antigens. The intestinal permeability to 51Cr EDTA is increased in HSPN (Davin and Mahieu, 1992). This increase is correlated with circulating IgA-CC plasma levels and with haematuria as well as with systemic symptoms in HSPN. Transiently increased lung transfer for carbon monoxide (TCLO) has been reported in acute phases (Chaussain et al., 1992). The reason for this increased mucosal permeability remains unknown. Its reversibility suggests secondary alterations of the mucosal capillaries due to IgA-CC. Increased penetration of antigens inside the human organism may also result from a lack of specific mucosal IgA production as suggested by De Fijter and co-workers (1996) in IgAN. The latter authors have indeed shown an impairment of the specific IgA1 response in mucosae and blood after intranasal immunization with cholera toxin subunit B as a novel antigen in adult...


Although the contribution of the paracellular pathway to drug absorption plays a minor role for high-absorption compound, the converse is true for low-absorption compounds. To characterize the contribution to permeation across Caco-2 monolayers of the paracellu-lar pathway the permeability resistance of this pathway can be modulated by the addition of a calcium-chelating agents such as EGTA or EDTA, which causes opening of tight junctions.78 Usually, the extracellular concentrations of EDTA or EGTA must be at least 0.5 mM to open the paracellular transport pathway.78-80 For example, 1.26 mM EDTA increased the permeation across Caco-2 monolayers of ranitidine by 5- to 20-fold without affecting the permeation of ondansetron.81 This indicates that transport pathways for ranitidine and ondansetron are paracellular and transcellular, respectively.81 respectively. That Caco-2 monolayers exhibited the most dramatic decrease in TEER in the presence of 10 mM EDTA indicates that Caco-2...

Organolead Compounds

The toxicological action of tetraethyllead is different from that of inorganic lead. As one manifestation of this difference, chelation therapy is ineffective for the treatment of tetraethyllead poisoning. The toxic action of tetraethyllead appears to involve its metabolic conversion to the triethyl form.

Barrier function

The barrier function is disrupted under conditions that compromise the molecular organization of the membrane. Treatment with EDTA removes divalent cations that cross-bridge LPS phosphate groups and enhance LPS-LPS association. Mutations affecting the biosynthesis of the heptose-containing backbone region of LPS result in a deep rough phenotype, characterized by the reduced abundance of outer-membrane porins and appearance of substantial amounts of phos-phatidylethanolamine in the external leaflet of the outer membrane. Polymyxin and other polycations also disrupt LPS organization and the barrier function by electrostatic interaction with the polyanionic LPS. Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium resistant to polymyxin have markedly increased amounts of the aminosugar 4-aminoarabinose in their lipid A, thus reducing LPS acidity and binding to added polycations.


Oxidation may be minimized by the use of antioxidants such as phenolic compounds butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), propyl gallate, and vitamin E), reducing agents (methionine, ascorbic acid, sodium sulfite, thioglycerol, and thioglycolic acid), or chelating agents ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and thioglycolic acid).51 The choice of antioxidants may actually be very limited as the phenolic compounds are not sufficiently soluble in water, and some reducing agents may induce degradation in the long run.55 Methionine oxidation in a recombinant monoclonal antibody was prevented by antioxidants such as methionine, sodium thiosulfate, catalase, or platinum. However, an adduct was formed when thiosulfate was used. The molar ratio of protein to antioxidant required to inhibit temperature-induced oxidation with methionine was 1 5.53


It is useful to subdivide antidotes into four classes chemical, receptor, dispositional, and functional. Chemical antidotes react with the poison, resulting in formation of a compound with lesser toxicity or reduced absorbability. An example is calcium chloride for oxalic acid poisoning. This antidote forms calcium oxalate when it reacts with oxalic acid and the calcium oxalate has low solubility which effectively limits its toxicity. Metal chelating agents are also examples of this type of antidote. Receptor antidotes compete with the poison for receptor sites. Naloxone, for example, reverses opiate-induced respiratory depression by binding to receptors and, thus, displaces the opiate from the receptor. Physostigmine also belongs to this category, in a manner of speaking. It inhibits the activity of cholinesterase. This action limits the poisonous effects of atropine and other anti-cholinergic compounds, which extends the activity of cholinesterase to harmful limits. Calcium EDTA Lead

Sperm nucleases

That cleave the exogenous and the genomic DNA. The nuclease response requires challenges with much higher DNA concentrations in ejaculated sperm compared to that in epididymal spermatozoa, eventually leading to cell death in both groups (Spadafora, 1998). Yanagimachi and colleagues have shown that ethylene diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) and ethylene glycol bis-2-aminoethyl ether-N,N',N , n'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) treatment of spermatozoa prior to intracytoplasmic sperm injection can prevent paternal chromosomal damage (Kaneko et al., 2003 Kusakabe et al., 2001 Tateno et al., 2000), suggesting that some endogenous nuclease does exist in spermatozoa. Finally, our laboratory has shown that fully mature spermatozoa from hamster, mouse, and human have the ability to digest their DNA into loop-sized fragments of 50 kb or so (Sotolongo et al., 2003,2005). More recent, unpublished data from our laboratory suggests that these nucleases are associated with the sperm nuclear matrix, and can be...