Stop your Cat Spraying in the House

Cat Spray No More

Cat Spraying no more is a product that will guide the users on the way to prevent the various mess made by their cats. It is true that a cat that pees in the house can make their home smell like a litter box; it can be upsetting and stressful for the users and can become incredibly expensive if the users are forced to continually clean carpets and floors, or replace furniture. However, Cat Spraying No More is one that will help in the reduction of these problems because it will point the users towards the right things to do and what not to do as regards their cats. This product will stop their cat peeing and spraying outside the litter box for good. This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. This product is a cheap one that can be learnt by anyone. It comes with certain bonuses that will change the way the users see things as regards cat. They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. Read more here...

Cat Spray No More Summary


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Specific Proposals Relating to Cats

The proposals on housing and enrichment and on dimensions and flooring for cats took account of consideration similar to those for dogs (Table 3). It was recognized that cats have a strong tendency to learn social behavior, even though they are descended from a solitary species. They do not, for example, form distinct dominance hierarchies. However, it was also recognized that the process of forming social relationships may be stressful and that interpreting visible signs of stress may be more difficult than in dogs. Key proposals for cats were that Vertical space should be well utilized and is particularly valuable for cats to provide vantage points, allow for climbing, and allow increased control over their social interactions. As with dogs, minimum space allowances for cats took account of the requirement for social housing, for adequate enrichment of the environment by means of subdivisions and provision of enrichment items, and for sufficient separation of areas for different...

Membership Of Expert Group On Dogs And Cats And Modus Operandi

As with all of the Expert Groups, there was a broad-based representation drawn from the observer nongovernmental organizations of the CoE. The membership of the Expert Group on Dogs and Cats comprised one representative from each of the following the Eurogroup for Animal Welfare, the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA), the Federation of Laboratory Animal Breeders Associations (FELABA), the Federation of Veterinarians in Europe (FVE), and the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE). Meetings were coordinated and chaired by a representative of the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA). A second ISAE representative was subsequently added because more input on cat ethology was deemed necessary. This membership was thought to provide a broad spread of expertise and opinion, which would result in the formulation of an expert view on minimum standards for these species.

Copy Cats

Critics have blasted the GSC program for attempting to create more companion animals in a time when untold numbers of pets are destroyed or abandoned each year for lack of suitable owners. Pet overpopulation is a serious problem. On its website, the GSC responds that in 2001 alone it paid more than 250,000 to spay clinics for eggs used in the experimental cloning and that the clinics can use that money in turn to sterilize far more cats than likely will ever be cloned (especially at the current estimated cost of 20,000 per cloned kitten). Furthermore, as Mr. Sperling illustrates, many people do not want just any cat or dog replacement for their current pet. When the time comes, they want a genetic copy of their specifically loved one. In anticipation of the quasi-routine cloning of cats, dogs, rabbits, and other pet species in the foreseeable future, or at least to cash in on that hope, various companies already have started pet gene banking. For an initial service charge (ca. 700)...

The Basic Somatosensory System

Afferents from the mechanoreceptors in the skin and muscle spindles terminate in a somatotopic pattern (for review, including humans and other primates, see Florence et al., 1989 Coq et al., 2000) in the dorsal column-trigeminal complex in the lower brain stem. Some of the muscle-spindle afferent terminations are segregated in separate subnuclei (the external cuneate nucleus for the forelimb). There is evidence from cats (Dykes et al., 1982) that the rapidly adapting (RA) and slowly adapting (SA) classes of afferents terminate in separate clusters of cells in the dorsal column nuclei. Glaborous skin has two types of slowly adapting afferents (SAI and SAII) associated with Merkel cell and Ruffini endings, respectively, and two types of rapidly adapting afferents (RAI and RAII), associated with Meissner corpuscles and Pacinian corpuscles, respectively. Hairy skin also has hair follicle receptors. The second-order neurons in the dorsal column-trigeminal complex cross and ascend to the...

Cycles Of Transmission

Although the World Health Organization has considered Giardia to have zoonotic potential for over twenty years, either through direct faecal-oral or waterborne routes of transmission, direct evidence has been lacking (Thompson, 1998, 2000). Clearly, the greatest zoonotic risk is from those genotypes of Giardia in genotypic assemblage A, particularly those in the AI subgroup, and to a lesser extent genotypes in Assemblage B. In contrast, the animal-specific genotypes appear to be host adapted, restricted to livestock, dogs, cats and rodents (Table 2). There is no epidemiological evidence to suggest that they occur frequently in the human population and thus their zoonotic risk appears minimal. However, from the point of view of zoonotic potential the finding that similar genotypes are dispersed in different hosts is not by itself conclusive evidence that zoonotic transmission is taking place. We therefore need to understand how the four major cycles of transmission that maintain the...

Electrical recording of neural activity in the primary visual cortex

Activity that is evoked on the surface of the cerebral cortex of experimental animals by stimulation of the body surface. The electrodes at the time were too large to record the activity of individual neurons but small enough to detect focal activity in a restricted group of cells. There is an orderly representation of the body surface on the primary somatosen-sory cortex, with neighboring points on the body represented at neighboring points on the brain. Marshall later collaborated with William Talbot in studying the activity evoked on the striate cortex of cats and Old World monkeys. They focused small spots of light on the retina of a monkey and marked the locus of maximal evoked activity on the cerebral cortex. Figure 1.5 is from their report.

The Purview of Genetic Engineering

Modern genetic engineering should also be distinguished from purposive bioengineering first practiced about 10,000 years ago, when our ancestors began domesticating plants and animals. Via selective breeding over the centuries, people genetically altered numerous plant species to yield finer food and fiber, altered livestock to produce better meat and milk, and altered dogs and cats to improve their desirability as companion pets. Such artificial selection (a human-mediated analogue of Darwinian natural selection) is a slow and indirect method compared to the fast and focused recombinant DNA technologies (gene-splicing methods) of today. Furthermore, artificial selection acts only on the available stores of genetic variation in closely related creatures that can interbreed, whereas modern genetic engineering can in principle swap genes freely among any living creatures, from microbes to trees and mammals.

Early electrical recording from visual areas outside of the primary visual cortex

Cerned with the storage of visual memories. William Talbot (1942) made a brief report to the Federated Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine which initiated modern study of the way in which the visual fields are represented beyond the primary visual cortex. Talbot recorded potentials evoked by vision from the surface of a cat brain. As expected, he found that the visual field is mapped in an orderly way on the primary visual cortex, with neighboring points in the visual field represented at neighboring points on the cortex. As Talbot continued to record lateral to the representation of the vertical meridian, he found that the cortex was still activated by focused spots of light, but from increasingly peripheral regions of the visual field. Talbot had discovered a second visual area, later called Visual Area 2, which is mapped on the cortex like a mirror image of the primary representation. Talbot had started a growth industry. Some years after Talbot's report, Margaret Clare...

Baboon bone marrow See bone marrow

Bacillary angiomatosis A bacterial illness commonly called cat scratch fever. It is caused by two varieties of Bartonella bacteria. Bartonella henselae is the known cause of cat scratch fever. Bartonella quintana is the known cause of trench fever, which was first diagnosed in soldiers in Europe during World War I. B. henselae is a bacterium that causes a minor infection in cats, passed usually through flea bites. It is generally seen in patients that live with cats. B. quintana has typically been seen in homeless people in the United States, it is passed by body lice. Most people that contract bacillary angiomatosis report being scratched or bitten by cats, but it is the flea bites that pass the bacteria. The bacteria causes a self-limiting, mild infection in healthy people.

California encephalitis See encephalitis California

While there are several different forms of Campy-lobacter, the most common is C. jejuni, which accounts for 99 percent of all Campylobacter infections. Campylobacteriosis is caused by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the bacteria only a small amount is necessary to cause illness. It can survive in undercooked food such as chicken, lamb, beef, or pork, and in water and raw milk. The disease may also be spread by the diarrhea of affected young dogs or cats.

The formation of callosal connectional maps

The elimination of the transitory projections is due to selective elimination of axonal branches rather than neuronal death. The elimination is massive. For the whole corpus callosum it was estimated, on the basis of electron microscopic counts of callosal axons, to amount to at least 70 of the axons produced in both cats (Ber-bel and Innocenti, 1988) and monkeys (LaMantia and Rakic, 1990b). These findings were tentatively extrapolated to the developing human corpus callosum on the basis of measurements of corpus callosum sectional area (reviewed in Innocenti, 1991).

Visual System Development

So far I have suggested that initially the brain is wired up in a qualitatively appropriate fashion as a result of intrinsic mechanisms. No experience is needed for this to happen. How good is this initial wiring Electrical recordings of the neural activity generated by neurons in the primary visual cortex of newborn cats and monkeys by David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel, first at Johns Hopkins University in the 1960s and later at Harvard Medical School, are revealing in this regard. It is in this region that visual information is first processed in the cortex, and Hubel and Wiesel When the electrical activity of neurons is recorded from the primary visual cortex of both newborn cats and monkeys, the responses are remarkably adult-like. The neurons show good orientation sensitivity and, if they are complex cells, movement sensitivity. Some cells are directionally selective and others show Not everything is exactly adult-like in the cortex of newborn cats and monkeys. For example, input to...

Leo M Chalupa And Cara J Wefers

When identical techniques were employed to study the developing retinocollicular pathway of carnivores (Chalupa, Snider, and Kirby, 1996 Chalupa and Snider, 1998), a very different impression of developmental specificity was obtained. Focal deposits of retrograde tracers into the superficial layers of the superior collicu-lus of fetal cats revealed that at all stages of development labeled cells were confined, with few exceptions, to a delimited region of the contralateral and ipsilateral retinas. Moreover, the location of retinal regions with a high density of labeled ganglion cells varied with the locus of the tracer deposit in the colliculus in a manner consistent with the topographic organization of the mature cat's retinocollicular pathway. Although some labeled ganglion cells were found to be scattered throughout the contralateral and ipsilateral retinas, such ectopic cells were very sparse in the fetal cat. Throughout development for every 100 cells projecting to the...

The Effects of Early Injury to the Cortical Plate on Callosal Connectivity

Removal of portions of the frontal cortex results in significant displacement of connections (Goldman and Gal-kin, 1978). There is additional evidence that neuropath-ological events occurring during the period of neuronal migration to the cortex might have profound effects both on the eventual laminar disposition ofneurons and on the patterns of intrinsic connectivity. For example, injection of ibotenic acid into the visual cortex of cats on postnatal days 2 and 3 causes death primarily of infragranular neurons and the subsequent formation of microgyric-like cortex (Innocenti and Berbel, 1991a). Furthermore, this microgyric cortex receives projections from auditory areas AI and AII projections that are normally eliminated during development (Innocenti and Berbel, 1991b). Cerebral hypoxia, induced by neonatal carotid ligation in cats, results in a marked increase in efferent projections from visual cortex to the opposite hemisphere (Miller et al., 1993). Finally, disturbed...

Environmental Contaminants

The fishermen and their families living around Minamata City, in Japan noticed that their cats were ill and dying. They themselves also began to suffer strange symptoms memory loss, ataxic gait, restrictions in their visual field and hearing difficulties. Post-mortem of victims who succumbed showed damage to neurones in the cerebral cortex of the brain.

NGF and monocular deprivation

This hypothesis may now appear somewhat simple-minded, but it turned out to be very appropriate operationally. Indeed, an intraventricular exogenous supply of NGF in the rat prevents all the tested effects of monocular deprivation and (convergent) strabismus (Domenici et al., 1991, 1992 Maffei et al., 1992). Interestingly, these results have been recently confirmed in another rodent, the mouse, by Fagiolini and Stryker (1996). In cats, an intraventricular supply of NGF was effective in attenuating monocular dep-tivation effects up to the behavioral level visual acuity of the deprived eye developed normally in kittens treated with NGF (Fiorentini et al., 1995). A synopsis of the main results concerning NGF and monocular deprivation is presented in Figure 4.2.

Modelling convergent evolution

Isochronous convergence, convergence on the same form by two different groups of organisms at the same point in time, also takes place in evolution. Convergence on the same adaptive morphology is the evolutionary consequence of convergence on the same way of life, and two groups of organisms with exactly the same way of life are in danger of intense competition if they live in the same area. Thus, in many cases of isochronous convergence the two groups of evolving organisms are separated in space, rather than time. A striking example is the evolution of sabre-tooth true cats (such as Homotherium and Smilodon) in the old world and North America, and sabre-tooth marsupial 'cats' (such as Thylacosmilus) in geographically isolated South America, during the later Cenozoic (Fig. 3.2). The true cats are placental mammals and are very different from marsupial mammals. Yet both placental and marsupial large-game predators evolved sabre-tooth cat-like morphologies that are very similar, though...

Maintaining map alignment

Visual- and auditory-evoked activity would produce activation at a site appropriate for producing a 20-degree rightward shift in gaze. Evidence that many SC auditory and somatosensory RFs are, indeed, dynamically remapped (as a function of eye position) to maintain RF alignment has been obtained in both monkeys and cats (Groh and Sparks, 1996 Hartline et al., 1995 Jay and Sparks, 1984 Peck, Baro, and Warder, 1995).

Antigenic Variation Of The Vsp Genes Of Giardia Lamblia

Giardia lamblia, a protozoan parasite inhabiting the small intestine, is a common infection worldwide that frequently results in chronic diarrhea, malabsorption and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Giardia undergoes surface antigenic variation in humans and animal model infections, a phenomenon that may account for both chronicity of infections and the relatively broad mammalian host specificity with genotypically identical organisms found in humans, cats, beavers, and other mammals. The variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) are an unusual family of related cysteine-rich proteins, from 50 kD to over 200 kD in size, that coat the surface of the trophozoite. Only one VSP of the estimated 150 or more vsp genes is expressed on an individual at any specific time. However, the repertoires of vsp genes may differ depending on the genetic group. VSPs switch spontaneously every 6-12 generations although some Giardia also switch during encystation excystation. All VSPs have a high cysteine...

Feline leukemia virus

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) A virus that causes leukemia in cats. FeLV is in the same family of viruses (retroviruses) as HIV. FeLV is in the oncovirus branch of retroviruses, which is different from the lentiviruses, which cause HIV, SIV, and other illnesses. FeLV is not transmissible to humans from cats.

Circadianhomeostatic Regulation Of Sleep

The two-process model does not reveal regulatory mechanisms for many rapid sleep cycle changes, such as alternation of non-REM sleep and REM sleep, and their cyclicity (i.e., ultra-dian rhythm) (see Fig. 1). Occurrence of REM sleep is controlled by ultradian rhythm, and it occurs within 90-110-min intervals in humans, and 30-min intervals in cats and dogs (30). Earlier brain transection studies suggested that the generation of REM sleep cyclicity originates in the pons (31). However, neuronal afferent systems of this structure as well as many other factors (such as temperature and or humeral factors) are also likely to affect the cyclicity of REM sleep and other REM sleep characteristics, such as REM sleep amount and stability (32).

Florence prepares her poison

A more believable explanation emerged in 1926 when a Liverpool pharmacist revealed that he had supplied Florence with a packet of arsenic trioxide. The packet was labelled 'ARSENIC POISON' and on one side of the packet was written the words 'for cats', this being the reason she had given for needing it. Florence had not wanted to sign the poisons register and the pharmacist did not insist on this, as she was a regular customer at his shop. The arsenic he sold her was black arsenic, so called because it was mixed with soot to prevent its being misused. Florence returned to the shop at a later date and he sold her another packet when she said she had lost the first one. Again the pharmacist wrote 'for cats' on the second packet and this was found in the house after James had died. The pharmacist said he was afraid to come forward at the trial and only contacted the police after Florence had been found guilty. His evidence would indeed have told heavily against Florence if given at the...

Normal development and plasticity of ocular dominance columns

However, recent experiments have raised doubts about this view of the development of ocular dominance columns. Injections of neuronal tracers into an individual eye-specific LGN layer in ferrets at different ages show that initially axonal arborizations are very sparse, and it is impossible to tell whether or not axons from the two eyes are segregated. Quite soon after the axons grow into the cortex, however, such LGN injections produce a patchy pattern of labeling in the cortex, reminiscent of ocular dominance columns (Crowley and Katz, 2000 Fig. 8.3). This labeling pattern is seen at postnatal day 16-18 in the ferret, equivalent to E 58-60 in the cat, 2 to 3 weeks earlier than columns were seen in transneuronal labeling studies in cats and ferrets (Crair et al., 2001 Finney and Shatz, 1998 LeVay et al., 1978 Ruthazer et al., 1999).

The trial of Florence Maybrick

1904, she returned to America where she made a living writing and lecturing about her experiences. This phase lasted a few years but eventually public interest waned and she retired to the small hamlet of South Kent, Connecticut, in 1917. There she became a recluse, surrounded by a colony of inbred cats and finally died, dirty and neglected, in 1941 at the age of 79.

The role of visual experience in the development of orientation selectivity

There is also considerable evidence to suggest that normal visual experience is unimportant for the formation of orientation maps. Cortical maps of orientation preference are present very early in development in both cats and ferrets. Clear orientation maps can be optically imaged by 2 weeks of age in the cat, regardless of whether the eyes are open or not (Crair et al., 1998). Similarly, organized orientation maps have been observed in P31-P36 ferrets at the time of natural eye opening as shown in Figure 9.2 (Chapman et al., 1996). Because these maps are present even in young ferrets reared

Developmental specificity of visual functions in humans

Sensitive Period Effects and Mechanisms We have observed that individuals who became deaf after the age of 4 years (due to delayed expression of the gene that leads to cochlear degeneration) typically do not display the increased visual ERPs that we attributed to auditory deprivation (Neville, Schmidt, and Kutas, 1983 Neville and Lawson, 1987c). We considered several mechanisms that might mediate the effects themselves and the developmental time limits on them. One possibility is that they are mediated by an early, normally transient, redundancy of connections between the auditory and visual systems (as has been observed in cats and hamsters see Dehay, Bullier, and Kennedy, 1984 Frost, 1984 Inno-centi and Clarke, 1984). In the absence of competition from auditory input, visual afferents may be maintained on what would normally be auditory neurons. Our results from studies of later deafened individuals suggest that in humans this redundancy may diminish by the fourth year of life. One...

Nmethyl Daspastate receptors

Overall levels of NMDA receptors increase with age to the peak of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity and then decline (Bode-Greuel and Singer, 1989 Gordon et al., 1991 Reynolds and Bear, 1991). The NMDA receptor consists of the NMDA receptor 1 (NR1) subunit, found in all receptors, in combination with NR2 subunits in various combinations. The NR1, NR2B, and NR2A subunits all increase with the rise of plasticity and then decline with the fall in plasticity (Chen et al., 2000). The NR2B subunit is reduced in 5-week dark-reared cats compared to normal and increased in 20-week dark-reared cats (Chen et al., 2000). There is downregulation of the NMDA contribution to the visual response which can be seen by recording from single cells in these layers (Fox et al., 1989 Tsumoto et al., 1987). This downregulation is also delayed by rearing in the dark (Fox et al., 1991, 1992). Thus, NMDA receptors are clearly involved in plasticity in the visual cortex, by all the criteria...

Consciousness and Evolution

Large-scale quantum superpositions may exist naturally in the universe, for example in the cores of neutron stars, or the very early universe 271 , able to reach OR threshold quickly. Such OR events would presumably lack organized information and cognition (OR without Orch). But to be consistent with the Orch OR criteria, yes, they would be conscious have conscious experience, perhaps as flashes of meaningless awareness. This issue is faced by any theory are all emergent phenomena conscious Are all information processing systems such as computers and thermostats conscious Functionalists often obfuscate this issue by saying, e.g., a thermostat is conscious in a thermostat-like way whereas humans are conscious in a human-like way, cats in a cat-like way, etc. 51 The onset of consciousness in the course of evolution is speculated upon in Hameroff 94 .

Conceptual Challenges In Tissue Stemcell Biology

Reversible changes of the stem-cell phenotypes involving differentiation profiles, adhesion protein expression, and engraftment homing behavior associated with the cell-cycle status or the point in the circadian rhythm (6,15). There is increasing evidence that the expression of cell-surface markers (e.g., CD34) on hematopoietic stem cells is not constant but may fluctuate. The property can be gained and lost without affecting the stem-cell quality (5,16). Other groups investigated hemoglobin switching of hematopoietic stem cells in the blastocyst GE. Geiger et al. (17) showed that the switch from embryonic fetal-type to adult-type globin is reversible. Furthermore, there is a lot of indirect evidence for fluctuations in the stem-cell population based on the clonal composition of functional cells. Chimerism induced by transplantation studies in cats and mice has been shown to fluctuate with time (18-22), indicating variations in the composition of active and inactive tissue stem cells....

Growth factors and acuity

A small number of studies have investigated the effect of growth factors on acuity, with intriguing and unexplained results. Acuity is reduced in the deprived eye of monocularly deprived animals, and this reduction is prevented by infusion of NGF into the ventricle in both rats (Domenici et al., 1991) and cats (Fiorentini et al., 1994). In addition, antibodies to NGF reduce acuity in normal animals (Berardi et al., 1994). Proliferation of axons and dendrites by NGF would not be expected to improve acuity, and nobody knows whether the acetylcholine system affects acuity, so the mechanism of action here is not understood. With BDNF the results are more understandable. Mice that overexpress BDNF show premature development of acuity (Huang et al., 1999). Since BDNF leads to an accelerated development of inhibition, and since inhibition is known to reduce the size of the receptive fields of cells, which can be related to an improvement in acuity, there is a logical explanation for this...

Materials And Methods

The N gene of FCoV strains detected in healthy and diseased cats coming from the same shelter (Table 1) was amplified by RT-PCR, and the amplicons were sequenced. Deduced amino acids sequences were aligned by ClustalW, and the alignment was visualized using the Genedoc program and Bioedit V5.06. Healthy cats Diseased cats


Antigenic analysis of N proteins carried out using SETTE and AMPHI algorithms showed different putative epitopes recognized by helper T cells and peptide antigenic sites confirming a possible involvement of the nucleocaspid protein in the protective immune response. All avirulent strains from healthy cats showed two additional motifs for IAd haplotypes detected using the Sette algorithm which are not present in other strains (aa 176-181 aa 261-266). On the basis of these results, we feel that virulent

Neurologic dysfunction

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by a parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. It is found in many animals and humans. It generally is kept under control but in immune suppressed people can cause a range of neurological problems. It can be spread in the feces of animals, particularly cats. Once exposed, however, cats generally only are infectious for one or two weeks. The combination of two drugs, pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, is used to treat the disease. Diagnosis is through tests for the parasite in the blood and CT or MRI. Typi

Subcortical visual structures

Largely for technical reasons, little is known about the development of the physiological organization of retinal ganglion cell receptive fields. In cats, Rusoff and Dubin (1977) reported the presence of adult-like center responses within a week of eye opening in kittens however, receptive field surrounds were weak compared to adult surrounds. Because the optical quality of the kitten eye is poor (Bonds and Freeman, 1978), the maturity of retinal neural circuits is not easy to assess from these data. There have been no studies of ganglion cell receptive fields in infant monkeys.

The corpus callosum and the other commissures in interhemispheric transfer of visual information

Of interhemispheric transfer of pattern discriminations in split-brain cats can be influenced by the nature of the training task (see Figure 6.3). We found that split-brain cats that were trained in a classic two-choice discrimination box with a food reward for correct responses showed no interhemispheric transfer, whereas those trained in a Lashley-type jumping stand demonstrated a rather good interocular transfer. If the type of incentive was changed (i.e., instead of a food reward for a correct response, the animals were administered a mild electric shock for an incorrect response), interhemispheric transfer was slightly improved (Figure 6.4). When the cerebral hemisphere are separated by the transection of Figure 6.4. Learning and transfer pattern discrimination performance curves for two cats belonging to each of the three experimental groups. Solid dots initial learning solid triangles transfer. Abscissa blocks of 40 trials Ordinate percent of correct responses. The upper left...

Conclusion and new perspectives in corpus callosum research

The large numbers of studies carried out on the corpus callosum since the pioneering work of Myers and Sperry in the mid-1950s have largely confirmed, in various animal species including humans, the functions of the corpus callosum reported in this chapter. There is little doubt that the corpus callosum is involved in inter-hemispheric transfer of lateralized information, although it might share this function with other secondary commissures. It is also generally accepted that another function of this great cerebral commissure is to ensure the continuity of lateralized stimuli across the midline (the midline fusion hypothesis). The implication of the corpus callosum in the fusion of three-dimensional objects is still a matter of debate, since the electro-physiological results on the preservation of disparity sensitive cells in split-chiasm cats do not always account for the behavioral deficits observed in the discrimination of random-dot stereograms. The various anatomical,...

Feline immunodeficiency virus fiv Widespread

Lentivirus (retrovirus) that causes an immunodeficiency in domestic cats. The immunodeficiency may be due to failure to generate an IL-12-dependent type I response. CXC-R4 seems to be the surface receptor for viral binding - CD4 is not required, in contrast with HIV infection.

Interhemispheric signals

In the first study of the response of single cortical neurons to input from the corpus callosum, on cats under Nembutal anesthesia, neurons that were identified as projecting to the spinal cord (pyramidal tract cells) were almost uniformly inhibited, and cells projecting across the callosum could be activated by stimulation of the foreleg (Asanuma and Okamoto, 1959). The inhibition noted in this and other studies on anesthetized animals promoted the idea that the influence of one hemisphere on the other is predominantly inhibitory. However, in the ensuing 30 years, techniques have become far more sophisticated, and it is now clear that the callosal signal shares the complexity of most cortical processes. The visual systems of cats and primates present unique opportunities to study callosal signaling, since in these species the visual field is split quite precisely down the middle (the vertical meridian), half the scene being projected to one hemisphere and the other half to the other....

Prion Protein The Friendly

Prion disorders affect both humans and animals, and occur as infectious, inherited, and sporadic disorders. Human prion disorders include Gerstmann Straussler Scheinker disease (GSS), Creutzfeldt Jacob disease (CJD), fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and variant Creutzfeldt Jacob disease (vCJD). Among animals, prion diseases include scrapie in sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, and mink encephalopathy. Prion disease has also been detected in captive wild ruminants, rare zoonotic species, and in domestic cats. Among the human disorders, GSS, CJD, and FFI are inherited as autosomal dominant diseases and manifest in old

Flavoridin See disintegrin

Flehmen Flehmen reaction Term used in animal behaviour to describe a response in some mammals, particularly cats, that takes the form of a grimace in which air is sucked in, allowing trace quantities of chemicals (including pheromones) to be detected by an accessory olfactory organ in the roof of the mouth.

Memory and hemispheric disconnection

As Doty mentions, the very interesting findings of Lewine and colleagues (1994) suggest that even though forebrain commissurotomy seems to create two independent and disconnected cognitive systems, one in each hemisphere, some aspects of mnemonic (as well as at-tentional) processing are in fact shared between the hemispheres, possibly at the brain stem level. I would like to mention a recent paper by Mascetti (1997) on in-terhemispheric transfer in split-brain cats, the results of which go along with the above suggestion. He trained two groups of cats with section of the optic chiasm and the forebrain commissures on two visual pattern discriminations. Training was monocular, and the eye used for training was changed from one session to the next in both groups. With each discrimination the contingencies of reinforcement were consistent for both eyes in one group, while the other group was reinforced for choosing one of the two discriminanda when using the right eye and the other...

Reorganization After Deafferentations

Or higher than those in the missing range (Rajan et al., 1993 Schwaber et al., 1993 Robertson and Irvine, 1989). After a restricted retinal lesion in cats or monkeys, deprived portions of primary visual cortex came to be activated by surrounding intact portions of the retina (Kaas et a ., 1990 Gilbert and Wiesel, 1992 Darian-Smith and Gilbert, 1995 Chino et al., 1992 Heinen and Skavenski, 1991 Schmid et al., 1996).

The Synthetic Pyrimidines

Effect of the latter compound, can induce increased toxicity to 5-fluorocytosine. Adverse drug interactions can occur with other antimicrobial and anticancer drugs, cyclosporine, and other therapeutic agents. Because of its toxic potential, 5-fluorocytosine should not be administered to pregnant women or animals. This drug has been used in combination with keto-conazole for cryptococcosis in small animals (very toxic for cats) and also for respiratory apergillosis and severe candidiasis in birds.

Sars Cov Why Susceptible To Monkeys

CoVs belong to the order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae. CoVs are a diverse group of enveloped, positive-sense RNA viruses. The CoV genome, 27-32 kilobases in length, is the largest of the known RNA viruses. CoV attachment, and fusion of the viral lipid envelope with host lipid membrane, is mediated by trimeric spike (S) glycoproteins that project from the virion.11 Although CoVs infect a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, cattle, mice, birds, and humans, the natural host range of each strain is typically limited to a single species.11 Interaction of virus S with host cell receptors is a major determinant of the species specificity and tissue tropism of CoVs. Upon entry into target cells, CoVs initiate viral replication, utilizing a complex discontinuous RNA transcription mechanism to generate 3' co-terminal subgenomic RNAs, which share a short 5' leader sequence.12

Pesticide Detoxification

The second example, also in planning stages, seems egregious by comparison. It involves the pesticide 1080 (sodium monofluoroacetate) now widely used to control exotic mammalian pests introduced into Australia. These include rabbits, foxes, feral cats, feral pigs, and rodents, all of which can do great ecological harm. The typical approach is to set out 1080 as poisonous baits in pest-infested areas. This method has proved quite effective at times and is also recommended because 1080 is a natural plant-based product that readily bio-degrades, leaving no lasting harmful residues.

Virucidal Effect Of A Newly Developed Nickel Alloy On Mouse Coronavirus

A newly recognized disease, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), was first reported in China in February 2003. A few months after the first outbreak of SARS, the disease was transmitted worldwide in more than 20 countries of Asia, Europe, and North America. A novel coronavirus (CoV) was detected in patients with SARS and identified as causative agent. Civet cats have been suspected as natural host of SARS CoV, which infects human beings by oral or intranasal route the infected hosts sheds the virus into air through respiratory route and or feces from intestinal tract. The routes of entry and shedding of SARS CoV is similar to those of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV mouse CoV), which causes a variety of diseases such as diarrhea, hepatitis, encephalitis, and wasting syndrome of nude mice.

The Problem Of Detecting Brain Plasticity

Another possibility in studies of plasticity is to evaluate other cortical maps for changes. Area 3b is the homolog in monkeys and humans of S1 in rats and cats (Kaas, 1983), but there are other cortical representations. Just rostral to the area 3b representation of tactile receptors, area 3a represents muscle-spindle receptors. In addition, strip-like areas 1 and 2, just caudal to area 3b, represent tactile receptors (area 1) or a mixture of tactile and muscle-spindle receptors (area 2). These fields project to other representations, including the second somatosensory area, S2, and the parietal ventral somatosensory area, PV (see Kaas, 1993 for review). Some of these representations, such as areas 3a and 1, and S2, have been included in studies of plasticity, but they have neurons with larger, and often less easily defined receptive fields (e.g., 3a, 2). These representations may also be smaller in size (e.g., S2, PV). Thus, convincing data on plasticity and reorganization are more...

Retinitis Pigmentosa A Model Neurodegenerative Disease

An inherited retinal degeneration called retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is not a disease of the aged. Indeed, in most cases its onset is in the late teens or early twenties, progressing to complete blindness in the fifties, sixties, or even later. It is a fairly rare disease, affecting about one in 4,000 people worldwide. It is a disease of the rod photoreceptors, but cone photoreceptors are eventually affected as well. In contrast to AMD, where central vision is lost, RP begins in the periphery of the retina, gradually restricting the visual field. The fovea is the last to go, but eventually it, too, degenerates, leaving the individual completely blind. This disease has been studied intensively for more than 40 years and enormous progress has been made in understanding its causes. Furthermore, progress is being made with therapies for the disease, at least in treating animal models of the disease, of which there are many. Animals that have RP-like diseases include mice, rats, dogs, and...

Minamata Bay disaster

Signs of the impending disaster came when dead fish were found floating in the Bay in early 1952, but what attracted comment was the behaviour of seabirds which fed off them. They were observed to fly around erratically and even to drop from the sky. Next the cats that lived around the Bay area were observed to be behaving oddly, staggering around as if drunk, salivating freely, having convulsions, and dying. Some cats that were affected even ran into the sea and drowned. Meanwhile children playing on the shore were able to pull seemingly dazed octopus and cuttlefish out of the sea with their bare hands. Dogs and pigs were also reported to be afflicted with the strange madness, and then it began to affect the human population. They did not know it, but the seafood they were regularly consuming had high levels of methyl mercury grey mullet had 11 ppm, chinu fish had 24 ppm, and crabs 35 ppm. In August 1956, a Minamata Disease Research Group was set up under the auspices of the Kumamoto...

The effect of banning DDT

One of the consequences of the banning of DDT was that other insecticides were developed which became more widely used, for example dieldrin and the organophosphates. Unlike DDT, these were found to be much more toxic to mammals. Dieldrin, an organochlorine compound, was also more toxic to other species such as birds and resulted in large numbers of deaths between 1956 and 1961. One reason for this was the use of dieldrin-treated seeds which were eaten by birds such as pigeons. This led to the deaths of large numbers of pigeons in treated areas and then predators, such as foxes and cats, which ate them were also poisoned. Dieldrin is persistent and remains toxic in animals that have consumed it. Thus other, later, organochlorine insecticides were in some cases much more toxic than DDT.

Phytoremediation of Mercury Poisons

The world was alerted to the danger of methylmercury by a disaster on Japan's Kyushu Island in the 1950s. For years, a chemical factory had dumped wastewater laden with mercury into Minamata Bay, resulting in the death of many shellfish, fish, and birds. Nobody paid much heed, however, until cats began to convulse and die in droves, and local villagers experienced an epidemic of sensory disturbances and brain lesions. Even as the chemical company (Chisso Ltd.) denied responsibility and the Japanese government looked the other way, methylmercury from ingested seafood was confirmed as the cause of Minamata disease. In the ensuing years, more than 12,000 people living near the bay experienced symptoms of this disorder, 2252 were clinically diagnosed with the illness, and more than 1000 cases were fatal. Later, the government spent 50 billion yen over a decade in attempts to clean up this environmental mess, but MeHg still pollutes the bay, and fishing bans remain in effect.

Functional perspective on cell population size

Even Low-Light Vision Requires Large Numbers of Cells Vision in low light also demands high numbers of cells, but for reasons other than visual acuity. A wide belt of the retina that usually surrounds the fovea at 10-15 degrees of eccentricity has rod densities that can rise to 500,000-850,000 cells mm2 in primates (Dkhissi-Benyahya et al., 2001 Wikler and Rakic, 1990), cats (Williams et al., 1993), and mice (Jeon et al., 1998). Even in the far periphery of humans, rod density is still typically above 40,000 cells mm2 (Williams, 1991). rates that depend on their functional contributions to visual performance. For example, populations of rods are higher in domestic cats than in ancestral wildcats (Williams et al., 1993), and populations of retinal ganglion cells are lower in domestic cats and dogs than in wildcats and wolves (Peichl, 1992 Williams et al., 1993) in addition, both domestic species are likely to have lower acuity than their wild peers. Numbers of neurons will reach...

Anatomy and physiology of the developing human brain

Density Synapse Ages

For example, during a specific time period (the sensitive period), visual deprivation induced by monocular eyelid suture results in shrinkage of ocular dominance columns serving the closed eye. Outside the critical period, visual deprivation has little effect on the pattern of ocular dominance (Blakemore, Garey, and Vital-Durand, 1978 Hubel and Wiesel, 1977 Hor-ton and Hocking, 1997). Little is known about the factors that control the duration and timing of sensitive periods however, the onset of the sensitive period is affected by input. For example, in cats, binocular deprivation results in delayed onset of the sensitive period for ocular dominance formation (Cynader and Mitchell, 1980 Mitchell, 1981). Similar observations have been made in the auditory system of songbirds (Marler, 1970) and humans. The maturation of an early auditory evoked response displays an extended time course of development after cochlear implantation in congenitally deaf children (Ponton et al.,...

Leader Graham Moore Rapporteur Janet Gonder

The participants began by identifying discussion topics. Topics included enrichment beyond exercise clarification of the use of structures (do they add or subtract from floor space ) recommendations on socialization acquisition of animals (e.g., experience and socialization at the vendor) vertical space for dogs exercise (what, when, how, why) and Council of Europe requirements. Most of the discussion was directed at dogs, but specific issues for cats were noted. The term enrichment was considered as a complete package to include housing, structures, toys, socialization (with humans and conspecifics), and exercise. Variability was thought to be of benefit. But what really counts Some participants posed the thought that human interaction and provision of a cage mate might suffice. Almost everyone agreed that more could be done to socialize habituate dogs and cats to the laboratory. Early socialization of dogs is critical. Provision of an enrichment profile by vendors of purpose-bred...

Basis For Dog And Cat Recommendations

The Expert Group on Dogs and Cats considered these areas and paid attention to existing guidance documents, such as the current Appendix A, UK Home Office guidance (1989, 1995), and the ILAR Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC 1996). Some significant variations were found in these recommendations, particularly those for space

Current Status Of The Revision

Initially, only four Expert Groups had been established, on (1) Rodents and Rabbits, (2) Dogs and Cats, (3) Nonhuman Primates, and (4) Pigs and Minipigs. These four groups were given the task of preparing Species-Specific proposals, with the General Part of the new proposals, including provisions common to all species covered, being drafted with input from all four groups. The Working Party later decided to add additional species covered by the Convention to the list of those already to be covered by the revision thus, the number of groups grew from four to eight. Furthermore, the Pigs and Minipigs group was expanded to cover all farm animal species, and ferrets were added to the Dogs and Cats group. Currently, the General Section and Species-Specific proposals for Rodents, Rabbits, Dogs, Cats, and Ferrets have been finalized by the Working Party. Those for other species have not yet been finalized, although those for Nonhuman Primates, Birds, and Amphibians are at a very advanced...

Structure And Response Properties Of Proprioceptors

The typical spindle in cats, monkeys, and humans contains three types of intrafusal muscle fiber a dynamic bagj (DB1 or bj), a static bag2 (SB2 or b2), and 2-11 chain (c) fibers. These intrafusal fibers receive motor input from 10-12 fusimotor axons and sometimes from a P-skeletofusimotor axon, which also innervates neighboring extrafusal muscle fibers (Emonet-Denand et al. 1975 Hulliger 1984 Banks 1994). The central encapsulated region of the spindle contains 1 primary and up to 5 secondary sensory endings spiraled around the non-contractile portions of the intrafusal fibers (Boyd and Gladden 1985). The primary endings are those of group Ia afferents (conduction velocity 72-120 m s in cats) and the secondary endings are those of group II afferents (20-72 m s) (Matthews 1972). Spindle primary and secondary endings respond to muscle length variations similarly in cats, monkeys, and humans (for detailed comparisons and a discussion of scaling for different...

The Hypocretins Set The Arousal Threshold

Local injection of hypocretin-1 into the LDT of freely moving cats increases wakefulness and decreases the number of REM episodes but does not influence episode length, suggesting that the hypocretin system influences the gate (or switch) to REM by reducing the firing rates of the brainstem REM-on cells but does not itself operate during REM. This and the fact that deficiencies in the hypocretin system lead to increases in REM make it more likely that action at REM-on structures by hypocretin occurs only during waking periods. The role of hypocretin in regulating the onset of REM sleep is a complex one in that the REM-on structures receive both indirect hypocretin-initiated inhibitory signals from REM-off cells and direct excitatory projections from hypocretin neurons, and therefore this conflicting information must be integrated into a coherent response.

LTP Elsewhere in the Cortex

A feature of LTP generation of developmental interest has been observed in the visual cortex of young rats and cats. Whereas LTP can be generated in the visual cortex of young animals, the ease of its generation is age dependent. As the animals mature, it becomes harder and harder for them to generate LTP in visual cortical neurons. This decline in LTP generation roughly parallels the critical period for the solidification of the ocular dominance columns in the cortex. The idea that the two phenomena are related is strengthened by the finding that dark-rearing, which prolongs the ocular dominance critical period, also prolongs the time it is possible to generate LTP in the visual cortex.

Simple Locomotor Reflexes

The neurophysiological significance of the age-old observation that decapitated animals can display coordinated locomotion had been recognized and documented by the mid-18th Century (Mettrie 1745). Clearly, the neuronal machinery in the spinal cord was capable of controlling quite complex activities without descending input from the brain. The notion that all movements were simply chains of reflexes developed a century later (Spencer 1855). In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the elementary movements involved in locomotion began to be studied in detail, particularly in spinalized or decerebrated dogs and cats (Freusberg 1874 Sherrington 1910 Brown 1911). Sherrington's (1910) study was a tour de force of careful experimentation and highly detailed description and remains a definitive reference work to this day. In it, he described the biomechanical actions of most of the muscles of the cat hindlimb, how these muscles were activated or fell silent in flexion and extension...

The Role Of Hypocretin In Vigilance Controls And Their Interaction With Other Regulatory Systems

One of the important findings discussed above is that the diurnal distribution of REM sleep is highly dependent on the hypocretin system. Hypocretin neurons project directly to the cholinergic pedunculopontine (PPT) and laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) nuclei (5). Injections of hypocretin-1 into the LDT of cats resulted in an increase in wakefulness and a decrease in REM sleep (73). However, LDT PPT cholinergic neurons include heterogeneous groups regarding activity during REM sleep REM-on neurons that are preferentially active during REM sleep (74-76) and help to generate REM sleep and produce atonia through descending projections (77). The lesions of the LDT PPT region abolish REM sleep (78,79). The wake REM active neurons also exist in LDT PPT neurons. Although local administration of hypocretin generally excites most brainstem cholinergic neurons, the physiological role of hypocretin input to these cholinergic neurons in vivo whole system is not known. Hypocretin may selectively...


Griseofulvin is a phenolic, benzyfuran cyclohexane agent (Fig. 4.2B) that binds to RNA. It is a product of Penicillium janczewskii and was the first antifungal agent to be developed as a systemic plant protectant. It acts as a potent inhibitor of thymidylate synthetase and interferes with the synthesis of DNA. It also inhibits microtubule formation and the synthesis of apical hyphal cell wall material. With the advent of terbinafine and itraconazole, the clinical use of griseofulvin as an oral agent for treatment of dermato-phytic infections has become limited. However, it is frequently used for these infections in small animals, horses, and calves (skin only) as well as for equine sporotrichosis. Abdominal adverse side effects have been noted, especially in cats.


Although the clinical significance of Giardia in dogs and cats appears to be minimal, the public health significance of such infections in pets has been the subject of much debate and is still a question of uncertainty for veterinarians. In domestic, urban environments of Australia, for example, zoonotic genotypes from Assemblage A and the 'dog' genotype, Assemblage D, are both equally common in dogs (Thompson et al., 1999). It is therefore considered that two cycles of transmission probably operate in domestic urban environments with the possibility of zoonotic transmission of Assemblage A genotypes between pets and their owners. This was highlighted in the study by Bugg et al. (1999) which found that dogs from multi-dog households were more commonly infected with Giardia than dogs in single-dog households, emphasising the potential ease with which Giardia can be spread to in-contact animals and therefore presumably humans (Bugg et al., 1999). In contrast, a recent survey of domestic...


They do not turn white when pushed on, and they do not generally occur on the palms, soles, or in the mouth. continued infection can cause the blood vessels to grow out of control and form tumorlike masses in skin, bone, liver, and other organs. It can be successfully treated with antibiotics for a period of three to four weeks. patients with cats in their homes should treat the animals for fleas, so the illness is not repeated.

Cohort studies 111

Coccidioses A collection of illnesses found in humans and animals caused by the family of protozoa of the coccidian family. Some can be spread between species. Typically they can cause disease in goats, cats, and birds. cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, and isosporiasis are all illnesses caused by members of the coccidian family. They are often present in humans but do not typically cause major illnesses unless a person is immunocompromised, as in HIV disease.


The distribution of labeled callosal cells in normal adult cats was compared with that obtained in the split-chiasm ones. In normal cats, callosal neurons form a band run In the split-chiasm cats the radial distribution of cal-losal cells in areas 17 and 18, as illustrated in Figure 1.9 (OCS 2), is not altered by the surgery. As in normal cats, callosal cells are distributed in two distinct, radially separated, superposed laminae in layers III IV and layer VI. The callosal efferent zone in areas 17 and 18 contains 29.2 of the normal number of labeled callosal neurons in subzone a and 94.3 of the normal number in subzone c. The average number of retrogradely labeled cells per section in subzones a and c of the split-chiasm cats was 77.04 and 36.86, respectively. It thus Figure 1.10. Box-and-whisker plot showing the mean number of HRP-labeled callosal neurons per section in areas 17 and 18 of normal and OCS cats. Note the drastic reduction of callosal cells in subzone a of the...


Larger animals, including household pets, will also feed on a dead body. Pet cats and dogs will chew on their dead owners if left alone and hungry. Rodents, raccoons, possums and other feral animals may also cause considerable damage to the body. Most of these postmortem injuries are readily recognized by either the pathologist or the consulting anthropologist. Rarely does an animal consume an entire body. However, animals may spread parts of the remains over a wide area.

The fatal week

Search for poison and found the chocolate box containing the packet of arsenic trioxide with 'for cats' written on the side. The solicitor living next door was immediately sent for by Michael so he could witness the sealing of this incriminating piece of evidence. On that fateful night, this must have seemed to all present as proof positive of Florence's guilt.

Rearing in the dark

Rearing in the dark reduces LTD and increases LTP (Kirkwood et al., 1996 Sermasi et al., 2000). This tallies with the observation that cats reared in the dark to 12-20 weeks of age are more plastic than normal. Unfortunately, this experiment has not been done with cats reared in the dark to 5 weeks of age compared to cats reared in the dark to 12-20 weeks of age. If there is a true parallel between LTP, LTD, and ocular dominance plasticity, one would expect LTP to be reduced and LTD to be increased in cats reared in the dark to 5 weeks of age.

Concluding Remarks

The Law does not have any clear provision on whether a hospital has the right to refuse to take in patients of infectious diseases. Such refusal happened during the early SARS period. Second, there is no provision on legal liability imposed on those patients who refuse to be quarantined.65 It is reported that the revision of the 1989 Law has been put on the legislation agenda in the NPC.66 Other related laws also need necessary revisions due to the SARS factor. For example, the Law on the Protection of Wildlife, which is linked to the prohibition of eating wild games such as civet cats. It has been also targeted as one of the laws to be revised in the NPC legislation plan.67


We next studied the same phenomenon in normal cats. Figure 4 shows that we saw an elevation of hypocretin level with exercise (10). We were able to conduct the first microdialysis assay of hypocretin across the sleep cycle. We found that levels were maximal in active waking, reduced in non-REM sleep, and increased again in REM sleep (Fig. 5). This finding fits with the motor activation explanation of hypocretin release, since REM sleep is a state of internal motor activation, blocked at the periphery by motoneuron atonia.

Mandatory reporting

Mange A skin disease in mammals characterized by itching, lesions, scabs, and loss of hair caused by parasitic mites. Mange is a communicable disease occurring in various animals, including dogs, cats, cattle, horses, sheep, rabbits, rats, and some birds. The causative agent is any of several mange mites, including Chorioptes, Demodex, Psoroptes, and Sarcoptes. In humans, this condition is known as scabies.

Reducing Conflict

If the avoidance tendency can be reduced enough so that it no longer crosses the approach tendency, the person will be able to continue approaching the goal. Therapy may do this. Tranquilizing drugs may allow approach by reducing the avoidance tendency. For that matter, alcohol also has this effect in animal studies, hungry rats who normally avoid a feeding area where they have been shocked will dare to approach it if they have been injected with alcohol, and frightened cats prefer a little alcohol in their milk (Dollard & Miller, 1950, pp. 185-186). Humans, too, turn to alcohol after failure, or if they are thinking about their disappointments (Baumeister, 1997b Hull & Young, 1983 Hull, Young, & Jouriles, 1986). Unfortunately, some of the avoidance tendencies that alcohol numbs in drunken humans are the inhibitions that are a necessaiy part of adaptive social behavior (Steele & Josephs, 1990). Drugs are nonspecific, reducing avoidance tendencies generally. Thus, they may...

Phenylketonuria 391

Cat breeds can become infected with the parasite cats become infected by killing and eating small rodents. Most children contract the disease not from cats, however, but from raw meat. The meat becomes infected because sheep and cattle graze in pastures contaminated by cats. The disease, which rarely causes symptoms, can be treated with antibacterial drugs.

Maurice Ptito

Abstract The corpus callosum, referred to as the great cerebral commissure, is the major set of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres. Since the pioneering work of Myers and Sperry in the early 1960s, the corpus callosum has been confirmed into its role in interhemispheric transfer of sensorimotor information. This led to the development of a surgical technique known as commissurotomy or split-brain, which is aimed at reducing the interhemispheric transmission of abnormal electrical discharges in epileptic patients. Over the years, animal research has proved to be useful in delineating other visual functions of the corpus callosum using not only split-brain preparations but also animals with a section of the optic chiasm. In this review, we report previous studies that indicate that the corpus callosum is indeed involved in the inter-hemispheric transfer of visual information in adult cats and that this commissure is plastic, in the sense that its neonatal section does not...


Learning and transfer performance curves obtained following the section of the corpus callosum in three age groups 20 days, 45 days, and adulthood. Note that cats belonging to group 1 (20 days) show a good interocular transfer whereas those in the two other groups show no savings when tested with the naive eye, indicating the absence of interhemi-spheric transfer. (Adapted from Ptito and Lepore, 1983.) Abscissa Mean number of trials to criterion Ordinate experimental groups (20 days, 45 days, and adults, respectively). White bars learning solid bars transfer. in callosotomized kittens. Three groups of animals were callosotomized at three different ages group 1 at 20 days old (corresponding to the premyelinization period of the corpus callosum), group 2 at 45 days (corresponding to the postmyelinization period), and group 3 in adulthood. Subjects in groups 1 and 2 received an additional section of the optic chiasm at about 8 months of age, whereas those in group 3 were...


Studies on Normal Adult Cats In the mid-nineteenth century, Wheatstone (1838), using a stereoscope, showed that not only do two bidimensional images viewed with each eye independently appear as a fused single image, but that the image is also seen in depth. This three-dimensional stereoscopic binocular vision appears to depend upon binocular retinal disparities along the horizontal axis. The neural mechanisms underlying stereo-perception seem to be based on the convergence of information from the two eyes onto single cortical cells. This binocular convergence and subsequent binocular fusion are mediated by two pathways the crossed reti-nothalamocortical pathway (via the optic chiasm) and the transcallosal route. Over the past few years we have carried out a series of behavioral and electrophysiolog-ical experiments to determine the contribution of each of these pathways to stereoperception (reviewed by Ptito et al., 1991). These studies were first done on normal cats to show that this...


Corpus callosum is the unification of both hemifields, thus ensuring the continuity of images through the midline. The cortical areas receiving (afferent) or sending (efferent) callosal inputs are those where the vertical meridian is represented. Electrophysiological studies have continuously supported the ''midline fusion hypothesis (reviewed by Lepore et al., 1986). By using the split-chiasm preparation, it is possible to record single units in the cortical areas where there is a representation of the vertical midline such as the 17 18 border (the suprasylvian cortex and the ectosylvian cortex) (see Figure 6.10). With this preparation, any unit which could still be activated through each eye (binocular cell) receives an ipsilateral geniculocortical input and a contralateral callosal input. In our laboratory we have previously shown that about 33 of the cells situated in the border region of areas 17 18 were binocularly activated in a split-chiasm preparation (Lepore and Guillemot,...

Stages Of Plasticity

There are a few important exceptions to the well-established notion that latent inputs are expressed rapidly after sensory denervation. The most recent comes from a study of the effects of peripheral cold blockade on cuneate neurons in cats by Zhang and Rowe.54 No evidence of new receptive fields was obtained during the period of cold-induced deafferentation. At present there is no explanation for the results, which seem to be in conflict with nearly all other reports. However, limited changes may have been overlooked. For example, if the blockade eliminated both dominant and latent inputs to the majority of the neurons being studied, then only those at the perimetry of the cold blockade, where silent inputs were spared, would acquire new receptive fields immediately. Alternatively, perhaps the time course of the blockade was too short. Tests for new receptive fields began 5 minutes after the cold blockade was established and were continued for no longer than 30 minutes however, some...

Peter Sterling

The retina is a thin sheet of brain tissue (100 to 250 mm thick) that grows out into the eye to provide neural processing for photoreceptor signals (Fig. 17.1). In cats and macaque monkeys, it weighs about 0.1 g and covers 800 mm2, about twice the area of a U.S. quarter (Packer et al., 1989). The retina includes both photoreceptors and the first two to four stages of neural processing. Its output projects centrally over many axons (1.6 x 105 in cats Williams et al., 1993 1.3 x 106 in humans and 1.8 x 106 in macaques Potts et al., 1972 ), and analysis of these information channels occupies about half of the cerebral cortex (van Essen et al., 1992 Baseler et al., 2002). Because the retina constitutes a significant fraction of the brain (roughly 0.3 ), to solve it completely would be a significant achievement for neuroscience. This overview considers what a solution would entail and summarizes progress toward that goal.

Tranquilizer 483

Toxoplasma gondii The organism that causes toxoplasmosis, one of the most common causes of inflammation of the brain in people with AIDS. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular, non-host-specific, widespread sporozoan species that is parasitic in a number of vertebrates, including humans. The sexual cycle of Toxoplasma gondii, leading to the production of oocysts, develops exclusively in cats and other felines. An oocyte is a cell undergoing meiosis during oogenesis (the production of ova, involving usually both meiosis and maturation). It enters the body through the mouth and digestive tract from contaminated meat or contact with cat feces. It then travels through the blood to the brain, where it invades and kills neuronal cells.

The Azoles

Voriconazole Synthesis

Candidiasis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and selected forms of coccidioidomycosis. In non-cancer patients, this drug can be effective in the treatment of superficial Candida and dermatophytic infections when the latter are refractory to griseofulvin therapy. Therapeutic failure with ketoconazole has been associated with low serum levels monitoring of these levels is recommended in such failures. Ketoconazole also has been used for a variety of systemic and superficial fungal infections in cats and dogs.

Normal oral flora

Comparisons made among different species of animals show that while some genera are common to several mammals, different animal species show variations in the complexity of their flora and harbour different species of a given microbial genus. Among the best-studied animals, apart from humans, are those which naturally develop caries or periodontal disease, and those in which these diseases can be produced experimentally. The oral flora of the nonhuman primates is similar to that of humans, while dogs and cats are also known to have complex micro-bial communities. The flora of other animals, such as hamsters, rats and mice, is less complex. Few studies of the oral flora in herbivores, insectivores and carnivores, other than cats and dogs, have been made and nothing is known of the microflora which is resident in the oral cavities of reptiles and fishes. Even in humans and primates, relatively few studies have

Rabbit Contraception

Feral rabbits, rats, cats, goats, and other small mammal species are often devastating to the native lands and biotas they invade. Furthermore, no easy way exists to eliminate such pests once they have been unleashed into a natural ecosystem. Thus, in the future, far more effort should go toward blocking introductions of alien species, rather than dealing with the consequences after the fact. With respect to eliminating exotic pests, a few ounces of prevention can outweigh many pounds of attempted cure.

Common descent

Dogs and wolves, for example, are different species because they are reproductively isolated, but they have countless other features in common and for this are classified in the same genus Canis (Canis familiaris and Canis lupus). In the same way, tigers and lions are two species of the genus Panthera (Panthera tigris and Panthera leo), as polar bears and grizzly bears are different species of the genus Ursus. Tigers and domestic cats, on the other hand, cannot be put in the same genus, but still have so many characters in common that they are classified, together with lions, in a single family (the Felidae). Dogs, wolves, tigers, lions, cats and bears, on the other hand, are all characterized by meat-eating structures, and for this are grouped together in the order Carnivora. Animals like bats, monkeys and whales are classified in quite different orders and yet they share with This impressive system had been built by generations of naturalists within the classical framework of the...

Minamata disease

Bioaccumulation Mercury Japan

The Japanese diet contains a lot of fish, and the local fishermen and their families would eat more fish than most. The fishermen were catching fish and seafood in the waters of Minamata Bay, waters which proved to be heavily contaminated with methyl mercury. In 1956 the first case of what became known as Minamata disease was reported and then other people started to present themselves to doctors and at hospitals with various symptoms such as muscular incoordination and difficulties in speech. Their pet cats, which were also eating the fish, suffered similar symptoms. Dr Hosokawa, director of the Minamata City hospital was conducting his own experiments based on the theory from the university. He fed cats waste effluent from the factory that was producing acetaldehyde and was able to produce similar symptoms in them, and he detected other changes by pathological examination at autopsy. The company that owned the factory, the Chisso Minamata Chemical Company, was aware of his work and...

Animal Allergens

All warm-blooded, furry animals can cause allergic reactions, usually the result of proteins in their saliva, dander, and urine. When the animal licks itself, the saliva gets on the fur. As the saliva dries, protein particles become airborne and work their way into fabrics in the home. Cats often cause the most problems because their salivary protein is

Extrastriate cortex

These findings lead to our concluding conjecture that a complete picture of the factors that limit visual development and vision after abnormal experience will not be obtained until we have an account of extrastriate cortical development. There is modest evidence that the binocularity and response properties of neurons in V4 are affected in amblyopia (Movshon et al., 1987), and we have argued that changes in binocular organization in area MT following strabismus show that an independent mechanism of cortical binocular plasticity operates during development in this area (Kiorpes et al., 1996). Also, disruption of binocular organization has recently been reported in several extrastriate cortical areas in amblyopic cats (Schroder et al., 2002).


Goldner et al.130 examined the alloxan effect in rabbits, rats, guinea pigs, cats, dogs, and pigeons, all of which were found to be sensitive to alloxan in various degrees. They reported that permanent diabetes could be produced in rats, rabbits, and, with the most significant results, in dogs.

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