Bruce S Mcewen

ABSTRACT The hippocampal formation, which expresses high levels of adrenal steroid receptors, is a plastic brain structure that is important for certain types of learning and memory. It is also vulnerable to insults such as stroke, seizures, and head trauma. The hippocampus is also sensitive and vulnerable to the effects of stress and stress hormones, and it is responsive to the actions of sex hormones as well, both during development and adult life. Stress and sex hormones regulate three types...

Pasko Rakic

Symmetric Asymmetric Cell Division

ABSTRACT Understanding the development of the cerebral cortex is central to our understanding of human intelligence and creativity. Modern developmental neurobiology provides insight into how this complex structure may have evolved, how it develops, and how this finely tuned process may go astray. The initial developmental events, which are the subject of this review, are the production, migration, and appropriate allocation of neurons to their final laminar and areal positions within the...

Anatomy and physiology of the developing human brain

Density Synapse Ages

Although a thorough review of the structural, chemical, and physiological development of the human brain is beyond the scope of this chapter, this section aims at summarizing the state of knowledge on postnatal human development from infancy to adulthood. In most species, including humans, the developing brain displays progressive and regressive events during which axons, dendrites, synapses, and neurons show exuberant growth and major loss leading to a remodeling of the neural circuitry. This...