Chronic Pancreatitis

Phylogeny Of Vertebrate Pancreas

Consideration of invertebrate and lower vertebrate organisms provides enormous insight into the evolution of the pancreas.6 Although no islets of Langerhans exist in any invertebrate, the insulin signaling pathway itself is highly conserved across a broad phylogenetic range. A range of invertebrates, from arthropods7 to worms8 to mollusks,9 have been found to express genes orthologous to mammalian insulins in these invertebrates, insulin orthologs are typically expressed within cells of the...