Guilt Free Desserts
The Americans * make their chocolate without sugar. When they wish to take chocolate, they send for chocolate. Every one throws into his cup as much cocoa as it needs, pours warm water in, and adds the sugar and perfumes he wishes. This method neither suits our habits nor our tastes, for we wish chocolate to come to us ready prepared. Thus to make chocolate, that is to say, to make it fit for immediate use, about an ounce and a half should be taken for each cup, which should be slowly dissolved in water while it is heated, and Monsieur, said madame d'Arestrel, fifty years ago, to me at Belley, when you wish good chocolate make it the evening before in a tin pot. The rest of the night gives it a velvet-like flavor that makes it far better. God will not be offended at this little refinement, for in himself is all excellence.
Chocolate has given occasion to profound dissertations, with the object of determining its nature and properties, and to place it in the category of warm, cold, or temperate drinks. We must own all their lucubrations have contributed but slightly to the elucidation of truth. It was left for time and experience, those two great masters, to show that chocolate prepared with care is as healthful as it is agreeable. That it is nourishing, easily digested, and is not so injurious to beauty as coffee said to be. It is very suitable to persons who have much mental toil, to professors and lawyers, especially to lawyers. It also suits certain feeble stomachs, and has been thought most advantageous in chronic diseases. It is the last resource in affections of the pylorus. These various properties chocolate owes to nothing but an eloesaccharum. Few substances contain in the same volume more nutrition. It becomes almost entirely animalised. During the war, cocoa was rare and very dear....
As for powdered and liquid foods, dry addition of low-DE maltodextrins to the formulation for frozen desserts is recommended. Although concentrations used may be comparable to those suitable for liquid foods, the functionality of low-DE maltodextrins may be higher in frozen foods. Since all water-soluble components are dissolved in the nonfrozen water phase, a concentration effect may occur which, in turn, enhances the functionality thereby improving the creaminess, fat-like texture, and firmness of bite. An example of the application of low-DE maltodextrins in a low-fat soft serve frozen dessert is given in Table 6B.3. The frozen dessert is prepared by blending all the dry ingredients together, blending the wet ingredients separately, and then adding the dry ingredients to the wet mix, pasteurizing at 74 C, homogenizing at 200 psi, adding flavor and running the mix through a soft-serve machine. Table 6B.3 Use of a Low-DE Potato Maltodextrin, Paselli Excel, in a Low-Fat Soft Serve...
Colloidal microcrystalline cellulose prevents the growth of ice crystals in frozen foods during freeze-thaw cycles (FMC Corp., 1994c). The dispersed colloidal structure and large surface area allows for reabsorption of water and redispersion of components during the thaw cycle. Colloidal microcrystalline cellulose helps to prevent moisture migration and inhibits the irreversible aggregation of protein and other solids by maintaining a homogeneous state of the system. Dispersions of microcrystalline cellulose also contribute several other benefits such as opacity and a source of noncaloric fiber. Therefore, colloidal microcrystalline cellulose is used in standard, full-fat ice cream as well as in low-fat frozen desserts. An example of the application of Avicel in a low-fat frozen formulation is shown in Table 7A.5.
A further important difference between current regulations in member states of the European Union and the U.S. is that in the former nutritional labeling remains voluntary unless a nutritional claim is made for the particular food, whereas the U.S. Nutrition Labeling and Education Act as from May 1994 amended the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act to make nutrition labeling mandatory for most foods, and it also became compulsory to state on the label the amount of calories from fat in addition to the total amount of calories present. Furthermore, where regulations exist regarding compositional requirements, as with butter, chocolate, or ice cream, the reduced-fat product necessitates careful naming and labeling from a legal standpoint.
The desirable characteristics that fats endow to food have been identified by various studies (Drewnowski et al., 1985 Drewnowski and Greenwood, 1983 Drewnowski et al., 1989). Sensory panels have determined preferences for sweet fat mixtures such as milk shakes, cake frostings, and ice cream (Drewnowski, 1987 Drewnowski et al., 1985 Drewnowski and Greenwood, 1983). In one study, sweetened skim milk and unsweetened cream were rated relatively low, but the combination of sugar and fat in sweetened heavy cream was highly appealing (Drewnowski et al., 1985). Of course, it is fat, not sugar, that provides the majority of the energy in such a mixture and in other sweet, fat-rich desserts. In a survey of U.S. military personnel (Meiselman and Waterman, 1985), it was found that the most preferred foods were steak, French fries, and milk which are high in dietary fat. In contrast, some of the least preferred foods in this survey were vegetables, skim milk, diet soda, and cottage cheese, which...
Just as Jack Sprat would eat no fat and his wife would eat no lean, differences in fat preferences between men and women have been noted anecdotally. Recent epidemiolog-ical surveys have provided evidence that there are indeed gender differences in regard to fat preferences. Although both men and women seem to find high-fat foods highly palatable, men seem to derive the bulk of their dietary fat from red meat, whereas women derive dietary fats mainly from margarine, whole milk, shortening, and mayonnaise (Block et al., 1985). Women are also more likely than men to express preferences for sweet fat desserts like cake and ice cream (Block et al., 1985). These gender differences persist among obese individuals as well. Drewnowski and colleagues (1992) surveyed the favorite foods of obese men and women and found that obese men listed predominantly fat-protein sources (meat dishes) among their favorite foods while obese women listed more carbohydrate fat sources and more sweet foods...
The most dominant segment of the lite consumer market in France, Germany, and the U.K. has been reported to comprise consumers of reduced-fat foods and reduced-fat beverages (Wagner, 1992). Penetration of low-fat foods in the U.K., at 67 of the population, was reported as virtually identical to that in the U.S. This compares with 54 in Germany, while France is still comparatively under-developed at 39 . In all four countries the incidence of use among women is 10 to 15 higher than for men. An examination of the specific types of low-fat products being consumed indicates that dairy-based lines, such as low-fat cheese, yogurt, and cream are most popular overall, ranking number one in France (33 of adults) and Germany (47 ). Low-fat beverages, e.g., low-fat instant chocolate drinks, are also very popular in the U.K. (35 ) and Germany (33 ). A more detailed account of developments specific to European and American markets for reduced-fat foods is given below.
Daget and Vallis (1994), in their study on fat replacement in milk chocolate through the manipulation of solid fat index and the addition of a bulk filler, also investigated the temporal effects of such formulation changes. The authors established that although the fat reduction from 35 to 25 itself had hardly any effect, the solid fat index had a significant influence on several time-intensity parameters in milk chocolate, with a lower solid fat index (50 ) being associated with a more rapid perception of sweetness, as well as a higher sweetness intensity compared with a higher solid fat index (70 ).
Low-DE maltodextrins can be used directly as powders or in the form of pre-prepared gels, depending on the processing conditions and the desired characteristics of the final product. In either case, low-DE maltodextrins enhance creaminess, provide body, and give a fatty mouthcoating to the food product in which they are used. Examples of applications where low-DE maltodextrins exhibit these functionalities particularly well are cream soups and sauces, frozen desserts, and bakery fillings. Maltodextrins also often contribute to a fat-like (short, spreadable, or spoonable) texture, when the concentration in the available water in the formulation is sufficiently high for gel formation to take place. This property is particularly useful in products such as cheesecake or low-fat spreads.
Interactions between native starches and lipids in food products are also manifested in products containing potato maltodextrins and lipids. Trials using a model system with combinations of Avebe's potato-derived Paselli SA2 and different emulsifiers have shown that the presence of certain emulsifiers increased the rate of gel formation (Table 6B.1), gave better control of the final gel strength, and modified the final gel textures. The model results were confirmed in a study of chocolate layer cakes in which the shortening was replaced by a combination of a low-DE potato maltodextrin and emulsifiers (Sob-czynska and Setzer, 1991). The best results were obtained using sucrose-ester- or monoglyceride gels in combination with low-DE potato maltodextrin added in the dry form. The exact mechanism of the interaction is unknown, but it is believed that helical inclusion complexing occurs between linear fractions of Paselli SA2 and the fatty acid chains of the emulsifiers.
The most obvious application by direct addition of spray-dried low-DE maltodextrins is in powdered products such as instant soups. Once the dried food product has been dissolved, the presence of low-DE maltodextrins enhances creaminess, adds body and texture, and gives a fatty mouthfeel to the food product. In liquid foods such as soups, sauces, desserts, pourable dressings, creamers, and beverages, it is recommended that low-DE maltodextrins are added to the dry ingredients in the formulation before the addition of water. In these systems, low-DE maltodextrins add to a full-bodied texture and mouthcoating, since their viscosity is relatively high compared with higher-DE maltodextrins. Because of the relatively low concentrations of maltodextrins used (1 to 5 ) and the fact that the continuous water phase is large, gels are not formed. An example of this use of low-DE maltodextrins is shown in the formulation and preparation procedure for low-fat butter sauce in Table 6B.2. The...
Spoonable products such as emulsified sauces and mayonnaise are oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, as in frozen dessert applications, there is a concentration effect the fat replacer, being entirely in the water phase of the product, is more functional than it would seem from the final concentration. This is beneficial in terms of mouthfeel and creami-ness, but could have drawbacks regarding texture. The gel forming properties may cause an undesirable, gellified, cuttable consistency. However, the occurrence of this negative effect depends on the concentration of the maltodextrin used, the total fat content of the product, the other ingredients in the formulation, and the processing conditions selected. In most cases, these parameters can be adjusted and many customers use low-DE maltodextrins in spoonable dressings without any problems. An example of the application of a low-DE potato maltodextrin in a low-fat salad dressing is given in Table 6B.4. The manufacturing process involves...
Migraine presents as a paroxysmal headache disorder, with periods of relative quiescence between episodes. Headaches typically manifest as a unilateral, throbbing head pain lasting hours to days. Associated symptoms may include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, malaise, photophobia, phonophobia, or blurred vision. Migraine with aura presents with peculiar, transient neurosensory perceptions before or concomitant with the pain phase. Headaches may be precipitated by food intake (meats and cheeses with high nitrites, nuts, chocolate, alcohol ingestion), caffeine withdrawal, menstruation, bright lights, and exercise. Patients will often seek a dark, quiet room to help relieve the symptoms.
Shade attracts him, the turf receives him, the murmur of the rivulet advises him to open the flask he has brought to revive himself I with. * Thus placed, he takes out the little well baked loaves, uncovers the cold chicken some kind hand has placed in his havresack, and finds the piece of gruyere or roquefort, which is to represent a dessert.
Consuming about four pounds of fresh fruit and vegetables a day, and perhaps one pound of lean meat on good days (undomesticated game animals have very low body fat). They consumed hardly any salt or sugar, no chocolate, and no beer. They had no dairy products other than their mother's milk. They could not even eat pasta, bread, noodles, or oatmeal until cereal grains were domesticated around 10,000 years ago. The females would have been used to walking miles every day carrying infants and plant foods, and perhaps firewood and water. The males would have been used to chasing down wounded game, running for very long distances. Even our middle-aged ancestors would have remained in very good condition because they would still have made their livings as foragers.
With the exception of milk, fruit juices, and some other foods, in which a fresh and natural appearance is required, thermal treatments have also relevant hedonistic consequences, as they confer the desired sensory and texture features to foods. Bread and baked products, or chocolate, coffee, and malt are well known products that are consumed world-wide here thermal treatments produce the characteristic aroma, taste, and colour (Arnoldi, 2001). Such sensory characteristics have positive psychological effects that facilitate digestion and therefore contribute to an individual's well-being.
In reduced-fat frozen desserts, it is critical that the sensory properties of the dairy fat be effectively emulated. Different combinations of hydrocolloids are often used for this purpose. A number of characteristics of HPMC make it particularly well-suited to frozen dessert and novelty applications. Its film-forming property, in combination with the thickening capability, simulates the coating property of fat in the mouth. Additionally, aqueous solutions of HPMC have lubricity, which further mimic the feel of fat. Table 7B.6 Use of a Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) Gum in a Reduced-Fat Microwave Chocolate Cake Formulation
Similarly to frozen desserts, non-dairy whipped toppings are emulsions which include lipids and air as the discontinuous phases in a continuous aqueous matrix. As a group, whipped toppings are sensitive emulsions due to their low densities, and even small changes to a formulation can have significant effects on stability and appearance. Accordingly, the interfacial acitivity of MC and particularly HPMC are critical in providing air entrainment and stability to these food foams. The film-forming characteristic is particularly critical in reduced-oil toppings. Not only must the gum stabilize the remaining oil-and-air-in-water emulsion, but it is responsible for producing a fat-like textural character in the mouth as well. Table 7B.7 Use of a Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) Gum in a Fat-Free Frozen Dessert Formulation (Ice Cream Substitute) Table 7B.7 Use of a Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) Gum in a Fat-Free Frozen Dessert Formulation (Ice Cream Substitute)
Bacteria are used in the production of all kinds of foods. Before coffee beans are washed, dried, and roasted, they are first soaked in a tank of bacteria that break down bits of shell still stuck on the bean. And without microbes, there would be no chocolate. Cocoa beans must first be fermented by bacteria and yeast before they become edible.
Microparticulated protein (MPP) functions as a surrogate dispersed phase, replacing the fat droplets which conventionally provide dispersed phase functions. The nature of these dispersed phase functions will be familiar to those who have worked with such conventional dispersed phase systems as creams, mayonnaise, chocolate, frankfurters, pasta, etc. However, they have not yet been generalized, and thus are not conveniently described or referenced.
The first commercial use of MP3 in the U.S. was in the fat-free ice cream Simple Pleasures. A comparison of the structure of this product with a full-fat ice cream is shown in Figure 8.11. This product demonstrated that it is feasible to produce foods which are both fat-free and great tasting if the dispersed phase functions of fat globules are effectively replaced. Many other MP3-based products have been brought to the market, including low-fat cheese spreads (Kaukauna), low-fat cheesecakes (Eli's), fat-free frozen novelties (Eskimo Pie), low-fat natural cheeses, including Cheddar (Cabot), Colby, muen-ster, and Monterey Jack (Kroeger and White Clover), and ricotta and mozzarella (Falbo). The development of the low-fat mozzarella made possible the production of low-fat pizza (Home Run Inn). Internationally, MP3 has been used to produce a fat-free butter spread in Ireland and a line of fat-free frozen desserts in Finland (Singer, 1992). Recently, it has been reported that MP3 has been...
As with galactomannans, the role of xanthan gum in fat replacement is not as a direct fat mimetic but as a tool for controlling viscosity and texture and binding excess water. Indeed, xanthan can be used as a stabilizer in similar low-fat product types to those already mentioned under the section on galactomannans (e.g., frozen desserts, cultured dairy products, and bakery products). Frequently, a combination of xanthan gum and galactomannan is found to give better functionality in such products (as a result of the synergistic interactions) or at least the same functionality but at reduced cost. Commercially, many gum suppliers now supply gum blends for use in specific reduced-fat product types and these frequently include both xanthan and a galactomannan.
Once Finnish researchers discovered in 1989 how to add the naturally insoluble sterols and stanols to a host of foods without changing their taste or texture, they began moving back to center stage in the fight against cholesterol. Foods enriched with plant sterols currently include juice, margarines, salad dressings, snack bars, and even chocolate.
Today, several commercial high pressure food products are available in Japan, Europe and the United States. A Japanese company, Meidi-Ya, introduced the first commercial pressure treated product (a fruit-based jam) on the market in April 1990, followed in 1991 by a wide variety of pressure-processed fruit yoghurts, fruit jellies, fruit sauces, savoury rice products, dessert and salad dressings (Mertens and Deplace, 1993). Recently, there were more than 10 pressure treated food products available in Japan. In Europe, fruit juice was the first commercially available high pressure product in France followed by a pressurised delicatessen style ham in Spain and pressurised orange juice in the United Kingdom. In the United States, high pressure treated guacamole has been launched on the commercial market. In addition, pressure treated oysters and hummus are commercially available. A list of commercially available pressurised food products in Japan, Europe and the United States in the last...
In the U.S., polydextrose is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the following product categories chewing gum, confections and frostings, dressings for salads, frozen dairy desserts and mixes, gelatins, puddings and fillings, hard candy, soft candy, baked goods and baking mixes, fruit spread, peanut spreads, toppings, and sweet sauces. The FDA also allows labeling of a caloric value of 1 kcal g for polydextrose, as do most countries where polydextrose is approved.
Synthetic dipeptide aspartame (aspartylphenylalanyl methyl ester) is widely used as a sweetener in light (low calorie) foods and diets for diabetics. The effect of high pressure on aspartame stability has been reported by Butz and co-workers (1997). Aspartame (0.5 g L corresponding to the concentration in commercial diet cola and chocolate milk) in full cream milk (pH 6.8) lost almost 50 of active substances after pressure treatment at 600 MPa and 60 C for 3 minutes while the non-sweet compounds, i.e. aspartylphenylalanine and diketopiperazine, were formed. One of the important factors influencing the pressure stability of aspar-tame was the pH. It was stated that low pH foods containing aspartame could be treated by high pressure without great loss of active substances while high pressure treatment of dairy products (at neutral pH) such as chocolate milk and ice cream may create problems (possibly toxicological ones). After pressure treatment at 600MPa and 60 C (pH 7), 1.15mM of...
Roman cooks had only two sweetening agents that they could use for desserts honey and sapa.* Sapa was made by boiling down unwanted or sour wine in lead pans and we now know that the syrup so produced tasted sweet because it contained a lot of lead acetate. The lead came from the pan in which it was prepared, the acetate came from the wine that was being made sour by the action of enzymes and air which can convert alcohol to acetic acid. The crystals that form from such syrup looked and tasted like the sugar we know today, and were eventually to be known as sugar of lead. Old recipes for making sapa have been repeated in recent times, and analysed, showing that the syrup contained around 1000 ppm of lead (0.1 ). A spoonful of sapa would deliver a dose of lead that would undoubtedly lead to some of the symptoms of poisoning. Yet the popular Roman book, The Apician Cookbook, had sapa as an ingredient in 85 of its 450 recipes, and sapa was used by vintners as well.
Members of the Russian aristocracy became so concerned about his influence on the Tsarina that they plotted to kill him. The question was how and where, as Rasputin was a suspicious man. They decided to invite him to a party at the palace of Prince Felix Yusopov in Petrograd to poison him. He was lured there on 16 December 1917 by the promise of an orgy, wine, and chocolate cake (of which he was reputed to be very fond). The conspirators prepared a chocolate cake incorporating potassium cyanide and dissolved more cyanide in wine. It was said that Rasputin ate the cake and drank copious quantities of wine but without apparent effect. In desperation, Prince Yusopov shot him in the back, but after some time he regained consciousness and attacked the Prince. Rasputin was a giant of a man but those present managed to restrain him and hit him over the head several times. His body was wrapped in a carpet and dumped into
That the need for potassium salts in the diet is much greater than for sodium salts. The recommended daily intake is 3.5 g, whereas for sodium it is 1.5 g. Vegetarians take in a lot more potassium than non-vegetarians because potassium is abundant in all plant foods. We must have a regular supply of dietary potassium because we have no mechanism for storing it in the body, yet few people are affected by a deficiency of this metal because almost all we eat contains potassium. Some foods are particularly rich in it, such as raisins, almonds, peanuts, and bananas one banana will provide a quarter of our daily requirement. Other common foods with lots of potassium are potatoes, bacon, bran, mushrooms, chocolate, and fruit juices.
A direct effect of vasoactive amines on the organism which are not degraded in GI tracts due to the lack of mono- and diaminooxidase (MAO and DAO) or their blockade by medicines or alcohol. This group of amines includes tyramine (in cheddar, emmental, roquefort cheeses, pickled fish, and walnuts), phenylethylamine (in chocolate), serotonin (in bananas), octopamine (in lemons), and histamine (in fermented foods, e.g., blue cheeses, but also in strawberries, tomatoes, wines, and in mackerel that have not been stored properly scombrotoxin illness ).
In the first of Mendel's three conceptual breakthroughs, he separated the information that produced a given trait (which we will call the genotype) from the physical manifestation of the trait itself (which we will call the phenotype). In the case of the pea plant, the yellow-pod recipe (genotype) produces a seedpod that appears to our eyes to be yellow (phenotype). If we were cooking, the words of the cake recipe on the page of the cookbook would be the genotype, but the lemon flavor of the cake would be its phenotype (Figure 3.4). We can carry this analogy further and point out that some phenotypes can be rather more complex, as in a cake with a chocolate genotype having several different characteristics (brown color, chocolate flavor) that are part of its phenotype. FIGURE 3.4 Genotype vs. phenotype. The distinction between information and what can be produced using that information is one of the most important concepts in genetics. So the recipe (genotype) is distinct from the...
Diversity potentially exists for all types of psychological relations. I may be able to see an object that is hidden from your sight. I may want that last piece of chocolate cheesecake, whereas you could not eat another bite. These cases illustrate that psychological relations to real objects differ across people. Diversity naturally also occurs in relations to imaginary or perspectival objects. Differences of opinion are a routine part of human social experience I may think that gasoline taxes should be higher to fund public transit systems my neighbor may believe just as strongly that gasoline is too heavily taxed and those who want to take public transit should pay for it themselves. In such cases, there is no appeal to the truth of the matter diversity is just a difference of opinion. Sometimes, as when we can make reference to a reality that is indubitable, we are justified in Understanding diversity of psychological relations across agents is a fundamental part of commonsense...
The provisions for Terror are still on record and included thousands of cans of meat, soup, vegetables, and potatoes. Most of the food they took consisted of flour (30 tonnes), salted meat (14 tonnes), biscuits (7.5 tonnes), sugar (5 tonnes), spirits (2300 gallons), chocolate (2 tonnes), and lemon juice (2 tonnes), and these were regarded as sufficient to supply this ship of 67 men for three years.
Low-fat frozen desserts such as sorbets and ice milk have been available for years but they have always lacked the creamy character of full-fat ice cream. Reduced-fat versions of ice cream have often suffered from a lack of richness, body, character, flavor, and mouthfeel. Although development of ice crystals upon heat shock and increased hardness in the presence of fat mimetics can be a problem (Yackel and Cox, 1992), incorporation of maltodextrins into frozen desserts to impart a creamy mouthfeel has met with some success. Maltodextrins have also been recommended for use as fat replacers in meat products such as frankfurters and hamburgers, certain baked products, cheese spreads, microwaveable cheese sauces, sour cream, dairy-style creamed fillings, toppings, and puddings (Anon., 1990 Egbert et al., 1991 Yackel and Cox, 1992). Specific formulations for a low-fat frozen dessert and a cheesecake are given in Chapter 6B. Food applications recommended in the early patents by Richter et...
Florence secreted most of her poison in a hatbox in the room where she now slept. This box contained three bottles one held black arsenic and water, another a saturated solution of arsenic oxide, and the third had the remains of a saturated solution with only a little liquid remaining. This cache of poisons was discovered after James had died. In another hatbox there was a glass containing some milk and a handkerchief, both heavily contaminated with arsenic oxide. The packet, and what was left of the black arsenic (less than 5 g), was found in a chocolate box in her trunk. It is clear that Florence was running a modest poison dispensary from the dressing room that she was using as her bedroom. Her technique seems to have been to add water to black arsenic to dissolve the arsenic trioxide and use a handkerchief to filter out the soot, thereby obtaining an almost clear solution of arsenic.
(purity criteria), 79 112 EEC (labeling), 89 107 EEC (framework directive on food additives), and their respective amendments. In December 1994, a proposal for a Council Directive on Food Additives Other Than Colors and Sweeteners was adopted and published on March 18, 1995 as Council Directive 95 2 EC. This new Directive establishes several criteria (Appendixes) relevant to MC and HPMC. The latter are listed in Appendix I meaning that these gums are allowed for use in all foodstuffs following the quantum satis principle (maximum levels limited only by good manufacturing practice), except for applications in certain foods specified in Appendix II, i.e., cocoa and chocolate products fruit juices and nectars jams, jellies, marmalade, and chestnut pur e and dehydrated and partially dehydrated milk. The Member States of the European Union have 18 months from the date of adoption (December 1994) to introduce this Directive into their national legislation at which point the Directive...
Proteins and fats are used as inherent parts of the formulation of many food emulsions, such as mayonnaise, salad dressing, frozen dessert, milk whipped-or ice creams 11, 18, 66, 67 . In these complex food emulsions, besides fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of fat droplets, many factors such as structure and concentration of emulsifiers, droplet size, droplet-droplet interactions, nature of boundary layer at the oil water interface have effects on their physical stability and organoleptic quality 1, 2, 4, 5, 37, 46, 63 . Their processing involves heating and cooling steps, and monitoring desired or detrimental effects of time-temperature parameters can help to maximize processing steps and can constitute a way to produce emulsions with a good storage quality.
Jones is a Fellow of the Institute of Food Science and Technology (U.K.), and a Professional Member of the Institute of Food Technology (U.S.). She has been a member of technical committees of several food industry associations, including the U.K. Biscuit, Cake, Chocolate and Confectionery Alliance, the Food and Drink Federation, and the Microwave Working Group led by the U.K. Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Fisheries. Her achievements in the field of food research were recognized early in her career when she received twice, in 1976 and 1979, respectively, the Rector's Award at the Agricultural University of Warsaw, and, in 1978, she was presented with the Minister of Science, Higher Education and Technology Award.
Allergen A protein or hapten that induces the formation of anaphylactic antibodies and may precipitate an immune response a substance that causes an allergic reaction. Among common allergens are inhalants (dusts, pollens, fungi, smoke, perfumes, odors of plastics) foods (wheat, eggs, milk, chocolate, strawberries) drugs (aspirin, antibiotics, serums) infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, animal parasites) and contactants (chemicals, animals, plants, metals).
Deprenyl is chemically related to amphetamine and phenylethylamine, a substance found in chocolate, and stimulates the substantia nigra, a tiny brain region rich in DOPAMiNE-using brain cells. (It is the deficiency of dopamine that can result in Parkinson's symptoms.) Degeneration of the neurons in the substantia nigra also has been associated with the aging process.
One aspect of the performance of fat that cannot be matched physically is that related to crystallinity and polymorphism. That does not mean, however, that it is not possible to use the rheological manipulation approach in foods dependent on fat crystallization for their characteristics. It is only in the case of products where fat forms the continuous phase, and its structure is solely based on the crystallization of fat, that the problems of rheological matching are compounded. But even here it does not mean that fat reduction cannot be achieved, merely that a different strategic approach needs to be adopted, taking into account the physical limit beyond which further fat reduction cannot be achieved. The issue of rheological matching can best be illustrated with reference to two products, namely table spread (margarine or butter) and chocolate, since each requires a different approach. Chocolate, on the other hand, is a much more difficult product because it is not an emulsion, but...
Problem Foods Many dentists say that plain chocolate is fine as a special treat, since the child's saliva washes away much of the chocolate afterward. it is much less likely to cause decay than a cookie or a cracker that gets chewed into the teeth, where it can remain for a long time.
It has been determined to call chocolate the result of the paste of cocoa burnt with sugar and the bark of the cinnamon. This is the technical definition of chocolate. Sugar is the integral part, for without sugar the compound is cocoa and, chocolate. To sugar, cinnamon and cocoa is joined the delicious aroma of vanilla, and thus is obtained the ne plus ultra to which this preparation can be carried. To this small number of ingredients has been reduced the number of things sought to mingle with cocoa in the manufacture of chocolate. Pepper, pimento, anise seed, ginger and others, have necessarily been tried. The Spanish women of the new world are passionately fond of chocolate and not satisfied with taking it two or three times a day, have it even sent after them to church. This sensuality has often drawn down the censure of their bishops, who, however, gradually closed their eyes to it. The reverend father Escobar, the metaphysics of whom was subtle...
Search for poison and found the chocolate box containing the packet of arsenic trioxide with 'for cats' written on the side. The solicitor living next door was immediately sent for by Michael so he could witness the sealing of this incriminating piece of evidence. On that fateful night, this must have seemed to all present as proof positive of Florence's guilt.
The interview should begin with the history of present illness. The anatomic location of headache onset, region of distribution, and temporal or spatial progression of the pain are important descriptors for mapping. The patient should be able to recall the approximate age of symptom onset, and describe the course of progression through the present time. A detailed account of the frequency and timing of attacks, with reference to any known inciting factors should be elicited. The patient should be asked to recall whether the onset of headache is correlated to head or neck position, chewing, stress, consumption of certain foods (e.g., chocolate, nuts, meats or cheeses, alcohol, or caffeine), menstruation, weather changes, or sleep disturbances. A detailed medication history including any newly prescribed medications, changes
The best way to prevent indigestion is to avoid foods that seem to cause it. Children with the tendency toward indigestion should eat healthy, smaller meals throughout the day, avoiding junk food, fatty foods, too much chocolate, and too many citrus fruits. Eating slowly and avoiding stress can also help. In addition, children should never exercise with a full stomach.
Between the ages of three and five, children typically sleep eleven to thirteen hours each night. Some still nap and some don't. As with toddlers, difficulty falling asleep and waking up during the night are common, so you want to avoid introducing new factors that will disrupt sleep. For example, don't give your child drinks with caffeine in them, like tea or cola, and go easy on chocolate. Avoid the temptation to put a television in your child's bedroom. Research shows that watching TV at bedtime is linked to bedtime resistance and delays in falling asleep, especially if the set is in the child's room.
Polydextrose is most commonly used to replace sugars in various desserts, confections, baked goods, and other sweet foods. Typical applications for polydextrose include ice cream, instant puddings, jams, jellies, pastry, chilled desserts, bakery fillings, cakes, biscuits, confections, frozen desserts, toppings and frostings, instant drinks, cereal bars, extruded snacks, sauces, salad dressings, and peanut spreads. In these applications, polydextrose reduces calories while maintaining the body and texture of full-sugar foods. Although polydextrose is not a fat-replacer per se, it has a relatively high viscosity in solution and can therefore contribute to the mouthfeel and creaminess of fat-reduced formulations. Polydextrose can therefore be considered as a fat-mimetic in some applications.
Polydextrose functions particulary well as a sugar replacer and fat mimetic in chilled desserts. A dessert can readily be formulated with polydextrose to achieve a 50 calorie reduction when used with a high intensity sweetener. Layered desserts and yogurts (Barrantes and Tamime, 1993) have been successfully formulated using polydextrose as a low-calorie bulking agent.
Transmission Transmission of Shigella occurs through the fecal-oral route. It is typically spread by direct contact with an infected person because the bacteria can survive on skin. Studies have demonstrated that an important vehicle for transmission of shigellosis is the hand, and that S. dysenteriae type 1 survives for up to one hour in culturable form on a human's skin (Islam et al., 1997). A characteristic of shigellosis is the ease with which person-to-person transmission of the pathogens occurs (Mosely et al., 1962). This is presumably due to the very small infectious inoculum required. Studies on American volunteers experimentally infected with Shigella have shown that as few as one hundred shigellae given orally cause the disease in 25-50 of the cases (DuPont et al., 1989). Resistance of Shi-gella to gastric juice certainly accounts, although not exclusively, for this high infectivity. Shigella also can be transmitted by contaminated foods (lettuce, onions, coconut milk...
MC products improve structure and moist texture in reduced-fat cakes. In a study of gum effects in reduced-fat microwavable cakes, gum levels and moisture contents in the cake batters were varied using a central composite experimental design (Bell and Steinke, 1991). MC and HPMC increased cake height in yellow cake by about 7 and in chocolate cake by 12 , despite the stresses of microwave baking and reductions in fat of 65 for the yellow and 70 for the chocolate cake. Figure 7B.5 shows the surface response plot for gum concentration and batter moisture vs. cake height in microwave chocolate cake. The yellow and chocolate cakes containing low molecular weight HPMCs produced a favorable moist mouthfeel compared with the control, which was too dry in sensory panel evaluations. The chocolate cake formula that resulted from this study is shown in Table 7B.6. The cake was prepared using a Hobart-type mixer with a wire whip attachment for blending of the dry ingredients, adding shortening to...
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Making Chocolate 101
If you love chocolate then you can’t miss this opportunity to... Discover How to Make Homemade Chocolate! Do you love gourmet chocolate? Most people do! Fine chocolates are one of life’s greatest pleasures. Kings and princes have for centuries coveted chocolate. Did you know that chocolate used to be one of the expensive items in the world, almost as precious as gold? It’s true!