Diabetes as a coronary heart disease riskequivalent

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Based on the observations from several epidemiologic studies, diabetes is designated a coronary heart disease (CHD)-risk equivalent by the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) [1]. The 10-year risk of major CHD events in patients who have diabetes is greater than 20%; this is comparable to the rates that are observed in nondiabetic patients who have established CHD. This inference has been borne out, particularly by data from a population study in Finland [2] and a multi-national study, the Organization to Assess Strategies for Ischemic Syndromes [3], of patients who had type 2 diabetes who frequently had multiple, coexisting risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The increased risk for CHD may precede the clinical diagnosis of diabetes by many years. This was documented best in the long-term study of more than 117,000 women in the Nurses' Health Study; nearly 6000 women developed diabetes during 20 years of follow-up. There was an approximately twofold to threefold increased risk for myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke during the "prediabetes" period, compared with women who remained nondiabetic [4]. In another study, Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial, in a large number of men (348,000, of which 5163 had diabetes), the presence of diabetes was associated with a threefold to fourfold increased risk for age-adjusted

* Joslin Diabetes Center. One Joslin Place, # 242 Boston, MA 02215.

E-mail address: [email protected] (O.P. Ganda).

cardiovascular mortality at comparable levels of cholesterol, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking [5]. This suggests an enhanced susceptibility of diabetic vasculature to the well-established risk factors for CHD.

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Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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