Table 6.3 summarizes the intervention studies that have attempted to prevent type 2 diabetes using a combination of lifestyle interventions. These typically include dietary intervention of various types together with increased physical activity. The intensity of the intervention for either component has often varied substantially. Inclusion criteria have also been variable, with most studies using people without diabetes. A small number have included some people classified as having diabetes by older, more sensitive criteria. These would probably now be classified predominantly as IGT or IFG by current criteria.
Several diabetes-related end-points have been studied, including glucose tolerance testing with various criteria, infusion tests and fasting glucose levels. Studies have been included that examine these multiple end-points, since they may inform future trial designs. In each section, RCTs of varying rigor are included by the year in which they were first published, followed by non-randomized interventions. Then, in the case of physical activity and diet, the evidence from prospective observational studies is summarized.
Was this article helpful?
Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...