The cultural explosion for _ H. sapiens sapiens, V 60,000-30,000


100,000 75,000

years ago V

50,000 Years ago

Agriculture, 10,000 years ago

Mean brain volume for living humans

Technology, 1610-present



2.2 Humanoid skull capacity over the past 4 million years. Each symbol represents a particular skull from which brain volume has been estimated. Note the two conspicuous increases in cranial size at 2.0 to 1.5 million years ago and 500,000 to 200,000 years ago. Also note the cultural explosion shown at 60,000 to 30,000 years ago in the detailed figure. (Drawn from data presented by Aiello and Dunbar 1993 and Aiello 1996; figure from Mithen 1996.)

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