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Stool softeners Stimulant laxatives Laxatives Osmotic laxatives Osmotic laxatives Stool softeners Stool softeners Osmotic laxatives Stool softeners Stimulant laxatives Stimulate motility, and may be particularly useful for constipation associated with abdominal pain in the irritable bowel syndrome Constipation is one of the commonest gastrointestinal complaints. In addition, people often attribute symptoms such as tiredness, lethargy, nausea and headache to what they perceive as constipation. Often no medical explanation is found and there is no proven link between infrequent defecation and general ill health.
The most frequently used SSRIs are fluoxetine hydrochloride, sertraline hydrochloride, and paroxetine hydrochloride, and I will discuss only these three. Because of their receptor-specific properties, these three SSRIs do not cause orthostatic hypotension, cardiac conduction abnormalities, dry mouth, constipation, or (in general) urinary retention. Sedation is relatively uncommon.
Mercury is everywhere and we cannot avoid it. The average adult contains around 6 mg of mercury - assuming they have no mercury amalgam fillings in their teeth - and this is something we have to live with because we can do almost nothing to reduce it. Our average intake of mercury is about 3 mg day for adults, and about 1 g for babies and young children. At these levels the amount we consume in a lifetime is less than a tenth of a gram, although in previous centuries people would consume more than this in a day in the form of medication, generally for embarrassing diseases, such as the unspeakable syphilis or, even worse, the unmentionable constipation. We shed mercury from our body through our urine, faeces, and even our hair. We could excrete mercury via our saliva glands, which are greatly stimulated by mercury, but the mercury in saliva tends to return to the stomach.
Bile-acid resins A class of drugs that have been shown to reduce LDL bad cholesterol by 10 percent to 30 percent in HIV-negative people examples include cholestyramine (Questran) and colestipol (Colestid). These drugs bind with cholesterol in the intestines and prevent it from being absorbed into the bloodstream. The cholesterol is then removed from the body with each bowel movement. Bile-acid resins are often used in combination with other lipid-lowering drugs. This is because bile-acid resins can actually cause triglyceride levels to increase. Side effects of these drugs include stomachaches, bloating, flatulence (farting), heartburn, and constipation. Another problem with bile-acid resins is that they should be taken two hours before other medications, including antiretrovirals. This can be challenging for HIV-positive people who are already overwhelmed by a two- or three-times-daily medication schedule. Bile-acid resins have not yet been studied in HIV-positive patients with...
The cause of hypothyroidism may be primary (thyroid dysfunction), secondary (pituitary dysfunction), or tertiary (hypothalamic dysfunction). Primary hypothyroidism is 1000-fold more common than secondary or tertiary causes.1 Hypothyroidism is associated with cold intolerance, weight gain, constipation, dry skin, bradycardia, hoarseness, and slow mental processing.1 In adults, the characteristic signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism may have an insidious onset. Chronic cutaneous changes include dry, puffy skin with a yellowish complexion as well as a thickening of the subcutaneous tissues due to accumulation of mucopolysaccharides. The hair becomes dry and brittle and is often sparse. The voice may deepen in pitch, and hypoventilation has been observed. Hypothyroid patients can show decreased pulse rate, decreased cardiac stroke volume, and decreased myocar-dial contractility that causes decreased cardiac output. Since peripheral metabolism is slowed, arteriovenous oxygen may not show a...
Mercury metal can be diluted with solid materials, by carefully grinding them together in a pestle and mortar, and in this way pharmacists used to prepare grey powder and blue pills. The former consisted of finely divided mercury mixed with chalk, and it could be taken by stirring it into milk, while in the latter it was mixed with sugar and could be pressed into tablets. Both were seen as sure remedies for constipation, although they were introduced originally as part of the treatment for syphilis.
People with HIV are usually advised to take a multiple vitamin-mineral supplement that supplies the basic level of nutrients most important to body function. Many nutritionists believe that additional supplements are necessary. Symptoms that may be related to nutrient deficiencies and may be reversible with appropriate supplementation include serious fatigue, memory loss or other cognitive dysfunction, skin problems, neuropathy, weight loss, loss of the senses of smell or taste, appetite loss, muscle pain or cramps, digestive problems, night blindness, canker sores, constipation, depression anxiety, menstrual cramps, and menopausal problems. Many other symptoms in people living with HIV may be related to nutrient deficiencies.
Encopresis is a problem that children can develop due to chronic constipation. once children become constipated, they may avoid using the bathroom to avoid discomfort. As stools become impacted and unable to move forward, the rectum and intestine become enlarged due to the hard, impacted stool. Eventually, the rectum and intestine have problems sensing Any child with chronic constipation may develop encopresis. Constipation can be caused by a junk-food diet, drinking too many sodas and sugared drinks, not drinking enough water and fruit juices, lack of exercise, and stress. Boys are six times more likely to develop enco-presis. Even though family stress can be linked to constipation, there does not seem to be any link between developing encopresis and number of siblings, birth order, age, or the family's income
A number of health and disease end-points, affecting a large proportion of the population, need to be addressed in developing healthy foods. Some, such as cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer, osteoporosis, and constipation are associated with a combination of ageing and unhealthy dietary patterns. Others, such as obesity, are largely the result of food processors and marketers successfully providing foods that appeal to the basic human preferences for sweetness and fats, in all age groups. It would be best to design foods with a number of endpoints in mind, and evaluate them with a battery of tests to demonstrate nutritional balance. Producing foods for specific functions or using foods as medicines risks unbalanced nutrient intake. Various large bowel disorders including constipation, diverticulosis, colorectal cancer.
Nal tract colon, rectum, anus, and peri-anal region. Patients present with a variety of diseases such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, motility disorders, diverticulitis, anal fissures and fistulas, fecal incontinence, and constipation. Colorectal surgeons can perform both endoscopy and major abdominal operations.
Irregular bowel habit can exacerbate constipation, as the colon and rectum continue to remove water from stool, hardening it and making passage more difficult. Thus, constipation can be self-perpetuating. In severe chronic constipation, particularly in the elderly, faeces may become so hard, dry and immovable (faecal impaction) that they cannot be passed without medical or surgical assistance, leading to intestinal obstruction. Reduced colonic motility may also be constitutive, i.e. normal for that person (slow transit constipation). Excessive, chronic use of stimulant laxatives, such as senna, can reduce motility, presumably by damaging or depleting enteric neurons, causing colonic atonia. 5HT3 receptor antagonists that have been used to treat diarrhoea in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can also cause severe constipation. Stool volume and the frequency of defecation vary with diet, fluid intake and intestinal secretion. Dietary fibre, which mainly comprises non-digestible plant...
Sure to high levels of radiation may also cause ovarian cancer. The most common type of ovarian cancer is the epithelial carcinoma in the ovary's outer layer. Frequently there are no symptoms in the early stages of ovarian cancer, making it difficult to obtain an early diagnosis, when there is the greatest chance for effective treatment. An ovarian tumor can grow for some time before pressure or pain can be felt or other problems are noticed. When symptoms do occur, they may include abdominal swelling or bloating, discomfort in the lower part of the abdomen, a full feeling after a light meal, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, gas, indigestion, weight loss, constant need to urinate, diarrhea, or constipation, and nonmenstrual bleeding. procedures used in the diagnosis and evaluation of ovarian cancer may include an internal exam of the uterus, vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder, and rectum, a pap smear, ultrasound, blood and urine tests, and x rays. Additional procedures that...
Environmental factors including diet influence the incidence of CRC. Western diets that are high in fat and red meat and low in fibre predispose to CRC, while vegetables, vitamins, trace elements, such as selenium, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as sulindac, seem to be protective. Smoking tobacco also increases the risk of CRC. High-fat diets induce the production of carcinogens, while reduced dietary fibre causes constipation so that the carcinogens remain in contact with the epithelium for longer.
The patient's pains were usually dull, aching, and poorly localized and would last for hours without relief. Often there would be nausea but rarely vomiting. Frequently the patient developed abdominal distention and constipation and complained of leg weakness, but she was usually able to walk. When seen in the emergency department or office during these episodes, she was tachycardic but otherwise had a nonrevealing examination. Her stool was always negative for occult blood. Over the years, she had maintained a stable weight of 103-107 lb (47-48 kg). All of her routine laboratory studies, including complete blood counts, pancreatic enzymes, liver function tests, antinuclear antibodies, and urinalyses, were normal. The patient and her boyfriend were using condoms for contraception, and urine pregnancy tests were always negative. An upper gastrointestinal x-ray examination with a small bowel study, an endoscopic examination of her stomach and duodenum, a colonoscopy, a capsule endoscopy...
Reduced either by lowering the dosage (and raising it more gradually) or by taking the medication earlier in the evening. Constipation from tricyclic antidepressants or verapamil can usually be managed with routine measures such as fiber supplementation, or verapamil can be switched to diltiazem. Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers should not be reduced or eliminated simply because of relative bradycardia or hypotension without symptoms or special cause for concern.
For management of narcolepsy symptoms in humans, pharmacological treatment is usually employed (11,27,28). For EDS, amphetamine-like central nervous system (CNS) stimulants or modafinil (a nonamphetamine stimulant with undetermined mechanisms of action) are most often used (Table 2). These compounds possess wake-promoting effects in narcoleptic subjects as well as in control populations, but very high doses are required to normalize the abnormal sleep tendency during the daytime (29). For consolidating nighttime sleep, benzodiazepine hypnotics or y-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) are occasionally used (11,27,28). Since amphetamine-like stimulants and modafinil have little effect on cataplexy, tricyclic antidepressants, such as imipramine or clomipramine are used in addition to control cataplexy (11,27,28) (Table 2). However, these compounds can cause a number of side effects, such as dry mouth, constipation, or impotence. GHB is also used for the treatment of cataplexy its mechanism of action...
Less common side effects include stomach problems, headaches, lethargy, irritability, nausea, euphoria, depression, nightmares, dry mouth, constipation, anxiety, hallucinations, nervous tics, and tremors. In children at risk for tic disorders such as tourette's syndrome the medication may trigger the condition. Because individual reactions and needs change, it is very important that the use and result of the medication be monitored.
Anoderm, which inhibits healing (42). The pain associated with a fissure may cause the patient to ignore the urge to defecate, resulting in the passage of a large hard bowel movement, which further traumatizes the area, leading to a vicious cycle of pain, constipation, and re-injury. The majority of primary anal fissures are painful and may be associated with streaking of the stool with blood or blood on the toilet paper. Secondary anal fissures result from other underlying causes, such as Crohn's disease, anal cancer, HIV, tuberculosis, abscess or fistula, and sexually transmitted diseases. Depending on the cause, some of these may be painless, especially Crohn's disease and anal cancer, and may present as a non-healing ulcer and or recurrent bleeding. They may also be located away from the midline unlike primary anal fissures. Any suspicion of a secondary cause for a fissure should prompt the physician to get a biopsy to diagnose the above-mentioned secondary causes. The treatment...
Vinblastine An anticancer agent used for the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, lymphoma, testicular cancer, and breast cancer. In people with HIV, it is used for the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma. Vinblastine belongs to a class of cancer drugs called vinca alkyloids, which are naturally occurring chemicals isolated from the periwinkle plant. Vinca alkyloids stop the growth of tumors by preventing cells from dividing. Although vinblastine can be used by itself to treat cancers, it is used more frequently in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. Vinblastine is available as a solution for intravenous injection. The most common side effect is reduction in the number of white blood cells, which occurs, to some extent, in virtually everyone using the drug. Hair loss occurs commonly. Constipation, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, sore mouth, jaw pain, diarrhea, stomach bleeding, and rectal bleeding may occur. In general, side effects occur most frequently when large...
The King's illness of 1788 is worth a closer look because it has been clearly documented. Its chief features were severe constipation, colic, weakness in the limbs, difficulty in swallowing, sleeplessness, with progressive mental disturbances that started with talkativeness and advanced irritability to delirium and coma. These read like a textbook case of acute lead poisoning. The weekend of Sunday, 9 November 1788 was a crisis. The King had obviously lost control of his mind and his physical condition deteriorated so rapidly that in London the rumour went round that he had died by Monday, 10 November the King was only semi-conscious - but then he began to recover physically. His mental condition, however, did not improve and to all intents and purposes he was mad. This symptom of his illness dominated all others, since it was so important to the functioning of government. It has also coloured his popular image ever since. When it became obvious that the King would survive, fresh...
Sapa was used to preserve wine, and especially Greek wines. These were popular in Rome but had a reputation for causing sterility, miscarriages, constipation, headaches, and insomnia - all of which would be true if they had been doctored with sapa. Roman prostitutes were reputed to eat sapa by the spoonful because it acted as a contraceptive, gave them attractive pale complexions (due to anaemia), and would cause abortions.
On evaluation by a pediatric endocrinologist, the patient denied symptoms of hypercalcemia, including abdominal pain, constipation, muscle pain, or tiredness. A soft right parasternal murmur was noted. The finding of hypercalcemia in combination with arrhythmia was suggestive of Williams syndrome, but an EKG was normal and echocardiogra-phy revealed no evidence of supravalvular aortic stenosis or any cardiac abnormality. Additional laboratory studies were obtained
Of course the hair in the locket could only show the level of lead to which Beethoven was exposed during the last months of his life, but there is no reason to suppose that his eating and drinking habits were different then to what they had always been. Nor is it likely that the lead had been applied to the hair as a dye, because the strands cut from his head were grey, white, and brown, showing that he was naturally going grey and not trying to disguise it. There could have been many sources of lead contaminating the food and drink of the great composer. The most likely one would have been water taken from a lead cistern, wine, pewter drinking vessels, or lead-glazed pottery in which acidic drinks or foods like sauerkraut were stored. All these were known to provide high doses of lead at the time, and those afflicted suffered just as Beethoven did with painful colic and constipation, with damage to the nervous systems that could account for his irascible manner, and maybe even his...
Thallium is a cumulative poison, which means that the substance remains in the body and repeated doses become poisonous as the total amount in the body increases. It takes some time to kill the victim, who first suffers from severe pains in the stomach, nausea, vomiting, and severe constipation or, sometimes, diarrhoea. These symptoms do not occur immediately, but only after twenty-four to forty-eight hours. Depending on the dose, the victim may survive for weeks. If they do, one important symptom that helps in the detection of the poisoning is loss of hair, which happens after about two weeks. The other symptom is polyneuritis, that is, irritation or inflammation of the nerves leading to tingling in the hands and feet and then pain and weakness in various parts of the body. There can be degeneration of the optic nerve and consequently blindness.
Unlike girls with anorexia, those with bulimia eat large amounts of food and then get rid of the excess calories by vomiting, abusing laxatives or diuretics, taking enemas, or exercising obsessively. Some use a combination of all of these. Because many girls with bulimia binge and purge in secret and maintain normal or above-normal body weight, they often can successfully hide their problem from others for years.
Headaches, indigestion, constipation, irritability, lack of concentration. colic it paralyses the intestines, hence the immovable constipation and it affects the muscles and nerve fibres, hence the general feeling of weakness and numbness of the limbs. The most serious effect of all is on the brain where it weakens the walls of the blood vessels so that they leak this causes a pressure of water to build up in the brain, and ALA itself can then permeate the brain. These symptoms may range from mild headaches, depression, and sleeplessness in a mild attack, but become hallucinations, insomnia, fits, blindness, and coma in severe cases. The swelling of the brain, known as lead encephalopathy, is the danger most to be feared in children because it can result in permanent damage.
Lead in the inorganic form, as in lead salts, causes a range of effects depending on the amount. General effects on the gastrointestinal tract lead to pain (colic), constipation, and diarrhoea vomiting can also occur. There are sometimes pains in the joints (gout), and weakness in the arms or legs or hands (hence 'wrist drop') resulting from effects on the nerves. Headache and blindness are sometimes symptoms, as well as mental disturbances which in severe cases can reach insanity. Chronic exposure will cause damage and dysfunction of the kidney, leading to nephritis and possible kidney failure.
On day 9 in the burn unit, he was noted to have decreased responsiveness with confusion and lethargy. On physical examination, his chest and heart were normal. His abdomen was normal, and by report his bowels were moving normally. Skin examination showed extensive burn injuries with recent debridement, and no evidence of infection. Intact skin showed good tissue perfusion. A Foley catheter was in place and showed minimal dark brown urine. His medications included topical antibacterial cream for his burns (Furacin Soluble Dressing), Colace, morphine, and IV ranitidine.
A 59-year-old woman, gravida 2 para 1 presented to her primary care physician with a 2-month history of abdominal bloating, early satiety, and increasing abdominal girth. She has a medical history significant only for essential hypertension and depression that have been responding well to medications. She has been postmenopausal for 7 years and has not been on hormone replacement therapy. Prior to menopause she used the copper-T intrauterine device (IUD) for contraception. She denied any vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or urinary frequency. Screening colonoscopy performed at age 50, routine annual mammography, and annual cytologic screening of the uterine cervix have all been within normal limits. Her only prior operation was a cesarean section. A family history revealed maternal breast cancer, diagnosed at age 62. She does not smoke, drinks occasionally, and does not use any illicit drugs or over-the-counter medications.
Where did the lead come from and what effects did it have Lead is a cumulative poison. Like arsenic, it has many targets in the body and some of the symptoms of poisoning are easily confused with the symptoms of other diseases. Chronic, long-term lead exposure will cause effects on the nervous system which may become serious. The victim feels tired and listless, has constipation, is anaemic, and can become infertile. If, as seems likely, it was the upper levels of Roman society that suffered most from lead poisoning, some of these effects could have influenced the running of an empire.
Preliminary results from a still ongoing phase II study of bortezomib as a single agent in patients with metastatic or recurrent sarcoma were presented in abstract form. Arm A comprised patients with Ewing's, osteogenic, or rhabdomyosarcoma and arm B included other soft tissue sarcomas. The primary end point was response rate evaluation. Secondary end points included analysis of 20S proteasome inhibition in patients' lymphocytes, urine VEGF andfibroblastgrowthfactor (FGF) levels, tumorp53, murine double minute 2 (MDM2), and cyclin D and E expression. Bortezomib was given 1.5 mg m2 twice weekly for 2 wk, then 1-wk rest. At the time of abstract presentation, 13 patients were enrolled in arm B and no patients in arm A. The median number of cycles administered was 2. Out of 11 evaluable patients, 7 had progressive disease and 2 had stable disease. For two patients, it was too early for evaluation. Major reported toxicities were constipation, abdominal pain, myalgias, and persistent...
Barium sulfate A compound used during X rays and (CT) scans to assist medical personnel to detect masses, tumors, or other abnormalities of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and colon. Barium sulfate is radiopaque, which means it is visible under x-ray technology. It is given either as a milky drink or as an enema. Sometimes it can cause severe constipation or impaction, so eliminating the barium after a procedure is very important. Laxatives may be used to encourage elimination of all the barium sulfate.
Bile acid binders are used much less commonly nowadays because of their many side effects. These include constipation, heartburn, and a bloated feeling. Bile acid binders can also interfere with the action of many drugs, especially digitalis, beta-blockers, warfarin, thiazide diuretics, anticonvulsants, and thyroid hormone supplements. And people with high triglyceride levels should not take this type of medication because it tends to elevate triglycerides. Since ezetimibe has come along, anyone who would've been prescribed bile acid binders will probably get ezet-imibe instead.
Because anorexia is basically self-starvation, the body is denied the essential nutrients it needs to function normally. As a result, it is forced to slow down all of its processes to conserve energy. This slowing down can have serious medical consequences, including an abnormally slow heart rate and low blood pressure. The risk for heart failure rises as heart rate and blood pressure levels sink lower and lower. Thyroid function slows, menstrual periods stop, and even breathing slows down. Nails and hair become brittle, the skin dries and yellows. Girls may become very thirsty and urinate often, as dehydration contributes to constipation and reduced body fat leads to lowered body temperature.
A similar approach can be used in evaluating a patient for hypothyroidism. In this case, the patient may have symptoms of a sluggish metabolism, such as fatigue, cold intolerance, and constipation. The thyroid may or may not be enlarged. The test results will be the reverse of those in hyperthyroidism. The TSH will be elevated and the serum-free T4 will be low. The thyroid peroxidase antibody level will often be elevated, which supports a diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the most common cause of hypothyroidism
Amitriptyline is available in tablet and injectable form. The most common side effects include sleepiness, blurred vision, disorientation, confusion, hallucinations, muscle spasms, seizures, dry mouth, constipation, difficult urination, worsening glaucoma, and sensitivity to bright light or sunlight.
Clearly addiction to or dependence on the drug is an adverse effect. Although the drug, heroin, itself may not be especially hazardous in the doses needed to cause a pleasurable effect or 'high' in a naive subject, repeated use of the drug will lead to both addiction or dependence and tolerance (see below) which increase the likelihood of toxic effects occurring. For example, the increasing doses needed due to tolerance may lead to suppression of breathing and a reduction in the sensitivity of the brain to carbon dioxide so that breathing may stop, for example during sleep. Other drugs that have a depressant effect, such as alcohol, will increase the likely toxicity if taken together with morphine or heroin. Other effects are constipation and the possibility of causing asthma in susceptible individuals.
Can be used alone or along with other treatments such as radiation therapy, surgery, and or biological therapy. When chemotherapy is used along with other treatments, it may be given before surgery to reduce the size of the tumor so that the surgery can be more effective. Chemotherapy may also be given after the primary treatment, as adjuvant therapy, to destroy any remaining cancer cells. The type of chemotherapy given a patient, and the dose, is determined by a number of factors, including the kind of cancer, the stage it has reached, the objective of the treatment, and the medical condition of the patient. Chemotherapy has many side effects, ranging from unpleasant to life-threatening, depending upon, among other things, the degree of toxicity of the particular drug. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and constipation are common.
The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism), in iodine-sufficient countries, is approximately one in 4000 births and may be associated with the most severe neuropsychological abnormalities.1 This high incidence has resulted in the institution of neonatal screening programs in many developed countries. Clinical features include feeding problems, hypotonia, umbilical hernia, constipation, enlarged tongue, dry skin, characteristic facies, and open posterior fontanelle. On radiological examination, poor skeletal maturation can be seen as retardation in the appearance of ossification centers. Failure to institute early treatment with thyroid hormone leads to significant brain damage. Even with early therapy, there may still be a residual effect to lower the intelligence quotient.
Hypochondriacal beliefs (e.g., no bowel movements for many weeks without evidence of constipation), ideas of poverty (e.g., complaints of no money, insurance, or clothing when that is not the case), or guilt and self-blame (e.g., unfounded beliefs that the person has harmed others). Because depressed patients often feel unwell, with insomnia, anorexia, and lethargy, they may present to their primary care physicians with somatic complaints.
His review of systems was negative for polyuria, polydipsia, and nocturia. He suffered from heat intolerance and became easily dehydrated, although this could be treated by aggressive oral replenishment with Gatorade. He was never hospitalized for dehydration. He did not complain of headaches, cough, shortness of breath, or wheezing. While he did experience episodic nausea, there were no complaints of vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation.
Abdominal pain, altered bowel habit (constipation or diarrhoea) and flatulence are common symptoms arising from colonic disorders. Bleeding may cause anaemia or may be detected as visible blood in the stool (haematochesia), or by special testing for faecal occult blood (see Chapter 43). Constipation, diarrhoea and abdominal pain are frequently due to the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), without any evident organic pathology (see Chapter 29).
Gastrointestinal exams X-ray examinations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are used in the diagnosis of a number of complications associated with HIV and AIDS. There are three basic GI tract exams the upper GI exam focuses on the esophagus and stomach the lower GI exam, on the small intestine and the barium enema exam, on the large intestine and bowel. All GI exams require the use of a contrast agent that blocks x rays and thereby silhouettes the body parts of interest, allowing visual interpretation. Contrast agents used for the GI tract are usually composed of a barium sulfate liquid suspension, but iodine- and non-iodine-based contrast agents are also used. The barium mixture has a thick milky consistency and is either swallowed or introduced into the rectum by an enema while the x rays are taken. The contrast agent and not the x rays generally causes any complications arising from the exam. Constipation, rectal bleeding, faintness, weakness, abdominal pain, inability to pass...
Intussusception usually triggers loud, anguished crying from the intense pain, as the baby draws the knees to the chest. Other common symptoms include vomiting, fever, irritability, lethargy, abdominal swelling, shallow breathing or grunting, and constipation. There may be some blood and mucus mixed with the stools.
Alteration of previously regular bowel habit is more likely to indicate disease, although some causes of constipation are congenital. True constipation implies reduced defecation frequency or stool volume, although patients also complain of straining during defecation, pain on defecation and hard, dark stool. The sense of incomplete evacuation is called tenesmus. Paradoxically, chronic constipation and faecal impaction, particularly in the elderly, may cause incontinence and passage of fluid per rectum, so-called overflow incontinence.
Diarrhoea and constipation could result from altered intestinal transit time, but physiological studies of intestinal motility are still inconclusive. Altered function of smooth muscle in extra-intestinal organs, such as the lungs and urinary bladder has been demonstrated in IBS.
The intentional addition of substances to food is not a recent practice, as might be supposed. For centuries salt has been commonly used as a preservative and spices to flavour, and perhaps disguise, poor-quality food. In Ancient Rome sapa was used to sweeten food and wine, and the ancient Greeks also added it to wine. It eventually became associated with adverse effects, such as constipation, tiredness, colic, infertility, and anaemia.
Causing diarrhoea.166 Furthermore, GI ADRs account for approximately 18 of all reported clinical adverse drug reactions and 20 to 40 of those in hospitalized patients.167 Given, however, that symptoms of disturbed GI function are encountered in everyday life, the actual incidence of drug-related effects is most likely extensively underreported. Most of the reported ADRs are functional in nature (nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea or constipation) with a fewer number related to lesions (e.g., ulceration) or enhanced susceptibility to infection (e.g., pseudomembranous colitis).168 Of these, it is estimated that approximately 80 are Type A-predictable pharmacological reactions.169 In addition to safety concerns, drug-related inhibition or enhancement of GI motor function can also lead to the alteration of a drug's pharmacokinetic profile owing to alterations in residency time of a drug in its site of absorption. Changes in plasma exposure of orally administered...
Fecal contamination of the vulva and perineum in young children is not always due to improper hygiene, but can result from fecal overflow around rectal blockage caused by constipation. This often unrecognized cause of fecal soiling is a precipitating or perpetuating factor in recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in young girls. Because the anus and the urethra are closer in preme-narchal girls than in mature women, poor hygiene and toilet practices are often emphasized as a primary contributing factor. However, vulvar hygiene does not play a singular role. The most important risk factors for recurrent UTIs unrelated to physical abnormalities are a combination of 3. Stool retention due to constipation
When Napoleon fell ill in March 1821 we know he was given tartar emetic (potassium antimony tartrate) by his doctors to check his fever. Then on 3 May he was given, without his knowledge, 10 grains of calomel, a strong purgative, as Napoleon had admitted to not having evacuated his bowels for many days. The dose was well in excess of the normal amount given to treat constipation and Weider believes that this was the agent that finished him off, and explains why his stomach lining was found to be heavily corroded when it was opened after death. (The arsenic in his hair is consistent with his theory that this was given to weaken his constitution and disguise the fatal poisoning.)
All the above treatments were really external and unlikely to cause lead poisoning in those being treated. Not so the lead medicaments that were to be taken by mouth. Lead acetate mixed with sulphur was prescribed for tuberculosis, and pills of lead acetate and opium were given to cure diarrhoea, which they did. These latter pills contained about 100 mg of lead acetate, which was enough to cause constipation, while the opium deadened the pain of any colic. Lead acetate was sometimes used as a sedative to treat hysteria and convulsive cough.
The adulteration of alcoholic drinks with lead, either deliberately or accidentally, was to bedevil many who drank them in the Middle Ages and later centuries, just as it had in Roman times. Sometimes the amount of lead caused outbreaks of severe lead poisoning which went under various names, often linked to the region where it first appeared, thus there was Picton colic in France in the 1600s, Massachusetts 'dry gripes' in the American colonies in the early 1700s, and Devon colic in southwest England later that century. All involved intense stomach pains, severe constipation, and mental disturbances.
A split in the skin of the anal canal causes acute tearing pain, particularly on defecation. There may also be some bleeding. The cause is constipation and hard stool. Stool softeners and alleviating constipation are the main treatments and, in the acute state, local application of glyceryl trinitrate ointment, which relaxes the anal sphincter, may allow the fissure to heal. In chronic cases, surgical division of the internal anal sphincter (sphincterotomy) may be performed.
Antimony metal appeared in two guises in the Middle Ages emetic cups and perpetual pills, the former to cure a hangover and overindulgence, the latter to cure constipation. At the end of an evening of eating and drinking to excess, some wine was left in a special goblet made of antimony to be drunk the following day, whereupon it would soon provoke vomiting and empty the stomach. Perpetual pills were small balls of antimony which were swallowed. These would irritate the gut thereby promoting it to action to eject the irritant. The pill was then retrieved from the expelled excrement, washed, and stored for further use. There are reports that such pills were highly effective and passed from generation to generation.
Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.