The above bivariate genetic analyses have also been performed for reading deficits and ADHD. ADHD has commonly been diagnosed in the United States by asking teachers and/or parents to rate their children on a list of symptoms for attention deficits and hyperactivity. If a sufficiently high number of symptoms are checked, the children are categorized as ADHD. Researchers in the United States have noted a high rate of ADHD among children with dyslexia, ranging from about 20% to 40% across studies. We now have evidence from the Colorado twin study that part of this comorbidity is due to shared genetic influences, particularly for dyslexia and the attention-deficit symptoms (Willcutt et al., 2002).
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