Nager Syndrome

This condition features downward slanting eyelids, absent or underdeveloped cheekbones, a severely underdeveloped lower jaw, malformed outer and middle ears, cleft palate, absence of lower eyelashes, scalp hair growing onto the cheeks, and underdeveloped or missing thumbs.

several surgeries may be necessary, depending on the severity of the child's condition, including tracheostomy to help with breathing, a gastros-tomy tube to assure proper nutrition, and cranio-facial surgery to the jaw and ears.

Pierre Robin Syndrome In this condition, the lower jaw is abnormally small and the tongue falls backward toward the throat; cleft lip and a cleft palate are also possible.

Infants must be kept face down, which allows gravity to pull the tongue forward and keep the airway open. These problems abate over the first few years as the lower jaw grows and assumes a more normal size. In moderate cases, the patient needs a tube placed through the nose and into the airway to avoid airway blockage. In severe cases, surgery is indicated for recurrent upper airway obstruction. Tracheostomy is sometimes required. Feeding must be done very carefully to avoid choking and inhaling liquids into the airways.

Treacher-Collins Syndrome In this condition, the cheekbones and jawbones are underdeveloped, with notches in or stretching of the lower eyelids. The ears are frequently abnormal, part of the outer ear is usually missing, and hearing problems are common.

Treatment consists of testing for and treating any hearing loss so as to enable a child to perform at normal level in school. Plastic surgery can improve the receding chin and other physical defects.

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