Natural Dietary Supplements
Changes in populations' lifestyles make new demands on food producers. Producers now have to try to meet requirements for food products for diabetics or people with allergies (so called 'functional foods,' including foods for special dietary use, medical foods, and dietary supplements), as well as having to expand their offering of food products for people who prefer heat-and-serve food or so-called 'organic' (practically non-processed) food. New classes of food products are being developed constantly to fulfil specific demands of particular segments of the consumer market. These developments can, however, have an impact on food safety. In the example of meeting consumers' demands for refrigerated ready-to-eat products, one result has been an increase in intoxication caused by enterotoxins of opportunistic pathogens, such as Clostridium perfringens, the spores which may survive such drastic conditions as cooking at 100 C for one hour (Novak and Juneja, 2002).
This area has received much attention since these initial reports, and effects of chromium nutritional supplements on body composition and body mass are reviewed in Chapter 4. In 1995, questions arose about the safety of Cr(pic)3 as a dietary supplement as Wetterhahn and coworkers showed that the compound caused clasotogenic damage in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell model 77 . When intracellular chromium levels generated using CrCl3 or chromium nicotinate were comparable to those generated using Cr(pic)3, no chromosome aberrations were found. Wetterhahn and coworkers also suggested that taking Cr(pic)3 supplements for 5 years could result in liver tissue concentrations of 13 M 78 . The investigation of the potential toxic effects of the use of chromium picolinate or other Cr(III) compounds as nutritional supplements or pharmaceuticals has been an active and controversial area of investigation. The toxicology of Cr(III) is addressed in Chapters 10-13.
Alternative treatment Generally, therapy with procedures or agents that are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or other certifying authority. Alternative medical treatments have been used by a significant proportion of people with HIV, often to complement approved treatments. Some alternative treatments have been investigated in laboratory settings and observational studies, and a few have undergone clinical trials others are being used without having undergone any studies. Alternative treatments are available for a variety of conditions, including weakened immune system, stress, drug abuse, mental disorders, common health problems, pregnancy, childbirth and infant care, dental care, eye, ear, nose and throat disorders, cancer and heart disorders, and aging. Alternative medicine combines many different Eastern and Western medical specialties ayurveda medicine, Chinese medicine, acupuncture and acupressure, nutrition, exercise, NATUROPATHIC MEDICINE, HOMEOPATHY,...
Buyers' club A nonprofit group that makes available underground drugs (drugs not approved by the Food and Drug Administration and thus not available in the United States). Many of these drugs are used abroad for purposes not related to AIDS or HIV infection and their effectiveness as treatment for these conditions is only speculative. Many underground groups, some of which are approved in other countries and some not, carry nutritional supplements and vitamins, as well as minerals, enzymes, and herbal or chinese therapies. persons considering joining a buyers' group should ask questions and explore thoroughly the standards and procedures of any group offering unapproved therapies before buying a drug from them. Buyers' clubs offer those infected with HIV the opportunity to take drugs that might not otherwise become available for years, but the drugs are untested and could be useless or toxic.
Of pyridoxine (Department of Health, 1991). Intestinal absorption takes place mainly in the jejunum by non-saturable, passive diffusion of the non-phosphorylated forms of the vitamin. Post-absorptive phosphorylation of all three forms is catalysed by pyridoxal kinase and the phosphorylation constitutes a form of cellular trapping in intestinal cells and other tissues (liver, muscles and brain) as the charge on the phosphate hinders efflux through the cell membrane. Pyridoxine exhibits greater stability than other forms of the vitamin. As the hydrochloride salt, it is used in dietary supplements and food fortification because of its stability, comparative ease of manufacture and low cost (Gregory, 2001).
There is concern among some nutritionists about the possible adverse health effects of low selenium intakes and steps have been taken in some countries to protect the population against them. In Finland the law requires that selenium be added to all fertilisers and, as a result, the selenium status of the population has been more than doubled in recent years. In New Zealand the law permits but does not require farmers to use selenium-enriched top dressings on grazing land, to combat selenium deficiency in farm animals. Self-medication with selenium dietary supplements is widely practised by individuals, and is actively promoted by the pharmaceutical industry and the media in many countries (Reilly, 1996b).
Folate also can be obtained from dietary supplements, such as folic acid tablets and multivitamins with folic acid, and from fortified breakfast cereals. An estimated 2,500 babies were born in the United States each year with this condition, and the FDA panel estimates that this number could be cut in half if women consumed the suggested daily allowance of folic acid (0.4 milligrams). The average women ingests only 0.2 milligrams of the substance each day the vitamin is found in green leafy vegetables, dried beans, liver, citrus juices, nuts, avocados, and cereals.
Summary Researchers investigated whether taking a dietary supplement that contained omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA's) would alleviate and or reduce the frequency of epileptic seizures in people with central nervous system diseases who were taking anticonvulsant drugs. Participants were patients hospitalized in Israel, all of whom had profound mental retardation and epilepsy secondary to another primary central nervous system disease. Researchers developed a spread containing 65 percent n-3 PUFA's that was added to the daily diet. Of the 21 patients, only 5 were willing to eat the spread. They ate it at breakfast for 6 consecutive months. Researchers examined their medical features, drug therapy, and seizure frequency before and after the 6-month trial. All five patients showed significant improvement and alleviation in seizure frequency and strength. There were no adverse effects noted among any of the participants. The researchers conclude that n-3 PUFA's can alleviate...
It is the basis for federal regulation of testing AIDS drugs. The act prohibited interstate commerce in misbranded and adulterated foods, drinks, and drugs. The power to administer the law was placed in the Agriculture Department's Bureau of Chemistry. Today, the food and drug administration (FDA) administers a broad range of legislation, including the Public Health Service Act (1944), the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (1960), the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (1966), the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act (1968), the Drug Listing Act of 1972, the Infant Formula Act of 1980, the Orphan Drug Act of 1983 and its amendments of 1985 and 1988, the Federal Anti-Tampering Act (1983), the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act (1984), the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987, the Health omnibus Programs Extension of 1988, the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (1990), the FDA Revitaliza-tion Act (1990), the Safe Medical Devices...
An alkaloid present in Ephedra sinica, commonly known as ma huang used as anti-asthmatic, nasal decongestant, weight-reducing agent, and a stimulant. The plant is a component of many dietary supplements advertised as energy-boosters and calorie-burning. Ma huang also contains other alkaloids such as (+)-pseudoephedrine, (-)-norephedrine, (+)-norpseudoephedrine, (-)-N-methylephedrine, and (+)-N-methylpseudoephedrine. For each of these compounds an enantiomer is possible, which, however, does not occur in the plant. Therefore, detection of (+)-ephedrine, (-)-pseudoephedrine, or a racemic ephedrine suggests that a given extract or preparation might have been adulterated fortified with less expensive and less active synthetic alkaloids 50,51,53 .
Folic acid is found naturally in green, leafy vegetables and in orange juice. In 1998 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration required the addition of folic acid to enriched grain products (such as breakfast cereals, breads, pastas, and rice), designed to provide an additional 100 micrograms of folic acid to a woman's daily diet. Still, to reach the recommended level of 400 micrograms daily, a vitamin supplement is usually necessary.
The NIH maintains an office dedicated to patient nutrition and diet. The National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) offers a searchable bibliographic database called the IBIDS (International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements). The IBIDS contains over 460,000 scientific citations and summaries about dietary supplements and nutrition as well as references to published international, scientific literature on dietary supplements such as vitamins, minerals, and botanicals.50 IBIDS is available to the public free of charge through the ODS Internet page 50 Adapted from http ods.od.nih.gov. IBIDS is produced by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the National Institutes of Health to assist the public, healthcare providers, educators, and researchers in locating credible, scientific information on dietary supplements. IBIDS was developed and will be maintained through an interagency partnership with the Food and Nutrition Information Center of the...
Lastly, a chemical does not have to be directly DNA damaging to cause cancer. There are chemicals that are not genotoxic or mutagenic but are still carcinogenic. Examples include hormones 78 , immunosuppressants 79 , the metalloid arsenic 80 , and cadmium 81 with mechanisms beyond the scope of this review. Epigenetic carcinogens that do not cause direct DNA damage are not detected by genotoxicity and mutagenicity assays. The Cr3+ compounds commonly used in dietary supplements have not been analyzed for epigenetic mechanisms, with the exception of chromic chloride (vide infra) however, they have been screened to some extent in short-term in vitro assays for mutagenicity and clastogenicity, with varying results. The most commonly studied supplements have been chromium nicotinate, chromic chloride, and chromium picolinate.
Drug labels contain important information about ingredients, uses, warnings, and directions which you should take the time to read and understand. Labels also include warnings about possible drug interactions. Further, drug labels may change as new information becomes available. This is why it's especially important to read the label every time you use a medication. When your doctor prescribes a new drug, discuss all over-the-counter and prescription medications, dietary supplements, vitamins, botanicals, minerals and herbals you take as well as the foods you eat. Ask your pharmacist for the package insert for each prescription drug you take. The package insert provides more information about potential drug interactions.
In summary, of all the Cr3+ dietary supplements that have been tested for genotoxic-ity and mutagenicity to date, CrPic is the most active. The dietary supplement CrPic is genotoxic, clastogenic, and mutagenic in short-term assays, and thus far the only studies attempting to refute the published reports on genotoxicity were funded by the supplement manufacturer. In vivo testing, including the results of the NTP's long-term carcinogenicity studies in rodents, will offer further information for risk assessment however, further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind the biochemistry of CrPic will also be needed to evaluate the data as a whole. Lastly, negative results in standard in vitro assays do not guarantee the safety of Cr3+ supplements. For example, chromic chloride is often negative in vitro, yet in animals it is a preconceptional and transgenerational carcinogen that acts through epigenetic mechanisms. Other Cr3+ compounds have not been tested for epigenetic activity. In...
This category of CAM includes natural and biological-based practices, interventions, and products, many of which overlap with conventional medicine's use of dietary supplements. This category includes herbal, special dietary, orthomolecular, and individual biological therapies.
One of the controversies surrounding the use of Cr(III)-containing nutritional supplements concerns the proposed roles of such supplements as antioxidants that reduce the diabetes-related oxidative stress 93-96 , or pro-oxidants that promote the oxidative stress through the formation of ROS 97-99 . Typical reported examples of the both actions of Cr(III) are described below. The dual action of Cr(III) as an antioxidant or a pro-oxidant, described above, can be explained based on the redox reactions in Schemes 4 and 5. The reactions of Cr(III) complexes with lipid peroxides (ROOH in Scheme 4) are probably responsible for the abilities of these compounds to reduce the levels of lipid peroxidation 93-96, 100 , but these reactions produce other strong oxidants such as Cr(V) species (Scheme 4). These species, as well as the peroxyl (ROO ) radicals formed in the redox cycling reactions of certain Cr(III) complexes (Scheme 5), are probably responsible for the increases in the oxidative...
Finally, a related topic is whether antioxidant vitamins, B-vitamin supplementation to lower homocysteine, or various fatty acids can promote CV health in diabetes mellitus. All have been associated with lower risk in epidemiologic analysis, although no consistent findings have emerged from large-scale randomized trials in people who have diabetes mellitus 42-44 . The ORIGIN trial will evaluate the effect of omega fatty acids in patients who have diabetes mellitus and predia-betes and CVD risk factors ASCEND (A Study of Cardiovascular Events in Diabetes) also will do so in patients who have diabetes mellitus in the setting of primary prevention in a 2 x 2 factorial design in which the second randomization will be to aspirin, 100 mg d, versus placebo 45 . SEARCH and HPS II will randomize subjects to various vitamin supplements or placebo to examine whether these relatively inexpensive interventions provide clinical benefit to reduce CVD as well.
Recently a paradigm has emerged in which recommendations are being made for intakes of dietary substances that are not considered essential because of their apparent health benefits, for example omega-3 fatty acids for cardiovascular health and fiber for gastrointestinal health. Also, dietary intake recommendations for some essential nutrients are being made or being suggested that far exceed those required to prevent deficiency pathology because of apparent health benefits, for example calcium to prevent bone loss and selenium for the prevention of some types of cancer. Terms such as functional foods, nutraceuticals, and phytonutrients are prevalent in discussions of diet in the promotion of health not involving the prevention of deficiency pathology. Thus, the lack of evidence for chromium essentiality does not preclude the concept that chromium is a bioactive element, and when supplemented in higher than physiological (supra nutritional) amounts may have beneficial effects....
Few side effects are associated with the use of ginkgo as a dietary supplement, although it does reduce the ability of blood to clot, potentially leading to more serious conditions, such as hemorrhag-ing. This possibility of hemorrhaging may increase if ginkgo biloba is taken in combination with other anticoagulants, such as aspirin.
Maintenance of the integrity of intercellular cement in many tissues, especially capillary walls. Deficiency leads to scurvy, a disorder of skin and bone that causes capillary bleeding. Except guinea pigs, primates are the only mammals who cannot make it in their bodies. Few nutrients are as active in human metabolism as ascorbic acid. It is known to be the most important water-soluble antioxidant and cofactor in cellular metabolism. Researchers have clearly demonstrated that the immune system is sensitive to intake levels of vitamin C and that numerous immunological functions are dependent on it for their mediation. Vitamin C is possibly the most often used dietary supplement, particularly by immune-suppressed individuals and those suffering from other degenerative illnesses. Vitamin C can be purchased in tablet, capsule, or powdered form. If vitamin C powder is taken dissolved in water or juice, it should be drunk with a straw, as ascorbic acid can, over time, erode tooth enamel....
Questions regarding the safety of Cr(III) dietary supplements are valid and necessary because these substances are not regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), recommended doses are much higher than normal dietary intakes, the general ability of Cr(III) to damage DNA may play a role in Cr(VI)-induced cancers, and the chemistry of Cr(III) is controlled by the metal's ligand environment, thus one form of Cr(III) may be genotoxic while another produces no damage to DNA. The general evaluation of Cr3+ dietary supplements is important because they are taken by many people and are largely unregulated by the US government. The US FDA estimates that 158 million Americans take some form of dietary supplement. It is estimated that 10 million Americans take some form of Cr supplement 1 , and in 1999 US sales of Cr3+ supplements were reported to be second only to those of calcium 2 . Thus within the general class of dietary supplements, chromium supplements are one of the most...
Another route to better animal health is through improved feed and nutrition. Much of traditional agriculture is devoted to delivering suitable corn, hay, and other fodder to barnyard animals, but high-tech industries have come to the table in recent years to improve the plant-food products or to add dietary supplements to animal feed. Such efforts are laudatory in principle, but they can sometimes backfire with dire consequences, as evidenced by an ongoing debacle in antibiotic use.
The patient denied jaundice, pruritus, and change in appetite, but reported a 6-7-lb weight gain. Additionally, she denied a history of hepatitis and any other liver or gallbladder disease in the past. The patient never smoked, used alcohol, or illicit drugs. There was no history of blood transfusions, tattoos placed, or multiple sexual partners. She had not been recently exposed to anyone with known viral hepatitis. Her family history was positive for hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus, but negative for liver and biliary tract disease. Her current medications included metformin, glipizide, losartan, metoclo-pramide, and aspirin. She used no over-the-counter medications, including herbal or dietary supplements.
Most of the copper in foods is found as a component of macromolecules. Inorganic mineral salts are present in dietary supplements but otherwise probably do not contribute substantially to dietary copper intake.64 In the UK only 1-2 of adults report taking supplements containing copper65 although in the US the figure may be as high as 15 .17 The sulphate, nitrate, chloride and acetate are easily absorbed, but copper oxide and copper porphyrin are unavailable.63 Gastric acid can solubilise the carbonate and facilitate the release of copper from macromolecules.64
Although it is known that the distribution and processing of food can lead to a significant loss in nutritional quality, there are few instances where present evidence suggests there is a need to change current practices. There is very little evidence for nutritional deficiencies. In those cases where public health authorities have thought there is a potential problem, food supplementation with nutrients is a commonly adopted policy. The use of nutritional supplements is widespread. Whilst the focus of current interest is on the need to consider nutrients and other phytochemicals as protective against the development of disease in later life, the levels of intake that may be necessary to optimise protection are far from resolved at the present time.
The mechanism of chromium absorption and action has been recently revealed on a molecular level. After absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, chromium is transported to cells bound to the plasma protein transferrin. Insulin initiates chromium transport into the cells where it is bound to the oligopeptide apochromodulin. Apochromodulin, combined in a tetra-nuclear assembly of four Cr(III) atoms, forms the low-molecular weight oligopeptide chromodulin (MW 1500 Da) which is important in amplifying the insulin signaling effect. After binding to insulin-activated receptor, chromodulin increases tyrosine kinase activity and forms a part of intracellular portion of insulin receptor 9 . In a recent study conducted by Clodfelder et al. in 2004, the biomimetic cation Cr3O(O2CCH2CH3)6(H2O)3 + was found to imitate the oligopeptide chromod-ulin's ability to stimulate the tyrosine kinase activity of insulin receptor, increase insulin sensitivity, decrease plasma total concentrations, low-density...
Potatoes have been engineered with a transgene causing them to be 60 more starchy than regular potatoes, so they absorb less fat during frying. Citrus fruits are being engineered for reduced liminoid compounds responsible for bitterness. GM soybeans have been created whose oil content is shifted toward nutritious oleic acids and away from less desirable trans-fatty acids and saturated fats. Peanuts similarly modified for higher oleic acid content also appear to have a longer shelflife. Under investigation are transgenic tomatoes that may express higher levels of antioxidants, and other nutritional supplements such as lutein, which helps fight eye diseases. Experiments on GM soybeans have been aimed at alleviating an unpleasant consumer byproduct of bean consumption, flatulence.
Since the time of Hippocrates, doctors have understood the importance of diet and nutrition to patients' health and well-being. Since then, they have accumulated an impressive archive of studies and knowledge dedicated to this subject. Based on their experience, doctors and healthcare providers may recommend particular dietary supplements to patients with central pain syndrome. Any dietary recommendation is based on a patient's age, body mass, gender, lifestyle, eating habits, food preferences, and health condition. It is therefore likely that different patients with central pain syndrome may be given different recommendations. Some recommendations may be directly related to central pain syndrome, while others may be more related to the patient's general health. These recommendations, themselves, may differ from what official sources recommend for the average person. What Are Dietary Supplements 21 Dietary supplements are widely available through many commercial sources, including...
After five decades of research, the questions remain open on whether Cr(III) is required for normal glucose metabolism, and whether Cr(III)-containing dietary supplements are beneficial in the prevention and control of diabetes (see Sections B and D of this book). The following trends are emerging from the literature surveys published in 2002-2004 173-176 (i) Cr(III) supplementation does not cause statistically significant improvements in insulin-related metabolic parameters, and does not assist in weight loss or improvements in body composition in non-diabetic individuals and (ii) long-term treatments with high doses of Cr(III) (e.g., 200 gCr day as Cr(pic)3 for 2 months) The observations that (i) Cr(III) compounds can be oxidized to Cr(VI) species (probably via Cr(V) intermediates) under physiologically relevant conditions (Section 'Oxidation of Cr(III) complexes under physiological conditions') and (ii) Cr(VI) and Cr(V) compounds act as efficient PTP inhibitors in vitro (Section...
The dietary supplement chromium trispicolinate (CrPic) has been the most commercially successful chromium supplement. Chromium picolinate exists as a neutral 3 1, picolinate Cr3+ complex. It was first patented for use as a dietary supplement in 1982 97 . It can be synthesized by aqueous reaction of chromic chloride with three equivalents of picolinic acid 98 . At Cr3+ concentrations of 0.30M, filtered solutions left at 37 C crystallize over 24 hours to yield Cr(pic)3-H2O at 98 purity and 50 yield. It is also commercially available. It was structurally characterized by x-ray crystallography in 1992 99 . CrPic has been shown to be clastogenic, mutagenic, and genotoxic in some, but not all, of the standard assays that are used to predict carcinogens.
Encephalopathy The encephalopathy of liver failure has been termed portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE). Current theories explain PSE as an inability of the compromised liver to convert ammonia into urea, coupled with accumulation in plasma of aromatic amino acids (AAA) and depletion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). BCAA depletion is the result of their preferential utilization instead of AAA by muscle. The postulate is that the combination of increased plasma ammonia and an altered ratio of BCAA to AAA leads to generation of false neurotransmitters responsible for encephalo-pathy. The measurement of plasma ammonia (collected on ice and assayed immediately) has often been used to determine whether a patient has PSE. However, plasma ammonia concentrations are often unreliable, and it is not recommended that such measurements be used to follow a patient's course. To treat PSE, the removal of ammonia with oral lactulose therapy is usually effective. Lactulose is a nonabsorbable sugar...
A proposed role for LMWCr in insulin signaling is reviewed in Chapter 7. Intravenous treatment of rats with 20 g of chromium as LMWCr per day for 12 weeks has recently been shown to have little, if any, effect on rats 179 . Thus, in terms of its use as a dietary supplement or therapeutic compound, LMWCr may be recognized and readily excreted. Injection of chromodulin into rabbits has been shown to lead to rapid excretion of chromium, especially compared to use of other forms of chromium this is reflected in the mean tubular reabsorption rate for chromodulin of 23.5 in contrast to rates of 85.7 and 92.5 for chro-mate and chromium chloride, respectively 178 . This is probably also responsible for the extremely high LD50 for chromodulin injected into mice of 135 mg kg body mass 180 .
Vitamin A is an essential part of a healthy diet and a deficiency of it, which would be rare in the developed world, leads to defects in the eye, sterility, and increased susceptibility to infections and stunted growth in children. However, it is toxic if eaten in greater amounts than necessary. There are occasional cases of people eating meat such as seal liver, as well as cases where people become fanatical about taking dietary supplements and take too many vitamin pills, assuming that if one vitamin pill is good for them, ten must be even better.14 As we have seen, the principle of Paracelsus warns us of this. Some vitamins do have a very low toxicity, which means that taking more than the recommended dose, within reasonable limits, may not be hazardous. Vitamin A, however, causes a number of toxic effects, as indicated above, but it is also a teratogen, that is, it
Nutritional supplements are used in an attempt to restore natural levels of nutrients, to enhance resistance to opportunistic infections, and, when taken in high doses, to treat various HIV AIDS-related conditions. Vitamins, minerals, and other substances in this category include beta-carotene, calcium, folic acid, iron, vitamins B6 and B12, vitamin c, vitamin E, acidophilus, colostrum, coenzyme qio, L-lysine, n-acetylcysteine, and selenium.
Diminished levels of antioxidants, for example, mutations affecting the activities of antioxidant defense enzymes such as MnSOD, or glutathione peroxidase, or toxins that deplete antioxidant defenses. For example, many xenobiotics are metabolized by conjugation with GSH high doses can deplete GSH and cause oxidative stress even if the xenobiotic is not itself a generator of reactive species (1). Deficiencies in dietary minerals (e.g. Zn2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Se) and or antioxidants can also cause oxidative stress.
Herbal supplements are the leading form of alternative health therapy, and their use drives a multibillion-dollar industry. Even so, FDA regulation of herbs remains limited. According to the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, manufacturers do not have to prove that the supplement works. As long as the product label doesn't make unsupported scientific claims, manufacturers have a great deal of leeway in promoting their products' alleged benefits. The FDA must prove an herb unsafe to remove it from the market. In summary, with the exception of a possible mild benefit from valerian, very little scientific data backs the use of herbal treatments for insomnia, and some of them have significant potential adverse side effects. For more information about the safety and effectiveness of herbal therapies, I recommend looking at the websites of the NIH's Office of Dietary Supplements (ods.od.nih.gov), the American Herbal Products Association (ahpa.org), and Con-sumerLab...
Even so, FDA regulation of herbs remains limited. According to the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, herbs do not require FDA review. As long as the label does not make unsupported scientific claims, manufacturers have much leeway in promoting the alleged benefits of their products. The FDA must prove an herb unsafe to remove it from the market.
The purpose of this review is to summarize the reasons supporting genotoxicity testing of Cr3+ dietary supplements, to provide an overview of the most commonly used genotoxicity screening assays, and to review the existing data on genotoxicity studies of Cr3+ dietary supplements, including supporting studies that shed light on possible mechanisms of action underlying the reaction of Cr3+ with DNA.
Homocystinuria This metabolic disorder is caused by a deficiency of one of several enzymes needed by the brain for normal development. If untreated, it can lead to dislocated lenses of the eyes, mental retardation, skeletal abnormalities, and abnormal blood clotting. However, a special diet combined with dietary supplements may help prevent most of these problems.
Do these results sound too good to be true for a product you can buy without a prescription at a health food store The FDA thought so. It banned the sale of red yeast rice in 2001. You see, red yeast rice works on cholesterol because it contains lovastatin, which is the same chemical compound as the statin Mevacor (and its generic counterpart). The FDA distinguishes between nutritional supplements, which are not regulated by the government, and drugs, which are. In this case, they decided red yeast rice should be monitored as a drug. However, the manufacturer won its case against the FDA, so it is available now. The problem is that products vary in amount and kind of statin they contain. It's unclear at this point whether red yeast rice offers any benefit over the prescribed statins. The chief advantage, in my opinion, is cost
Because anorexia is a common HIV disease-related complication, a patient's appetite is a key piece of clinical information causes of inappetence may include undiagnosed or untreated opportunistic infections. Many drugs used against HIV have side effects that include nausea and anorexia. As the number of medications given to an HIV AIDS patient grows, the impact on his or her overall well-being, including nutritional status, must continually be reassessed. Small, frequent meals and calorically dense foods and beverages are often recommended shared meals and changes in eating place are encouraged, and nutritional supplements are frequently indicated. In many cases, patients learn to prepare their own high calorie high nutrient drinks, significantly reducing their cost.
Several surveys of CAM use by cancer patients have been conducted with small numbers of patients. One study published in the February 2000 issue of the journal Cancer reported that 37 percent of 46 patients with prostate cancer used one or more CAM therapies as part of their cancer treatment. These therapies included herbal remedies, old-time remedies, vitamins, and special diets. A larger study of CAM use in patients with different types of cancer was published in the July 2000 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology . That study found that 83 percent of 453 cancer patients had used at least one CAM therapy as part of their cancer treatment. The study included CAM therapies such as special diets, psychotherapy, spiritual practices, and vitamin supplements. When psychotherapy and spiritual practices were excluded, 69 percent of patients had used at least one CAM therapy in their cancer treatment.
This dietary supplement made from alcohols extracted from sugarcane shows promise as a cholesterol-lowering agent. Though we're not sure exactly how it works, policosanol alcohol seems to block the production of cholesterol. Trials have shown it lowers LDL levels moderately in people with diabetes, postmenopausal women, the elderly, and those with familial hypercholesterolemia, the genetic disorder that causes high cholesterol. That said, most of the trials have been done by one group of scientists, and there haven't been as many long-term, independent clinical trials on policosanol alcohol as I would like to see before recommending it wholeheartedly. And more important, no one knows if poli-cosanol's beneficial effects actually translate into lower incidents of heart attacks and strokes.
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