How to Prevent the Common Cold
A cold is not the same thing as influenza. The common cold is usually limited to the head, whereas the flu will affect the entire body. A cold usually begins slowly, with slight sore throat, mild chills or aches, and mild fever not usually over 100 F. The common cold causes a scratchy throat, runny nose, and itchy eyes. Allergies share a few symptoms with colds, but they have significant differences. A cold that seems to be hanging on for months is more likely an allergy. Winter allergies cause itchy eyes itchy, runny, and stuffy nose itchy throat postnasal drip coughing, sneezing, and season-long symptoms.
How a Common Cold Can Lead to Sinusitis We have a good understanding of what causes acute sinusitis and how to treat it. Most cases are preceded by a bad cold, also known as an upper respiratory infection, or URI for short. Such colds are caused by viruses. Although there are dozens of cold-causing viruses, rhinovirus (literally, nose virus ) is a common culprit. Most of the time, the common cold goes away without medical treatment, and no further problems ensue. But in a small percentage of cases less than 5 percent the cold transitions to acute sinusitis. This progression is most likely to occur in people who have narrow or blocked sinus ostia, a condition that predisposes them to sinusitis.
Adenovirus One of a group of closely related viRUses that can cause infections of the upper respiratory tract, such as the common cold and pink-eye. Other adenoviruses can cause gastrointestinal illness or urinary tract infections. These viruses have also appeared in latent infections in
Allergic rhinitis An inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nose caused by an allergic reaction as inhaled allergens are trapped by the nasal filtration system. In allergic rhinitis, sneezing is a prominent feature and nasal symptoms may be accompanied by itchy watery eyes and intense itching of the nose and soft palate. The disease is triggered in susceptible children by allergic reactions to pollen, mold, dust mites, and other allergens. Seasonal allergic rhinitis is called hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis. In this condition, both the nose and the eyes are affected. Allergic rhinitis that occurs year-round is known as perennial allergic rhinitis. seasonal pollen allergy may exacerbate symptoms of perennial rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic disease in children, affecting about one in five children by the age of two or three years up to 30 percent are affected during adolescence. Boys are twice as likely to get allergic rhinitis than girls, but the...
A 75-year-old man with longstanding hypertension developed a fever and upper respiratory illness 2 weeks prior to admission. The fever ranged between 103 and 104 F (39.4 and 40.0 C), and there were no localized pulmonary findings or productive cough. This illness did not respond to a cephalosporin, and thus amantadine was begun one week prior to admission. Four days prior to admission the patient's family stopped all medications, including his antihypertensive drugs, because they felt he was having a reaction to the medicine.
Ogy of which was first described in 1904 by de Quervain, is the most common cause of painful thyroid disease, and has a peak incidence in women in the third to sixth decades. Although a definite cause of subacute thyroiditis has yet to be found, a viral etiology has been proposed. In fact, patients often report a history of a recent upper respiratory tract infection. Patients present with sudden or gradually progressive pain in the region of the thyroid gland, and some patients report a viral prodrome. Symptoms are spontaneously remitting within weeks to months clinical features of thyroto-xicosis are present in up to 50 of patients. Occasionally, subacute thyroiditis can present as a dominant nodule, and it is this subset of cases that is sampled by FNA.
Coccidioidomycosis A respiratory illness caused by inhaling airborne spores of the Coccidioides fungus. It is found in semiarid or desert areas. It is also called valley fever, desert fever, and San Joaquin Valley fever. outbreaks typically follow dust storms, earthquakes, and excavation of desert sites. It is widespread throughout the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America. It can spread to other parts of the body besides the lungs. It is not spread from person to person.
Three distinct genetic and serological groups of coronaviruses have been defined.28, 29 Coronaviruses from groups 1 and 2 are known to cause disease in humans.30 Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a group 1 virus, and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), a group 2 virus, cause mild upper respiratory infections that result in self-resolving common colds in otherwise healthy individuals.29, 30 Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63 also referred to as HCoV-NH and HCoV-NL) has recently been identified as a group 1 virus causing conjunctivitis, croup, and sometimes serious respiratory infections in children.31-33 HCoV-NL63 is also notable for its use of the SARS-CoV cellular receptor ACE2 to infect cells.34 Another group 2 coronavirus (HCoV-HKU1) was recently isolated from a 71-year old man with pneumonia.35 SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-like viruses found in animals also cluster with group 2 viruses, although they are outliers of group 2 and have been also described as group 4, or, more recently,...
The biggest problem contributing to resistance is unnecessary use of antibiotics. For example, they're often needlessly prescribed for the common cold, which is caused by a virus, not bacteria. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses. Sinusitis, on the other hand, is caused by bacterial infection, so antibiotics have a legitimate role in its treatment.
Millions of people suffer from allergies, which ultimately affects their workplace productivity and results in billions of dollars lost each year. These reactions include respiratory diseases (asthma, sinusitis, rhinitis), adverse drug effects, and unusual skin rashes. Because allergies have an underlying immunologic component, these specialists are also experts on antibodies, antigens, and other complex
Continuous positive airway pressure was once very cumbersome but has become more comfortable in recent years. Newer models are lighter and quieter, and many offer options such as warmed humidified air (which alleviates nasal congestion, skin dryness, and dry mouth) and a timer that slowly builds up pressure to give you time to adapt and fall asleep more easily. There are also a variety of mask styles, allowing users to find the one that best fits their face and is most comfortable.
Incubation period The interval between initial infection with a microbe and appearance of the first symptom or sign of disease. For influenza and the common cold, the incubation period is usually several days for measles, chicken pox, mumps, and infections caused by many other viruses, the incubation period is two to three weeks. The incubation period of HIV falls somewhere between two weeks and six months before people undergo the initial viral conversion. It is why when people test for HIV they are generally told to return in six months to test again to find out whether they have
Element, such as a plasmid or a bacteriophage. Elegant experiments characterizing diphtheria toxin showed that the gene encoding this exotoxin was located within the genome of the lysogenic p-phage. Although both nonlysogenic and lysogenic strains of C. diphtheriae could establish local upper-respiratory-tract infection, only strains of C. diphtheriae lysoge-nized with a p-phage that encoded diphtheria toxin were capable of eliciting systemic disease. This established a basic property for the pathology elicited by bacteria that produce exotoxins bacteria establish a localized infection and subsequently produce an exo-toxin, which is responsible for pathology distal to the site of infection.
Does alcohol have any beneficial effects There is growing evidence that moderate drinking can have a beneficial effect on health. Moderate intake seems to reduce the incidence of heart disease and, apparently, people who drink have fewer colds. However, such effects may be partly due to the other constituents of drink, although alcohol itself is also believed to have some beneficial effects.
Vitamin C and zinc are the two supplements most often claimed to prevent infections. Research in this area has focused on colds whether these products have any beneficial effect on sinusitis in terms of either warding off infections or shortening their duration is not known. There is, however, some evidence to supports zinc's infection-fighting properties. Zicam, a zinc-containing nasal gel, has been shown to reduce a cold's duration if you start using it within the first twenty-four hours of the onset of symptoms. The drawback of this over-the-counter preparation is that it must be sprayed into the nose every four hours for one to two weeks to be effective. Zinc is also available in lozenge form, as the product Cold-Eze, but the use of this oral preparation for reducing colds has yielded mixed results.
Even the most dedicated exercisers sometimes go astray. Almost anything can knock you off track a bad cold, an out-of-town trip, or a stretch of bad weather. That's why it's critical to learn how to reclaim your routine. When you've missed workout sessions, you need to evaluate your current level of fitness and set goals accordingly. If you've been away from your routine for two weeks or more, don't expect to start where you left off. Cut your workout in half for the first few days to give your body time to readjust.
We tested a total of 57 samples from 48 KD patients and found that only one of the 48 KD patients (2 ) was positive for HCoV-NL63 RNA (Table 1). This patient met 4 of 5 classic clinical criteria for KD, but also exhibited symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection, with cough and coryza which are rare symptoms for KD but common symptoms for HCoV-NL63 infection. Furthermore, although this patient responded with complete defervescence after administration of intravenous gamma globulin and aspirin that are common treatments for KD, his respiratory symptoms persisted. These results suggest that this KD patient was likely co-infected with HCoV-NL63.
Severe respiratory illness that was first reported in 2002 in China, and quickly spread throughout Asia, North America, and Europe. Most of the U.s. cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred among travelers returning to the United States from other parts of the world with SARS. There have been very few cases as a result of spread to close contacts such as family members and health-care workers. Currently, there is no evidence that SARS is spreading more widely in the United states.
Allergic rhinitis inflammation of the nasal passages caused by an allergic reaction may be seasonal or perennial (year-round) allergy sensitivity to certain substances in the environment, such as pollens, foods, or microorganisms, that trigger a response by the immune system may cause nasal congestion, sneezing, and itching may trigger sinusitis capsaicin natural substance found in spicy foods, such as hot chili peppers may temporarily relieve nasal congestion rhinitis inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose
Multiple Phase I human clinical trials have been designed to explore the safety and immunostimulatory properties of CpG ODNs administered alone, or in combination with vaccines, antibodies or allergens. Several Phase II studies are also underway to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CpG ODNs in the treatment of cancer, allergy and asthma, or as vaccine adjuvants. Studies have investigated the use of CpG ODNs to reduce allergic rhinitis and immunization of allergen mixed with CpG ODN, allergen-CpG ODN conjugates, and CpG ODN alone have proved effective in the reduction of the allergic phenotype in mice 59 . Preliminary results using vaccines containing allergen-CpG ODN conjugates in human patients show that this combination reduces allergic symptoms with relatively few adverse reactions 60 . Clinical trials have used CpG ODNs as vaccine adjuvants coadministered with the Engerix B hepatitis B vaccine and the Fluarix influenza vaccine 61, 62 . Healthy adult volunteers were immunized...
Chronic sinusitis is one of the most prevalent chronic illnesses that can affect people of all age groups. In the United States, chronic sinusitis affects approximately 32 million people each year and accounts for 11.6 million visits to physicians' offices.1 Chronic sinusitis is defined as a sinus infection that persists for more than 3 months.1 Common symptoms of chronic sinusitis include nasal congestion, cough, postnasal drip, facial tenderness, and pressure. Most cases are continuations of unresolved acute sinusitis. Allergic and nonallergic rhinitis, anatomic obstruction in the osteomeatal complex, and immunologic disorders are known risk factors.1 The diagnosis of sinusitis is usually confirmed using imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Medical treatment usually consists of antibiotics, decongestants, and pain medications. However, persistent frontal pain and edema may indicate disease progression and require surgical...
ABPA found in 1 -2 of pts wilti fCID 37 (Suppl 3) 37. 2003 Clinical manifestations- wheezing, putmon ary Infiltiates. bronchiectasis & librosis Airway colonization assoc. with T blood eosinophils t seium IgE,1 spectlic serum antibodies Allergic fungal sinusitis relapsing chronic sinusitis, nasal polyps wilhoul bony invasion, asthma, eczema or allergic rhinitis. T IgE levels and isolation ol Aspeigillus sp or other demaliaceous sp (Allotnana, Cladosporium, etc)
Eventually it became clear that the syndrome was associated with the use of an extract of Jamaica ginger, normally sold for medicinal pur-poses.19 Remedies like this were popular at the time and some of them were well known, for example the Vegetable Compound of Lydia Pinkham ('Lily the Pink'). The ginger was dissolved in up to 90 per cent alcohol to produce a syrup or tincture (for example, Tinctura Zingiberis was 90 per cent alcohol). A few drops in water would usually be taken, and the extract was sold in pharmacies in 2 oz bottles. Popularly known as 'jake', the remedy had been in use since the nineteenth century for the treatment of minor ailments such as colds, period pains, headaches, and flatulence and to aid digestion.20
Combining decongestants, antihistamines, and cough suppressants are helpful for both colds and sinusitis. Antibiotics are prescribed when symptoms persist and sinusitis seems probable. Another difference is that sinus surgery is performed much less commonly in children than in adults. It's only done in the most severe cases in which antibiotics don't work and a CT scan shows definite sinus obstruction. And even in these cases, patience may pay off. Children catch fewer colds as they age and frequently outgrow their allergies, so the number of sinus infections often will drop without surgical intervention.
Unless you have prior experience with sinusitis, you may have trouble distinguishing it from other ailments, such as colds and allergies. People often mistakenly confuse the three because so many of their symptoms are similar. But they are, in fact, different entities with different causes Colds. Whereas sinusitis is caused by bacteria, colds are caused by viruses. These much smaller microorganisms invade the body's cells, where they reproduce and are eventually released into the bloodstream to invade other cells. The body's immune system is usually quite effective at controlling viral infections, so most colds go away within a week. Colds can occur at any time but are most common during winter (the cold season). What can be confusing is that it's not uncommon for a cold to precede a sinus infection. Allergies can be either perennial, meaning they occur year-round, or seasonal. Allergies to dust and pet dander are often perennial. Seasonal allergies tend to be worst during the spring,...
Sufficient, the velopharynx is competent, the upper airway is in reasonably good condition (i.e., there is no significant vocal fold paresis or paralysis and no significant airway obstruction), the ability to deliver airflow and pressure to the vocal folds and supporting larngeal structures is sufficient, and chest wall muscular support for speech breathing is sufficient (not a prerequisite for ventilator-supported speech). If oral communication is possible, then the type of tracheostomy tube and the various valve configurations must be selected on the basis of both effective airway management and oral communication criteria. Driver (2000) suggests that the best results for oral communication are achieved if the smallest, simplest tracheostomy tube is selected. The size and nature (fenestrated vs. non-fenestrated) of the tra-cheostomy tube also will affect the effort required to move gas across the airway (Hussey and Bishop, 1996). Respiratory effort to breathe will impact on the...
While scientists around the world tackling the pathogen of SARS narrowed down the possibility to coronavirus, the new, variant chlamydia theory still dominated China. In a March 31 interview, Hong Tao indicated that although he could not rule out other possibilities, such as the joint effects of chlamydia and coronavirus, chlamydia is absolutely the main cause. In another press conference on April 4, China's national CDC Director Li Liming not only emphasized that Hong Tao found chlamydia-like agents through the interdisciplinary efforts of morphology, immunology, virology, and molecular biology, but also particularly mentioned When I indicated that we have had serum reaction in presenting our chlamydia finding to a World Health Organization (WHO) daily teleconference, the evidence was so powerful that no one challenged it. Even after the Chinese CDC informed the WHO that it also found the coronavirus, on April 12, Hong Tao still insisted his chlamy-dia-coronavirus coexistence theory....
Whether recurrent or persistent otitis media during the first few years of life increases a child's risk for later language and learning difficulties continues to be debated. Otitis media is the most frequent illness of early childhood, after the common cold. Otitis media with effusion (OME) denotes fluid in the middle ear accompanying the otitis media. OME generally causes mild to moderate fluctuating conductive hearing loss that persists until the fluid goes away. It has been proposed that a child who experiences repeated and persistent episodes of OME and associated hearing loss in early childhood will have later language and academic difficulties. Unlike the well-established relationship between moderate or severe permanent hearing loss and language development, a relationship between OME and later impairment in language development is not clear. This entry describes the possible effect of OME on language development in early childhood, research studies examining the OME-language...
Experimental work with animals and humans indicates that social isolation can have a direct effect on physiologic function and subsequent diseases. Animals that are isolated in adulthood, that experience maternal separation, or that are not nurtured in infancy develop more atherosclerosis have poor, inefficient, or exaggerated neuroendocrine responses and may have higher levels of immunosuppression (Nerem, 1980 Shively et al., 1989 Suomi, 1991 Meaney et al., 1996). Among humans and primates, those who lack affiliation and strong social networks have been shown to be more likely to develop colds, have stronger stress responses in terms of neuroendocrine reactions and higher levels of cardiovascular reactivity, and have altered immune responses (Glaser et al., 1992, 1999 Kirschbaum et al., 1995 Cohen et al., 1997 Sapolsky et al., 1997 Roy et al., 1998 Cacioppo et al., 2000). There is limited research on whether access to material goods and resources is a mechanism through which social...
The common cold, fifth disease, influenza, meningitis, and tuberculosis. Germs can be transmitted by direct contact to cause cold sores, cytomegalovirus, head lice, scabies, and streptococcal infections. Germs can be spread via the fecal-oral route to cause diarrheal diseases or hepatitis a.
A diagnosis dictates decisions and action. It can be a simple one, easy and quick to make the common cold, sprained ankle, pneumonia, cystitis (bladder infection). Or it can be more complex, requiring substantial thought and time bacterial endocarditis, a complex illness caused by a heart valve infection ulcerative colitis, sometimes beginning as mild diarrhea instead of the more dramatic bloody bowel movements dissecting aortic aneurysm, a tearing of the main artery leading from the heart and often mimicking the symptoms of a heart attack. A diagnosis, even a tentative one the answer to the questions What is wrong or What is going on allows the physician to make decisions and take action.
Today, there are vaccines for mumps, rubella, measles, tetanus, chicken pox, flu, and other once dangerous diseases. But there are many viral infections that the medical community cannot prevent with an injection. For example, there are too many strains of the common cold to create an effective vaccine, and other viruses mutate too quickly. A virus can alter its outer protein coat so that antibodies and vaccines that once worked on the virus are no longer effective. Even
Pharmacological profiling can also reveal potential beneficial effects drug discovery by serendipity. In this case, it may be that the drug has dual activity on two targets that may play a role in a disease. For example, a drug that is a dual antagonist at histamine Hj receptors and platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptors (e.g., rupatadine) has added benefit over a selective histamine H antagonist (e.g., loratadine) for the therapy of allergic rhinitis because both PAF and histamine play key roles in mediating inflammatory responses.6 Similarly, a drug that has dual activity at the dopamine D2 receptor and -adrenoceptor (e.g., sibenadet) has the potential for greater efficacy in the therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease when compared with a selective -adrenoceptor agonist (e.g., salbutamol).7,8
Sinus surgery and rhinology deal with the medical and surgical aspects of nasal and sinus disease, as well as disorders involving the anterior skull base. Common problems include nasal obstruction and smell disturbances, chronic sinusitis and rhinitis, allergies, proptosis, and medical and surgical disease involving the anterior skull base. The advent of surgical endoscopes and modern video imaging, coupled with advancements in three-dimensional CT scan-guided surgical
Gynecology quickly developed a comprehensive and male-centered view of the female patient. Therapeutic pessaries were not only used to treat uterine diseases (e.g., infertility,20 postpartum infections,21 retained placentas,22 and amenorrhea23). They also were therapeutic, along with sex and marriage, in treating other conditions that were attributed to an obstructed, disordered, or wandering uterus (e.g., heartburn, suicidality, homicidal rage, hallucinations, depression, jaundice, sleepiness, and nasal congestion.24) One text went as far as to say, As for what are called women's diseases the womb is responsible for all such diseases. 25 Male physicians prescribed treatments for disorders of pregnancy, such as toxemia.26 They also prescribed contraception, If a woman does not wish to become pregnant, dissolve in water, misy as large as a bean and give it to her to drink, and for a year she will not become pregnant. 27 As the Oath notes, women were denied positions as medical teachers...
In certain parts of the country, when someone dies, all receptacles that contain water must be emptied immediately lest the soul bathe in any of the receptacles intended for drinking water. Similarly, if, on the way to the cemetery, the coffin bearers stop in front of a house where there is an ill person, the person must get up immediately from the bed to avoid death. To sleep with the feet facing the street attracts death wearing black to a wedding causes bad luck. It is common for legislators and politicians to consult brujos (witches and warlords) for advice and to wear resguardos (amulets). Even in the homes of wealthier Dominicans it is not unusual to find a little corner of the house adorned with flowers and lit candles (Tejada Ortiz et al. 1993). Resguardos guard against evil and illness. Illnesses such as colds or evil spirits can be warded off by azabaches, black onyx amulets crosses made out of anil or indigo and resguardos made out of camphor salts. Agua de Florida, an eau...
Parents often are able to diagnose hay fever. While a common cold or upper respiratory infection can be confused with allergic rhinitis, parents should suspect rhinitis if the child has irritated eyes and no fever. Food allergies can also cause rhinitis symptoms in 70 percent of infants and young children, but with food allergies there are often other symptoms of skin or stomach irritation as well. A careful history usually reveals the seasonal nature of the complaint and the suspected role of seasonal allergens. Physical examination usually reveals puffy, reddened watery eyes, a red throat, and nostrils filled with clear watery mucus.
Left untreated, allergic rhinitis also can lead to other serious conditions, including asthma, recurrent middle ear infections, sinusitis, sleep disorders, and chronic cough. Appropriate management of rhinitis is an important part of effectively managing these coexisting or complicating respiratory conditions. The type and severity of allergy symptoms vary from child to child. Airborne allergens can cause allergic rhinitis (sneezing, itchy nose or throat, nasal congestion, and coughing). These symptoms are often accompanied by allergic conjunctivitis itchy, watery, red eyes, and dark circles around the reddened eyes. Allergic rhinitis occurs in about 15 percent to 20 percent of Americans and typically develops by age 10, reaching its peak in the early 20s. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis can be mild or severe and may occur only at certain times of the year or all year round. If symp
Upper respiratory tract infections often cause pharyngitis and may cause tonsillitis. Common pathogens include viruses, such as influenza and the Epstein-Barr virus, and bacteria, such as streptococci. Group A b-haemolytic streptococci may also cause rheumatic fever, a systemic autoimmune disorder that can affect the skin, heart and brain. Diphtheria is a serious cause of pharyngitis that is preventable by immunization.
Phagocytes and lymphocytes can concentrate vitamin C up to 100 times higher than the plasma and this may indicate a physiological role for AA in these immune cells (Thurnham, 2000). The vitamin also affects many immune modulators like blood histamine, serum complement, prostacyclin, prostaglandins and B- and T-cell cyclic nucleotides (Jariwalla and Harakeh, 1996 Siegal, 1993). Results from studies on the effects of supplementation on the immune functions have been inconsistent. Many studies show the vitamin has beneficial effects while others show no effect. For example, a double blind study giving 1 or 4g AA daily to 24 free-living women produced increases in serum AA concentrations but no difference in leukocyte AA concentrations or function (Ludvigsson et al, 1979). AA inactivates or inhibits a wide range of viruses in vitro including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet no clinical efficacy has been demonstrated (Jariwalla and Harakeh, 1996). A review of 21 controlled human...
Claims that intakes of vitamin C above those recommended can protect or cure various diseases are debatable. Mega-doses of vitamin C (10g d or more) were said to protect against the common cold and could be used in the treatment of advanced cancer. Neither has been substantiated and in fact, four cancer patients died of haemorrhagic tumour necrosis soon after vitamin C treatment was started (Halliwell, 1994). Possible risks associated with high intakes include diarrhoea (at intakes of 4g d) and increased production of oxalate leading to kidney stones in a small number of individuals with a high propensity for synthesising oxalate (Balcke et al, 1984). 'Systemic conditioning' where a sudden cessation of high intakes may precipitate scurvy due to high turnover were not confirmed following studies in guinea pigs and humans.
Cold, common An upper respiratory infection caused by one of at least 200 different types of viruses. Colds are most likely to occur during cold season, which begins in the fall and continues throughout the spring. After one bout with a particular virus, the child will develop an immunity to that precise virus. This is why adults have fewer colds than children. crowding indoors and school openings. Between December and May several types of coronaviruses are responsible for most cases of the common cold. Besides these two types of viruses, colds may also be caused by parainfluenza, adenovirus, enteroviruses, and influenza. All of these viruses seem to be able to change their characteristics from one season to the next. While cold temperatures do not seem to bring on a cold, fatigue, stress, or anything else that weakens the body's immune system can influence a child's likelihood of getting sick. It is possible to catch a cold from other people who have colds, or from the things they...
On the other hand, going to school all day in a building filled with children who have colds could carry a risk. Traveling on a plane carrying sick passengers is an even bigger risk, since the recirculated air in a pressurized cabin evenly distributes viruses to everyone while drying out mucous membranes that would normally trap viruses.
Clarithromycin An anti-infective macrolide used in the treatment of certain upper respiratory tract infections, some lower respiratory tract infections, certain skin and skin structure infections, and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections, and in the prevention of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex in advanced HIV. Other generally accepted uses include combination antibiotic treatment of duodenal ulcer disease caused by H. pylori. Clarithromycin can also have a role in combination therapy of some toxoplasmosis infections. It works by preventing the growth and multiplication of susceptible organisms by interfering with their formation of essential proteins. Possible risks include mild gastrointestinal symptoms,
The symptoms you have throughout the day are largely determined by what happens at night. If you're inhaling extremely dry air with every breath for seven or eight straight hours, you're setting yourself up for sinus problems. Dryness causes mucus to thicken and form crusts, leading to nasal congestion and sinus obstruction. It's best to place the humidifier on your nightstand, so it's close to your head while you sleep. With the addition of this simple device, many people find they no longer wake up with a blocked nose and thick mucus in their throat. Some even buy a second humidifier to place near their desk at work. Although not as critical as using one at night, this additional source of moist air during the day can also help.
To anyone who remains unconvinced of the pervasive influence of genes on human health, consider also the connection to infectious microbial parasites. A multitude of infectious viruses, bacteria, and yeasts provoke colds, influenzas, and many other annoying and sometimes life-threatening human diseases. Protozoans that produce malaria, sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, leishmaniases, and other diseases infect more that 10 percent of the world's population and account for tens of millions of deaths every year. Throughout human history, epidemics such as smallpox have touched the lives of countless millions of people. The virus responsible for smallpox recently was eradicated,22 and the polio virus too may soon meet its demise, but numerous other microbes remain to cause such age-old scourges as measles, cholera, pneumonia, hepatitis, and tuberculosis.
Decongestant medications are available in both spray and pill form. Spray decongestants such as Afrin, Dristan, Vicks, and Neo-Synephrine contain either oxymetazoline or phenylephrine. Although these sprays provide rapid relief of nasal congestion, I do not recommend them for people with chronic sinusitis because they offer a high potential for nasal rebound if used for more than three days (see Chapter 5).
Echinacea The leaves and root of the herb Echinacea (E. angustifolia or E. prupurea) have been used by Native Americans for a broad range of pains and illnesses. Echinaecein is the substance that knits skin and prevents germs from penetrating tissues. possibly the most important aspect of Echinacea is its immunostimulant capability for infectious diseases and other conditions like tonsilitis, bladder infections, colds, flu, and boils. The roots of this herb are used as a tonic and blood purifier, as well as for a variety of other conditions, and other pains and wounds. Advocates of the therapeutic value of Echi-nacea have cited test tube and animal studies to support these claims. Injections of purified Echinacea are believed to be relatively nontoxic even at high doses, although there have been reports of skin rashes and insomnia. Few clinical trials have been performed using either injected polysaccharides or oral over-the-counter Echinacea supplements, the most common form of this...
Selenium, and zinc and vitamins A, B, and C. Allicin, a sulfur-containing compound, is believed to be primarily responsible for most of garlic's suggested health benefits along with its unique color. Garlic has been used for many medicinal purposes in folk and holistic treatment. Raw garlic is said to be effective against bacteria, parasites, and viruses. It has been claimed to be effective against heart disease and stroke as well as colds and diarrhea. It also contains compounds, including antioxidants, that are thought to be cancer preventatives. It is believed to help lower cholesterol level and blood pressure. It is effective raw and cooked. Today, clinical and basic studies suggest a broad spectrum of potential uses. Some have postulated that garlic works as an antioxidant against free radicals because of its germanium and selenium content. Claims of garlic's effectiveness against AIDS-related opportunistic infections are based on in vitro studies that have shown garlic to be an...
The physician must be aware that headaches may impact other bodily systems other than the head and neck. Rarely is head or facial pain the sole manifestation of the disorder, and associated signs and symptoms should be thoroughly investigated. The patient should be questioned about symptoms, including nausea, fever, visual changes or diplopia, syncope, lacrimation, nasal congestion, photophobia, or phonophobia, either before or during an episode. Migraine headaches may be preceded or accompanied by a reversible aura, consisting of visual, sensory, motor, or brainstem disturbances, such as bizarre scotomata, numbness or tingling of the fingers, feet or lips, and weakness or nausea. In addition, certain headache disorders are heralded by warning phenomena or premonitory symptoms, characterized by vague complaints such as hyper- or hypoactivity that may occur hours to days before the onset of pain (3).
Measles A highly communicable disease caused by the rubeola virus and characterized by fever, general malaise, sneezing, nasal congestion, brassy cough, conjunctivitis, spots on the buccal mucosa, and a maculopapular eruption over the entire body. It is most common in school-age children. An attack of measles almost invariably confers permanent immunity. Active immunization can be produced by administration of measles vaccine. Passive immunization is afforded by administration of gamma globulin. Pregnant women who are not immune to German measles are advised to avoid exposure. If they are exposed in the first 16 weeks of pregnancy and if they get the disease, chances are high that the fetus will have problems. At this point, they will have to make a decision about whether or not to continue their pregnancy. A blood test will determine if they have or have had German measles.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia, occurring most often in winter and spring, when upper respiratory tract infections are most common. In addition to S. pneu-moniae, other bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilius influenzae, Legionella pneumophilia, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E are the etiological agents for the majority of coronavirus-induced upper respiratory tract infections in humans. HCoV-OC43 was originally isolated from human embryonic tracheal organ cultures this virus was neurovirulent and caused disease after one passage in suckling mice and encephalitis within 2-4 passages (herein referred to as HCoV-OC43NV).1 This virus was then further adapted for growth in tissue culture cells ( tissue-culture adapted variant, referred to as HCoV-OC43TC).
There are now in this city at least three hundred rich men, capitalists and financiers, retained at home by gout, colds, and doctors. They are always busy to ascertain what will revive them and send their valets out on voyages of discovery. Some one of them will remark this asparagus, and it will be bought. It may be, some pretty woman will pass with her lover, and say, 'what fine asparagus. How well my servant dresses it.' The lover then does not hesitate, and I will tell you a secret, that dear things are sold more easily than cheap ones.
The infected cells that are the source of infection, but only temporarily controls cell-free or cell-surface (extracellular, exogenous) pathogens. Flu, colds, and many common viral and other infections are controlled by antibody-mediated immunity. See cell-mediated immunity.
Low back pain (LBP) is the most common musculoskeletal complaint in the general population. It is one of the major reasons patients seek medical evaluation (1), second only to upper respiratory illness (2,3). Approximately 50 to 90 of the adult population will suffer from pain related to their back during their lifetime (4,5). Each year, 15 to 45 of adults suffer LBP, and 1 out of 20 people present to the hospital with a new episode of back pain.
While a serious illness precludes a vaccination, minor colds with low fevers do not interfere with immunization. Slight soreness and swelling at the injection site are normal and are not an indication that the child should not finish the series of shots. Antibiotics prescribed for another illness also will not interfere with the vaccination (except for the oral typhoid vaccine). In that case, Tylenol may be given.
Although previously known human CoVs account for 30 of common colds, little attention has been made on these medically important viruses. It might be mainly due to the fact that infections caused by these viruses do not result in severe illness and are usually restricted to upper respiration tract. Thus, the identification of a novel CoV as the pathogen for a severe viral pneumonia was far out of the expectation of most clinical virologists. With the tremendous efforts made by colleagues from the WHO collaborative network, the etiology of SARS was confirmed within weeks.6 First, viral RNA or seroconversion against SARS coronavirus was found in the majority of SARS patients.3-5 By contrast, no evidence of previous exposure of this virus could be detected from healthy individuals.3-5 Furthermore, SARS-like illness could be reproduced in experimentally infected cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis)8 Thus, this novel virus fulfills all Koch's postulates and was confirmed to be the...
A strep throat is different from the sore throat caused by a common cold or the flu. With strep throat, there is no runny nose or cough, and symptoms appear abruptly, with a fever as high as 104 F, headache, stomachache, and a red, swollen throat. By the second day, the throat and tonsils may be covered with white or yellow patches that spread together to cover the entire throat. However, it is also possible to have strep throat without these telltale white patches, or even without a fever.
The food colour tartrazine is a well-known food additive which is currently still in use, although it was removed from many products as a result of consumer pressure. Known also as E102 in Europe and FD&C yellow no. 5 in the USA, tartrazine is an azo dye with an intense yellow orange colour. Its similarity in colour to natural orange juice has meant that it is used extensively in the soft drink industry, and it has been also used in products as wide-ranging as breadcrumbs and medicines. It is one of the colours most frequently implicated in food intolerance studies and also in reactions to pharmaceutical preparations to which it was sometimes added. Effects occur most commonly in children, and it is thought that i in i0,000 children are sensitive to tartrazine. According to Feingold and his team, adverse reactions to tartrazine seem to occur most commonly in subjects who are also sensitive to aspirin and salicylic acid, a finding that has been confirmed by other studies.4 Depending on...
It's not uncommon for people with sinusitis to develop a new infection or see their symptoms flare up within twenty-four hours of drinking an alcoholic beverage. The problem is not the alcohol itself but the presence of impurities known as congeners, which are the by-products of the fermentation and aging process. Congeners provide much of the beverage's taste and aroma, but some have histamine-like properties. Similar to what happens with an allergic reaction to pollen or dust, individuals who are sensitive to these impurities can experience nasal congestion, drainage, and headaches.
A person may either lose the sense of smell (anosmia) or experience distortions in this sense (dysos-mia). Because the senses of smell and taste are so intimately intertwined, problems in smell usually affect the ability to taste as well this is why elderly people often complain that food has lost its taste. Temporary problems with smell may occur when the mucous membrane in the nose becomes inflamed, such as with a cold, flu, or rhinitis. cigarette smoking may also inflame the nose and interfere with the sense of smell. overgrowth of the adenoids or a deviated septum will block airflow and interfere with the sense of smell. in rare cases, a person may lose the ability to smell because of a meningioma (tumor of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain) or a tumor behind the nose.