References

1. Atkinson MA, Maclaren NK (1994) The pathogenesis of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine 331: 1428-1436.

2. Skyler JS (1987) Immune intervention studies in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metabolism Reviews 3: 1017-1035.

3. Pozzilli P (1988) Immunotherapy in type 1 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine 5: 734-738.

4. Harrison LC, Campbell IL, Colman PG, Chosich N, Kay TWH, Tait BD,

Bartholomeusz RK, DeAizpurua HJ, Joseph JL, Chu S, Kielczynski WE (1990) Type 1 diabetes: immunology and immunotherapy. Advances in Endocrinology & Metabolism 1: 35-94.

5. Andreani D, DiMario U, Pozzilli P (1991) Prediction, prevention, and early intervention in insulin dependent diabetes. Diabetes Metabolism Reviews 7: 61-77.

6. Skyler JS, Marks JB (1993) Immune intervention in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Reviews 1: 15-42.

7. Pozzilli P, Kolb H, Ilkova HM (eds) (1993) New trends for prevention and immunotherapy of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metabolism Reviews 9: 237-348.

8. Bach JF (1994) Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as an autoimmune disease. Endocrine Reviews 15: 516-542.

9. Gale EA, Bingley PJ(1997) Can we prevent IDDM? Diabetes Care 17: 339-344.

10. Slover RH, Eisenbarth GS (1997) Prevention of type I diabetes and recurrent-cell destruction of transplanted islets. Endocrine Reviews 18: 241-258.

11. Rabinovitch A, Skyler JS (1998) Prevention of type 1 diabetes. Medical Clinics of North America 82: 739-755.

12. Pozzilli P (1998) Prevention of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 1998. Diabetes Metabolism Reviews 14: 69-84.

13. Schatz DA, Krischer JP, Skyler JS (1999) Now is the time to prevent type 1 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85: 495-498.

14. Becker DJ, LaPorte RE, Libman I, Pietropaolo M, Dosch H-M (1999) Prevention of type 1 diabetes: is now the time? Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85: 498-506.

15. Gardner SG, Bingley PJ, Sawtell PA, Weeks S, Gale EAM (1997) Rising incidence of insulin dependent diabetes in children aged under 5 years in the Oxford region: time trend analysis. BMJ 315: 713-717.

16. Schatz D, Krischer J, Horne G, Riley W, Spillar R, Silverstein J, Winter W, Muir A, Derovanesian D, Shah S, Vadheim CM, Rotter JI, Maclaren NK (1994) Islet cell antibodies predict insulin-dependent diabetes in United States school age children as powerfully as in unaffected relatives. Journal of Clinical Investigation 93: 2403-7.

17. Bingley PJ, Bonifacio E, Williams AJK,Genovese S, Bottazzo GF, Gale EAM (1997) Prediction of IDDM in the general population: strategies based on combinations of autoantibody markers. Diabetes 46: 1701-1710.

18. Riley WJ, Maclaren NK, Krischer J, Spillar RP, Silverstein JH, Schatz DA, Schwartz S, Malone J, Shah S, Vadheim C et al. (1990) A prospective study of the development of diabetes in relatives of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine 323: 1167-1172.

19. Bingley PJ, Christie MR, Bonifacio E, Bonfanti R, Shattock M, Fonte MT, Bottazzo GF, Gale EA (1994) Combined analysis of autoantibodies improves prediction of IDDM in islet cell antibody-positive relatives. Diabetes 43(11) 1304-1310.

20. Imagawa A, Hanafusa T, Tamura S, Moriwaki M, Itoh N, Yamamoto K, Iwahashi H, Yamagata K, Waguri M, Nanmo T, Uno S, Nakajima H, Namba M, Kawata S, Miyagawa JI, Matsuzawa Y (2001) Pancreatic biopsy as a procedure for detecting in situ autoimmune phenomena in type 1 diabetes: close correlation between serological markers and histological evidence of cellular autoimmunity. Diabetes 50: 1269-1273.

21. Kolb H, Gale EA (2001) Does partial preservation of residual beta-cell function justify immune intervention in recent onset type I diabetes? Diabetologia 44: 1349-1353.

22. Rewers M, Bugawan TL, Norris JM, Blair A, Beaty B, Hoffman M, McDuffie RS, Hamman RF, Klingensmith G, Eisenbarth GS, Erlich HA (1996) Newborn screening for HLA markers associated with IDDM: Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY). Diabetologia 39: 807-812.

23. Nejentsev S, Sjoroos M, Soukka T, Knip M, Simell O, Lovgren T, Ilonen J (1999) Population-based genetic screening for the estimation of type 1 diabetes mellitus risk in Finland: selective genotyping of markers in the HLA-DQB1, HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DRB1 loci. Diabetic Medicine 16: 985-992.

24. Kupila A, Muona P, Simell T, Arvilommi P, Savolainen H, Hamalainen AM, Korhonen S, Kimpimaki T, Sjoroos M, Ilonen J, Knip M, Simell O (2001) Juvenile diabetes research foundation centre for the prevention of type 1 diabetes in finland. Feasibility of genetic and immunological prediction of type 1 diabetes in a population-based birth cohort. Diabetologia 44: 290-297.

25. Ronningen KS (1997) Genetics in the prediction of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: from theory to practice. Annals of Medicine 29: 387-392.

26. Schatz D, Muir A, Fuller K, Atkinson M, Crockett S, Hsiang H, Winter B, Ellis T, Taylor K, Saites C, Dukes M, Fang Q, Clare-Salzler M, She JX (2000) Prospective assessment in newborns for diabetes autoimmunity (PANDA): a newborn diabetes screening program in the general population of Florida. Diabetes 49(Suppl 1): A67.

27. Ziegler AG, Hummel M, Schenker M, Bonifacio E (1999) Autoantibody appearance and risk for development of childhood diabetes in offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes: the 2-year analysis of the German BABYDIAB Study. Diabetes 48: 460-468.

28. Todd JA, Farrall M (1997) Panning for gold: genomewide scanning in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Reviews 5: 284-291.

29. Pugliese A (1999) Unraveling the genetics of insulin-dependent type 1A diabetes: the search must go on. Diabetes Reviews 7: 39-54.

30. Pugliese A, Gianani R, Moromisato R, Awdeh ZL, Alper CA, Erlich HA, Jackson RA, Eisenbarth GS (1995) HLA DQB1*0602 is associated with dominant protection from diabetes even among islet cell antibody positive first degree relatives of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetes 44: 608-613.

31. Greenbaum CJ, Schatz DA, Cuthbertson D, Zeidler A, Eisenbarth GS, Krischer JP, for the DPT-1 Study Group (2000) Islet cell antibody positive relatives with human leukocyte antigen DQA1*0102, DQB1*0602: identification by the diabetes prevention trial-1. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85: 1255-1260.

32. Diabetes Prevention Trial - Type 1 (DPT-1). Study Group. Protocol. Available at https://www. moffitt.usf.edu/sec/dpt1.

33. American Diabetes Association Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus (1997) Report of the rxpert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 20: 1183-1197.

34. Verge CF, Stenger D, Bonifacio E, Colman PG, Pilcher C, Bingley PJ, Eisenbarth GS (1998) Combined use of autoantibodies (IA-2ab, Gadab, IAA, ICA) in type 1 diabetes: combinatorial islet autoantibody workshop. Diabetes 47: 1857-1866.

35. Bottazzo GF, Florin-Christensen A, Doniach D (1974) Islet-cell antibodies in diabetes mellitus with autoimmune polyendocrine deficiencies. Lancet 2: 1279-1283.

36. Krischer JP, Schatz D, Riley WJ, Spillar RP, Silverstein JH, Schwartz S, Malone J, Shah S, Vadheim CM, Rotter JI, Maclaren NK (1993) Insulin and islet cell autoantibodies as time-dependent covariates in the development of insulin-dependent diabetes: a prospective study in relatives. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 77: 743-749.

37. Gardner SG, Gale EA, Williams AJ, Gillespie KM, Lawrence KE, Bottazzo GF, Bingley PJ (1999) Progression to diabetes in relatives with islet autoantibodies. Is it inevitable? Diabetes Care 22: 2049-2054.

38. Verge CF, Gianani R, Kawasaki E, Yu L, Pietropaolo M, Jackson RA, Chase HP, Eisenbarth GS (1996) Prediction of type I diabetes in first-degree relatives using a combination of insulin, GAD, and ICA512bdc/IA-2 autoantibodies. Diabetes 45: 926-933.

39. Maclaren N, Lan M, Coutant R, Schatz D, Silverstein J, Muir A, Clare-Salzer M, She JX, Malone J, Crockett S, Schwartz S, Quattrin T, DeSilva M, Vander Vegt P, Notkins A, Krischer J (1999) Only multiple autoantibodies to islet cells (ICA), insulin, GAD65, IA-2 and IA-2beta predict immune-mediated (Type 1) diabetes in relatives. Journal of Autoimmunity 12: 279-287.

40. Krischer JP, Cuthbertson D, Yu L, Orban T, MaclarenNK, Jackson R, Winter WE, Schatz DA, Palmer JP, Eisenbarth GS, and the DPT-1 Study Group. Screening Strategies for the Identification of Multiple Antibody Positive Individuals. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. In Press.

41. Kulmala P, Savola K, Petersen JS, Vahasalo P, Karjalainen J, Lopponen T, Dyrberg T, Akerblom HK, Knip M (1998) Prediction of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in siblings of children with diabetes. A population-based study. The Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group. Journal of Clinical Investigation 101: 327-336.

42. Naserke HE, Bonifacio E, Ziegler AG (2001) Prevalence, characteristics and diabetes risk associated with transient maternally acquired islet antibodies and persistent islet antibodies in offspring of parents with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86: 4826-4833.

43. Srikanta S, Ganda OP, Gleason RE, Jackson RA, Soeldner JS, Eisenbarth GS (1984) Pre-type 1 diabetes. Linear loss of beta cell response to intravenous glucose. Diabetes 33: 717-20.

44. Chase HP, Garg SK, Butler-Simon N, Klingensmith G, Norris L, Ruskey CT, O'Brien D (1991) Prediction of the course of pre-type 1 diabetes. Journal of Pediatrics 118: 838-841.

45. Bohmer KP, Kolb H, Kuglin B, Zielasek J, Hubinger A, Lampeter EF, Weber B, Kolb-Bachofen V, Jastram HU, Bertrams J, Gries Fa (1994) Linear loss of insulin secretory capacity during the last six months preceding IDDM. Diabetes Care 17: 138-141.

46. Bingley PJ, Colman P, Eisenbarth GS, Jackson RA, McCulloch DK, Riley WJ, Gale EA (1992) Standardization of IVGTT to predict IDDM. Diabetes Care 15: 1313-1316.

47. Bingley PJ (1996) Interactions of age, islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies, and first-phase insulin response in predicting risk of progression to IDDM in ICA+ relatives: the ICARUS data set. Islet Cell Antibody Register Users Study. Diabetes 45: 1720-1728.

48. Chase HP, Cuthbertson D, Dolan LM, Kaufman F, Krischer JP, Schatz DA, White N, Wilson DM, Wolfsdorf J (2001) The DPT-1 study group: first-phase insulin release during the intravenous glucose tolerance as a risk factor for type 1 diabetes. Journal of Pediatrics 138: 244-249.

49. Mrena S, Savola K, Kulmala P, Akerblom HK, Knip M, and the Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group (1999) Staging of preclinical type 1 diabetes in siblings of affected children. Pediatrics 104: 925-930.

50. Atkinson MA, Leiter EH (1999) The NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes: as good as it gets? Nature Medicine 5: 601-604.

51. Greiner DL, Rossini AA, Mordes JP (2001) Translating data from animal models into methods for preventing human autoimmune diabetes mellitus: caveat emptor and primum non nocere. Clinical Immunology 100: 134-143.

52. Kolb H, Bach JF, Eisenbarth GS, Harrison LC, Maclaren NK, Pozzilli P, Skyler J, Stiller CR (1989) Criteria for immune trials in type I diabetes. Lancet 2: 686.

53. Mirouze J, Selam JL, Pham TC, Mendoza E, Orsetti A (1978) Sustained insulin induced remissions of juvenile diabetes by means of an external artificial pancreas. Diabetologia 14: 223-227.

54. Madsbad S, Krarup T, Faber OK, Binder C, Regeur L (1982) The transient effect of strict glycemic control on ß cell function in newly diagnosed type I (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia 22: 16-20.

55. Perlman K, Ehrlich RM, Filler RM, Albisser AM (1984) Sustained normoglycemia in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic subjects: short-term effects and one-year follow-up. Diabetes 33: 995-1001.

56. Effect of intensive therapy on residual ß-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes in the diabetes control and complications trial: a randomized, controlled trial. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group (1998) Annals of Internal Medicine 128: 517-523.

57. Immunology of Diabetes Society. Draft guidelines for intervention trials in subjects with newly-diagnosed type 1 diabetes. www.idsoc.org/Draft_Guidelines.html

58. Feutren G, Papoz L, Assan R, Vialettes B, Karsenty G, Vexiau P, DuRostu H, Rodier M, Sirmai J, Lallemand A, Bach JF, for the Cyclosporin/Diabetes French Study Group (1986) Cyclosporin increases the rate and length of remissions in insulin dependent diabetes of recent onset: results of a multicentre double-blind trial. Lancet ii: 119-124.

59. Bach JF, Feutren G, Boitard C (1989) Immunoprevention of insulin-dependent diabetes by cyclosporin. In Andreani D, Kolb H, Pozzilli P (Eds) Immunotherapy of Type 1 Diabetes. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 125-136.

60. The Canadian-European Randomized Control Trial Group (1988) Cyclosporin-induced remission of IDDM after early intervention: association of 1 year of cyclosporin treatment with enhanced insulin secretion. Diabetes 37: 1574-1582.

61. Martin S, Schernthaner G, Nerup J, Gries FA, Koivisto VA, Dupre J, Standl E, Hamet P, McArthur R, Tan MH, Dawson K, Mehta AE, Van Vliet S, von Graffenried B, Stiller C, Kolb H (1991) Follow-up of cyclosporin a treatment in type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus: lack of long-term effects. Diabetologia 34: 429-434.

62. Chase HP, Butler-Simon N, Garg SK, Hayward A, Klingensmith GJ, Hamman RF, O'Brien D (1990) Cyclosporin A for the treatment of new-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics 85: 241-245.

63. Skyler JS, Rabinovitch A, Miami Cyclosporine Diabetes Study Group (1992) Cyclosporine in recent onset type 1 diabetes mellitus: effects on islet beta-cell function. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications 6: 77-88.

64. Bougneres PF, Carel JC, Castano L, Boitard C, Gardin JP, Landais P, Hors J, Mihatsch MJ, Paillard M, Chaussain JL, Bach JF (1988) Factors associated with early remission of type 1 diabetes in children treated with cyclosporine. New England Journal of Medicine 318: 663-670.

65. Bougneres PF, Landais P, Boisson C, Carel JC, Frament N, Boitard C, Chaussain JL, Bach JF (1990) Limited duration of remission of insulin dependency in children with recent overt type 1 diabetes treated with low-dose cyclosporine. Diabetes 39: 1264-1272.

66. De Filippo G, Carel JC, Boitard C, Bougneres PF (1996) Long-term results of early cyclosporin therapy in juvenile IDDM. Diabetes 45: 101-104.

67. Jenner M, Bradish G, Stiller C, Atkison P, for the London Diabetes Study Group (1992) Cyclosporine: a treatment of young children with newly-diagnosed type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 35: 884-888.

68. Parving HH, Tarnow L, Nielsen FS, Rossing P, Mandrup-Poulsen T, Osterby R, Nerup J (1999) Cyclosporine nephrotoxicity in type 1 diabetic patients. A 7-year follow-up study. Diabetes Care 22: 478-483.

69. Assan R, Timsit J, Feutren G, Bougneres P, Czernichow P, Hannedouche T, Boitard C, Noel LH, Mihatsch MJ, Bach JF (1994) The kidney in cyclosporin A-treated diabetic patients: a long-term clinicopathological study. Clinical Nephrology 41: 41-49.

70. Harrison LC, Colman PG, Dean B, Baxter R, Martin FIR (1985) Increase in remission rate in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic subjects treated with azathioprine. Diabetes 34: 1306-1308.

71. Cook JJ, Hudson I, Harrison LC, Dean B, Colman PG, Werther GA, Warne GL, Court JM (1989) A double-blind controlled trial of azathioprine in children with newly-diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 38: 779-783.

72. Silverstein J, Maclaren N, Riley W, Spillar R, Radjenovic D, Johnson S (1988) Immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone in recent onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine 319: 599-604.

73. Silverstein J, Maclaren N, Riley W, Radjenovic D, Spillar R (1990) Double blind trial with azathioprine and steroids in newly-diagnosed IDD. Diabetes 39(Suppl 1): 294A.

74. Vague P, Viallettes B, Lassman-Vague V, Vallo JJ (1987) Nicotinamide may extend remission phase in insulin dependent diabetes. Lancet i: 619-620.

75. Mendola G, Casamitgana R, Gomis R (1989) Effects of nicotinamide therapy upon beta-cell function in newly diagnosed type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus patients. Diabetologia 32: 160-162.

76. Pozilli P, Visalli N, Ghirlanda G, Manna R, Andreani D (1989) Nicotinamide increases c-peptide secretion in patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine 6: 568-572.

77. Chase HP, Butler-Simon N, Garg S, McDuffie M, Hoops SL, O'Brien D (1990) A trial of nicotinamide in newly diagnosed patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 33: 444-446.

78. Viallettes B, Picq R, du Rostu M, Charbonnel B, Rodier M, Mirouze J, Vexiau P, Passa Ph, Pehuet M, Elgrably F, Vague P (1990) A preliminary multicentre study of the treatment of recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes by combination nicotinamide-cyclosporin therapy. Diabetic Medicine 7: 731-735.

79. Lewis MC, Canafx DM, Sprafka JM, Barbosa JJ (1992) Double-blind randomized trial of nicotinasmide on early onset diabetes. Diabetes Care 15: 121-123.

80. Ilkova H, Gorpe U, Kadioglu P, Ozyazar M, Bagriacik N (1991) Nicotinamide in type 1 diabetes of recent-onset: a double-blind placebo controlled trial. Diabetologia 34(Suppl 2): A179.

81. Guastamacchia E, Ciampolillo A, Lollino G, Caragiulo L, De Robertis O, Lattanzi V, Giorgino R (1992) Effetto della terapia con nicotinamide sull'induzione della durata della remissione clinica in diabetici tipo 1 all'esordio sottoposti a terapia insulinica ottimizzata mediante microinfusore. Il Diabete 4(Suppl 1): 210.

82. Gonzalez-Clemente JM, Munoz A, Fernandez-Usac E (1992) Desferrioxamine and nicotinamide in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Diabetologia 35(Suppl 1): A202.

83. Paskova M, Ikao I, Trozova D, Bono P (1992) Nicotinamide in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 35(Suppl 1): A203.

84. Pozzilli P, Visalli N, Boccuni ML, Baroni MG, Buzzetti R, Fioriti E, Signore A, Cavallo MG, Andreani D, Lucentini L, Crino A, Cicconetti CA, Teodonio C, Amoretti R, Pisano L, Pennafina MG, Santopadre G, Marozzi G, Multari G, Campea L, Suppa MA, De Mattia GC, Cassone-Faldetta M, Perrone F, Greco A, Ghirlanda G, The IMDIAB Study Group (1994) Randomized trial comparing nicotinamide and nicotinamide plus cyclosporin in recent onset insulin-dependent diabetes (IMDIAB 1). Diabetic Medicine 11: 98-104.

85. Pozzilli P, Visalli N, Boccuni ML, Baroni MG, Buzzetti R, Fioriti E, Signore A, Cavallo MG, Andreani D, Lucentini L, Matteoli MC, Crino A, Cicconetti CA, Teodonio C, Amoretti R, Pisano L, Pennafina MG, Santopadre G, Marozzi G, Multari G, Campea L, Suppa MA, De Mattia GC, Cassone-Faldetta M, Marietta G, Perrone F, Greco A, Ghirlanda G (1994) Combination of nicotinamide and steroid versus nicotinamide in recent-onset IDDM. The IMDIAB II Study. Diabetes Care 17: 897-900.

86. Taboga C, Tonutti L, Noacco C (1994) Residual beta-cell activity and insulin requirements in insulin-dependent diabetic patients treated from the beginning with high doses of nicotinamide. A two-year follow-up. Recenti Progressi in Medicina 85: 513-516.

87. Pozzilli P, Visalli N, Signore A, Baroni MG, Buzzetti R, Cavallo MG, Boccuni ML, Fava D, Gragnoli C, Andreani D, Lucentini L, Matteoli MC, Crino A, Cicconetti CA, Teodonio C, Paci F, Amoretti R, Pisano L, Pennafina MG, Santopadre G, Marozzi G, Multari G, Suppa MA, Campea L, De Mattia GC, Cassone-Faldetta M, Marietta G, Perrone F, Greco AV, Ghirlanda G, The IMDIAB Study Group (1995) Double-blind trial of nicotinamide in recent-onset IDDM (the IMDIAB III study). Diabetologia 38: 848-852.

88. Satman I, Dinccag N, Karsidag K, Ozer E, Altuntas Y, Yilmaz MT (1995) The effect of nicotinamide in recent-onset type 1 diabetes regarding the level of beta cell reserve. Klinik Gelisim 8: 3882-3886.

89. Visalli N, Cavallo MG, Signore A, Baroni MG, Buzzetti R, Fioriti E, Mesturino C, Fiori R, Lucentini L, Matteoli MC, Crino A, Corbi S, Spera S, Teodonio C, Paci F, Amoretti R, Pisano L, Suraci C, Multari G, Sulli N, Cervoni M, De Mattia G, Faldetta MR, Boscherini B, Bitti MLM, Marietta G, Ferrazzoli F, Bizzarri C, Pitocco D, Ghirlanda G, Pozzilli P, The IMDIAB Study Group(1999) A multi-centre randomized trial of two different doses of nicotinamide in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (the IMDIAB VI). Diabetes Metabolism Research and Reviews 15: 181-185.

90. Vidal J, Fernandez-Balsells M, Sesmilo G, Aguilera E, Casamitjana R, Gomis R, Conget I (2000) Effects of nicotinamide and intravenous insulin therapy in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 23: 360-364.

91. Pozzilli P, Browne PD, Kolb H (1996) Meta-analysis of nicotinamide treatment in patients with recent-onset IDDM. The Nicotinamide Trialists. Diabetes Care 19: 1357-1363.

92. Shehadeh N, Calcinaro F, Bradley BJ, Bruchlim I, Vardi P, Lafferty K (1994) Effects of adjuvant therapy on development of diabetes in mouse and man. Lancet 343: 706-707.

93. Pozzilli P on behalf of the IMDIAB Group (1997) BCG vaccine in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. IMDIAB Group. Lancet 349: 1520-1521.

94. Elliott JF, Marlin KL, Couch RM (1998) Effect of bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination on C-peptide secretion in children newly diagnosed with IDDM. Diabetes Care 21: 1691-1693.

95. Allen HF, Klingensmith GJ, Jensen P, Simoes E, Hayward A, Chase HP (1999) Effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination on new-onset type 1 diabetes. A randomized clinical study. Diabetes Care 22: 1703-1707.

96. Gross D, Sidi H, Weiss L, Kalland T, Rosenmann E, Slavin S (1994) Prevention of diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic mice by linomide, a novel immunomodulating drug. Diabetologia 37: 1195-1201.

97. Coutant R, Landais P, Rosilio M, Johnsen C, Lahlou N, Chatelain P, Carel JC, Ludvigsson J, Boitard C, Bougneres PF (1998) Low dose linomide in Type I juvenile diabetes of recent onset: a randomised placebo-controlled double blind trial. Diabetologia 41: 1040-1046.

98. Shah SC, Malone JI, Simpson NE (1989) A randomized trial of intensive insulin therapy in newly diagnosed type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine 320: 550-554.

99. Schnell O, Eisfelder B, Standl E, Ziegler AG (1997) High-dose intravenous insulin infusion versus intensive insulin treatment in newly diagnosed IDDM. Diabetes 46: 1607-1611.

100. Zhang ZJ, Davidson LE, Eisenbarth G, Weiner HL (1991) Suppression of diabetes in NOD mice by oral administration of porcine insulin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88: 10252-10256.

101. Bergerot I, Fabien N, Maguer V, Thivolet C (1994) Oral administration of human insulin to NOD mice generates CD4+ T cells that suppress adoptive transfer of diabetes. Journal of Autoimmunity 7: 655-663.

102. Polanski M, Melican NS, Zhang J, Weiner HL (1997) Oral administration of the immunodominant B-chain of insulin reduces diabetes in a co-transfer model of diabetes in the NOD mouse and is associated with a switch from Th1 to Th2 cytokines. Journal of Autoimmunity 10: 339-346.

103. Weiner HL (1997) Oral tolerance for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Annual Review of Medicine 48: 341-351.

104. Pozzilli P, Pitocco D, Visalli N, Cavallo MG, Buzzetti R, Crino A, Spera S, Suraci C, Multari G, Cervoni M, Manca Bitti ML, Matteoli MC, Marietti G, Ferrazzoli F, Cassone Faldetta MR, Giordano C, Sbriglia M, Sarugeri E, Ghirlanda G (2000) No effect of oral insulin on residual beta-cell function in recent-onset type I diabetes (the IMDIAB VII). IMDIAB Group. Diabetologia 43: 1000-1004.

105. Chaillous L, Lefevre H, Thivolet C, Boitard C, Lahlou N, Atlan-Gepner C, Bouhanick B, Mogenet A, Nicolino M, Carel JC, Lecomte P, Marechaud R, Bougneres P, Charbonnel B, Sai P (2000) Oral insulin administration and residual beta-cell function in recent-onset type 1 diabetes: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Diabete Insuline Orale group. Lancet 356: 545-549.

106. Krischer J, Ten S, Marker J, Coutant R, Kukreja A, Zhang Ch, Zhong S, Raskin P, Bode B, Vargas A, Rogers D, Schatz D, Deeb L, Marks J, Schwartz S, Malone J, Rapaport R, Zeidler A, Maclaren N (2001_ Endogenous insulin retention by oral insulin in newly diagnosed antibody positive type-1 diabetes. Diabetes 50(Suppl 2): Abstract 180-OR.

107. Elias D, Markovits D, Reshef T, Van der Zee R, Cohen IR (1990) Induction and therapy of autoimmune diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD/LT) mouse by a 65-kDa heat shock protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 87: 1576-1580.

108. Elias D, Reshef T, Birk OS, Van der Zee R, Walker MD, Cohen IR (1991) Vaccination against autoimmune mouse diabetes with a T-cell epitope of the human 65 kDa heat shock protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88: 3088-3091.

109. Raz I, Elias D, Avron A, Tamir M, Metzger M, Cohen IR (2001 ß-cell function in new-onset type 1 diabetes and immunomodulation with a heat-shock protein peptide (DiaPep277): a randomised, double-blind, phase II trial. Lancet 358: 1749-1753.

110. Herold KC, Bluestone JA, Montag AG, Parihar A, Wiegner A, Gress RE, Hirsch R (1992) Prevention of autoimmune diabetes with nonactivating anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. Diabetes 41: 385-391.

111. Chatenoud L, Thevet E, Primo J, Bach J-F (1994) Anti-CD3 antibody induces long-term remission of overt autoimmunity in nonobese diabetic mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91: 123-127.

112. Chatenoud L, Primo J, Bach J-F (1997) CD3 antibody-induced self tolerance in overtly diabetic NOD mice. Journal of Immunology 158: 2947-2954.

113. Herold KC, Hagopian W, Auger J, Poumain-Ruiz E, Taylor L, Febres G, Harlan D, Bluestone JA (2001_ Treatment with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody hOKT3_1(Ala-Ala) improves glycemic control during the first year of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 50(Suppl 2): Abstract 138-OR.

114. Herold KC, Hagopian W, Auger J, Poumain-Ruiz E, Taylor L, Donaldson D, Gitelman SE, Harlan D, Xu D, Zivin RA, Bluestone JA (2002) Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody in new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus. New Eng. J. Med. 346: 1692-1698.

115. Riley WJ, Maclaren NK, Spillar R (1986) Reversal of deteriorating glucose tolerance with azathioprine in prediabetes. Transplantation Proceedings 18: 819-822.

116. Levy-Marchal C, Czernichow P, Quiniou MC, Sachs M, Bach JF (1984) Cyclosporin administration reversed abnormalities in a prediabetic child. Diabetes 33(Suppl 1): 183A.

117. Rakotoambinina B, Timsit J, Deschamps I, Laborde K, Jos J, Boitard C, Assan R, Robert JJ (1995) Cyclosporin A does not delay insulin dependency in asymptomatic IDDM patients. Diabetes Care 18: 1487-1490.

118. Carel JC, Boitard C, Eisenbarth G, Bach JF, Bougneres PF (1996) Cyclosporine delays but does not prevent clinical onset in glucose intolerant pre-type 1 diabetic children. Journal of Autoimmunity 9: 739-745.

119. Dumont-Herskowitz R, Jackson RA, Soeldner JS, Eisenbarth GS (1989) Pilot trial to prevent type 1 diabetes: progression to overt IDDM despite oral nicotinamide. Journal of Autoimmunity 2: 733-737.

120. Elliott RB, Chase HP (1991) Prevention or delay of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in children using nicotinamide. Diabetologia 34: 362-365.

121. Manna R, Migliore A, Martin LS, Ferrara E, Ponte E, Marietti G, Scuderi F, Cristiano G, Ghirlanda G, Gambassi G (1992) Nicotinamide treatment in subjects at high risk of developing IDDM improves insulin secretion. British Journal of Clinical Practice 46: 177-179.

122. Elliott RB, Pilcher CC, Fergusson DM, Stewart AW (1996) A population-based strategy to prevent insulin-dependent diabetes using nicotinamide. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 9: 501-509.

123. Lampeter EF, Klinghammer A, Scherbaum WA, Heinze E, Haastert B, Giani G, Kolb H (1998) The Deutsche Nicotinamide Intervention Study: an attempt to prevent type 1 diabetes. DENIS Group. Diabetes 47: 980-984.

124. Gale EA, Bingley PJ (1994) Can we prevent IDDM? Diabetes Care 17: 339-344.

125. Gale EA (1996) Theory and practice of nicotinamide trials in pre-type 1 diabetes. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 9: 375-379.

126. Gotfredsen GF, Buschard K, Frandsen EK (1985) Reduction of diabetes incidence of BB wistar rats by early prophylactic insulin treatment of diabetes-prone animals. Diabetologia 28: 933-935.

127. Like AA (1989) Morphology and mechanisms of autoimmune diabetes as revealed by studies of the BB/Wor rat. In Hanahan D, McDevitt HO, Cahill GJ (eds) Perspectives on the Molecular Biology and Immunology of the Pancreatic Beta Cell. Cold Spring Harbor, Current Communications in Molecular Biology, pp. 81-91.

128. Like AA (1986) Insulin injections prevent diabetes (DB) in BioBreeding/ Worcester (BB/W) rats. Diabetes 136: 3254-3258.

129. Vlahos WD, Seemayer TA, Yale JF (1991) Diabetes prevention in BB rats by inhibition of endogenous insulin secretion. Metabolism 40: 825-829.

130. Gottlieb PA, Handler ES, Appel MC, Greiner DL, Mordes JP, Rossini AA (1991) Insulin treatment prevent diabetes mellitus but not thyroiditis in RT6-depleted diabetes resistant BB/Wor rats. Diabetologia 34: 296-300.

131. Atkinson MA, Maclaren NK, Luchetta R (1990) Insulitis and insulin dependent diabetes in NOD mice reduced by prophylactic insulin therapy. Diabetes 39: 933-937.

132. Bowman MA, Campbell L, Darrow BL, Ellis TM, Suresh A, Atkinson MA (1996) Immunological and metabolic effects of prophylactic insulin therapy in the NOD-scid/scid adoptive transfer model of IDDM. Diabetes 45: 205-208.

133. Keller RJ, Eisenbarth GS, Jackson RA (1993) Insulin prophylaxis in individuals at high risk of type 1 diabetes. Lancet 341: 927-928.

134. Ziegler A, Bachmann W, Rabl W (1993) Prophylactic insulin treatment in relatives at high risk for type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metabolism Reviews 9: 289-293.

135. Füchtenbusch M, Rabl W, Grassl B, Bachmann W, Standl E, Ziegler AG (1998) Delay of type I diabetes in high-risk, first-degree relatives by parenteral antigen administration: the Schwabing Insulin Prophylaxis Pilot Trial. Diabetologia 41: 536-541.

136. Diabetes Prevention Trial - Type 1 (DPT-1) Study Group (2002) Effects of Insulin in Relatives of Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. New Eng. J. Med. 346: 1685-1691.

137. Harrison LC, Honeyman MC, Steele C, Wright M, Gellert SA, Colman PG (1999) Intranasal insulin trial (INIT) in preclinical type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 48(Suppl 1): A206.

138. Kimpimaki T, Kupila A, Hamalainen AM, Kukko M, Kulmala P, Savola K, Simell T, Keskinen P, Ilonen J, Simell O, Knip M (2001) The first signs of beta-cell autoimmunity appear in infancy in genetically susceptible children from the general population: the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86: 4782-4788.

139. Borch-Johnsen K, Joner G, Mandrup-Paulsen T, Christy M, Zachan-Christiansen B, Kastrup K, Nerup J (1984) Relationship between breastfeeding and incidence rates of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Lancet 2: 1083-1086.

140. Gerstein H (1994) Cows' milk exposure and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 17: 13-19.

141. Norris JM, Scott FW (1996) A meta-analysis of infant diet and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: do biases play a role? Epidemiology 7: 87-92.

142. Virtanen SM, Rasanen L, Aro A, Lindstrom J, Sippola H, Lounamaa R, Toivanen L, Tuomilehto J, Akerblom HK, Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group (1991) Infant Feeding in Finnish Children <7 Yr of Age with Newly Diagnosed IDDM. Diabetes Care 14: 415-417.

143. Norris JM, Beaty B, Klingensmith G, Yu Liping, Hoffman M, Chase HP, Erlich HA, Hamman RF, Eisenbarth GS, Rewers M (1996) Lack of association between early exposure to cow's milk protein and beta-cell autoimmunity. Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY). JAMA 276: 609-614.

144. Kimpimaki T, Erkkola M, Korhonen S, Kupila A, Virtanen SM, Ilonen J, Simell O, Knip M (2001) Short-term exclusive breastfeeding predisposes young children with increased genetic risk of type I diabetes to progressive beta-cell autoimmunity. Diabetologia 44: 63-69.

145. Akerblom HK, Savilahti E, Saukkonen TT, Paganus A, Virtanen SM, Teramo K, Knip M, Ilonen J, Reijonen H, Karjalainen J, Vaarala O, Reunanen A (1993) The case for elimination of cows' milk in early infancy in prevention of type 1 diabetes: the Finnish experience. Diabetes Metabolism Reviews 9: 269-278.

146. Harrison LC, Honeyman MC (1999) Cows' milk and type 1 diabetes: the real debate is about mucosal immune function. Diabetes 48: 1501-1507.

147. Paronen J, Knip M, Savilahti E, Virtanen SM, Ilonen J, Akerblom HK, Vaarala O (2000) Effect of cows' milk exposure and maternal type 1 diabetes on cellular and humoral immunization to dietary insulin in infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Finnish Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk Study Group. Diabetes 49: 1657-1665.

The Evidence Base for Diabetes Care. Edited by R. Williams, W. Herman, A.-L. Kinmonth and N. J. Wareham Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

ISBN: 0-471-98876-6

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment