Caregiver Training Courses

Caregiver Training Ebooks

The caregiver training e-book gives a training course on how to provideassistance to another person who is ill, disabled or needs help with daily activities. It can also serve as a useful guide to the individuals in the need of help. The product deals in physical, mental, social, and psychological needs and well-being of both the caregivers and the elderly person requiring care. Everyone needs a little help from time to time and while many seniors lean on the friends and family members for support, there may be some instances in which it's necessary to seek additional assistance or long-term care which was why this product was created by the author. This caregiver product is a practical guide created by the author who is an expert in the field. This product embeds in it several training sections in which each section gives detailed information on how to provide assistance to people who are ill, disabled, or aged. This product is a trusted and 100% guarantee to provide the necessary details needed in caring for the physically challenged, aged and ill individuals. The product is also an essential overview of issues from Alzheimer's to diabetes to strokes. Continue reading...

Caregiver Training Ebooks Summary


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The Nurse as Caregiver

Since the dawn of the nursing profession, nurses have been viewed as caretakers or caregivers. A late nineteenth-century description of the nursing role includes the following Caregiving defines nursing even to the present day. Despite the increasingly technical and knowledge-rich nature of nursing, the expansion of nurses into significant health care leadership positions, and the growing number of nursing professionals who hold master's or doctoral degrees, the patient-nurse relationship still involves giving and receiving care. Highly qualified through certification, advanced learning, and experience, the nurse combines skilled medical administration with the roles of teacher, minister, and friend.

Support and Treatment of the Caregiver

Demoralization and depression are present in 40-50 percent of caregivers of individuals with dementia. Some caregivers benefit from educational material or focused discussions on specific symptoms, treatments, and prognoses. Others may benefit from referral to support groups, such as those directed by the Alzheimer Association. (Local telephone numbers can be obtained by calling the Alzheimer Association at 1-800-272-3900.) Well-designed intervention trials demonstrate that a combination of emotional support and educational information benefit caregivers and that such programs can delay nursing home placement for the individuals they look after. When caregivers feel overwhelmed or demoralized despite such measures, the primary care physician should recommend counseling. If the dysphoric state persists despite psychotherapy, psychiatric referral is indicated, for the caregivers distress may reflect not only the burden he or she bears, but also the presence of major depression or an...

AIDS origin of See hiv origin of

AIDS orphan A child or youth who has lost parents, foster and adoptive parents, grandparents, siblings, friends, neighbors, or other crucial caregivers to the AIDS epidemic. AIDS orphans generally do not have the disease themselves and are not viewed as patients by the medical community. Often unable to share their family secrets and losses, they are often invisible to service communities, schools, churches, and courts. Few professionals seem to be helping to plan for their futures, or even recognize that they exist. confidentiality and disclosure, custody and placement, benefits programs, and bereavement are some of the issues these children and youth face. An additional challenge these children and youth face is that the general public is not well educated about the issue.

When Are Seizures Not Epilepsy

Sometimes a child will have a seizure during the course of an illness with a high fever. These seizures are called febrile seizures (febrile is derived from the Latin word for fever ) and can be very alarming to the parents and other caregivers. in the past, doctors usually prescribed a course of anticonvulsant drugs following a febrile seizure in the hope of preventing epilepsy. However, most children who have a febrile seizure do not develop epilepsy, and long-term use of anticonvulsant drugs in children may damage the developing brain or cause other detrimental side effects. Experts at a 1980 consensus conference coordinated by the National institutes of Health concluded that preventive treatment after a febrile seizure is generally not warranted unless certain other conditions are present a family history of epilepsy, signs of nervous system impairment prior to the seizure, or a relatively prolonged or complicated seizure. The risk of subsequent nonfebrile seizures is only 2 to 3...

How Is Epilepsy Diagnosed

Taking a detailed medical history, including symptoms and duration of the seizures, is still one of the best methods available to determine if a person has epilepsy and what kind of seizures they have. The doctor will ask questions about the seizures and any past illnesses or other symptoms a person may have had. Since people who have suffered a seizure often do not remember what happened, caregivers' accounts of the seizure are vital to this evaluation.

Information Resources

The National Council on patient information and Education is a coalition of organizations committed to providing patients, consumers, and caregivers with useful and appropriate medicine information. Family Caregiver Alliance 415-434-3388 800-445-8106 415-434-3508 (fax) info Services offered by the Family Caregiver Alliance include specialized information and assistance, consultation on long-term care planning, service linkage and arrangement, legal and financial consultation, respite services, counseling, and education. National Family Caregivers Association Through its services in the areas of education and information, support and validation, public awareness, and advocacy, the National Family Caregivers Association strives to improve caregivers' quality of life.

Emotions in Organizational Teams

The preceding paragraphs point out that the emotional skills critical to effective patient care actually translate to better leadership ability. In the dual role of caregiver and leader, the nurse manager interfaces laterally with colleagues and vertically with patients, subordinates, and corporate administrators. The interfaces are no longer unilateral but are increasingly collaborative. Nurse managers find themselves not simply giving orders and taking orders but rather engaging themselves and their staff, their superiors, their colleagues, and even their patients, in participative decision making. As shared leadership becomes formalized in many organizations, its collaborative principles already typify even informal interactions in the health care team. It is becoming the norm.

When to use which method

Randomized controlled trials carried out in specialised units by expert care givers, designed to determine whether an intervention does more good than harm under ideal conditions, cannot tell us how experimental treatments will fare in general use, nor can they identify rare side-effects. Non-experimental epidemiology can fill that gap. Similarly, because the theoretical concerns about the confounding of treatment with prognosis have been repeatedly confirmed in empirical studies , non-experimental epidemiology cannot reliably distinguish false positive from true positive conclusions about efficacy. Randomized trials minimize the possibility of such error. And neither randomized trials nor non-experimental epidemiology are the best source of data on individuals' values and experiences in health care qualitative research is essential. (Sackett and Wennberg, 1997)

Tuberous Sclerosis Association UK

Individuals, family members, and caregivers through visits and telephone support. In addition, the Association advises on where to obtain assistance concerning social services, benefits, and educational concerns and has a Family Care Worker who engages in patient and family advocacy. The TSA also has an International TS Research Symposium every three to four years for physicians who are conducting research on all aspects of the disorder organizes regional meetings with speakers who address local groups holds an Annual General Meeting for members, friends, and professionals during which physicians gives presentations on Tuberous Sclerosis and has a Family Weekend Conference when affected families spend time together and benefit from shared experiences. The Tuberous Sclerosis Assocation offers a variety of materials including brochures, leaflets, fact sheets, videos, and a regular newsletter entitled 'TS Scan.'.

Technological Advances in Health Care

May be years from converting to a paperless system, while others have surged ahead with computer-based medical records, handheld devices for charting, computerized physician order entry, and digitalization that allows routine tracking of patient whereabouts. A growing reality, telemedicine, is another technology trend that provides remote transmissions between multiple caregivers or between caregivers and patients. Some patients may even have clinical indicators such as blood pressure and blood glucose monitored via a telemedicine device (Sokol and Molzen, 2002).

The Impact of Medical Advances

Along with the unquestionably technical aspect of nursing care comes the purely advanced aspect of medical care that which is presenting patients and caregivers with entirely new ranges of options, hopes, and ethical Life-or-death decisions can be especially cumbersome. We have the profound ability to sustain life through mechanical ventilation and cardiac support, but patients, families, and caregivers have individual views on the point at which life should or should not be sustained, views that may vary from moment to moment as a patient's condition or prognosis changes. There are cancer therapies that are potentially curative but not necessarily opted for in all cases palliative treatment plans are sometimes chosen in lieu of these potentially disease-modifying regimens. Such decisions, which are not made lightly, can be fraught with uneasiness, resolve, peace, fear, guilt, anger, hope, disappointment, or overwhelming sadness and despair. In the middle is the nurse, who, knowing...

The Treatment of Noncognitive Symptoms

The assessment of behavior disorder should include a careful evaluation of the environment and the patients medical status. Disordered behavior may be precipitated by newly occurring delirium and by caregivers who are unaware of the patient's specific cognitive deficits. An example of the latter cause is that patients with Alzheimer disease who are asked to perform a task with multiple stages may be unable to comprehend the request because they are aphasic or unable to do it because they are apractic. The frustration that arises from the communication disorder or apraxia may lead to disruptive behavior. In this instance, the most appropriate treatment would be to inform those caring for the patient about that individual's limitations and to instruct them to modify their approach so that less is demanded of the patient. Structured activity programs are effective in decreasing undesirable behaviors in the nursing home setting, and this principle is likely to be true in day-care centers...

Perceiving Emotion and the Need to Think Critically

Is a family frightened that their loved one's prognosis may be more serious than is being outwardly acknowledged Do they perhaps have another relative whose health took a similar course and died or underwent serious life changes as a result In light of their previous experience, are they questioning their loved one's status, even though they have been told the prognosis is good Perhaps they allude to others who went bad after having a similar procedure or had this same problem a few years ago but didn't make it. This is the kind of chatter that may go on in waiting rooms or even in the patient's presence. Unless the caregiver perceives the fear inherent in these words, there will be no opportunity to allay it.

Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation

Ment style that exists between caregiver and infant, known as the Strange Situation. This procedure consists of a 20-minute laboratory session in which a mother and infant are initially alone hi a playroom. Then a stranger comes into the room, and after a few minutes the stranger beghis a brief interaction with the infant. The mother then goes away for two separate 2-mhiute periods. Dining the first period, the infant is left alone with the stranger during the second period, the infant is left completely alone. The critical behavior is how the infant reacts when the mother returns this behavior is the basis of the attachment style rating. Ainsworth and her associates found tlnee attachment style rathigs secure, anxious-resistant, and avoidant. In a secure attachment, when then mother returns, infants are happy and enthusiastic and initiate contact for example, they will go over to then mother and want to be held. All securely attached infants are confident in the accessibility and...

Attachment Theory and Adult Relationships

A classic study of adult attachment was conducted by Cindy Hazan and Phil Shaver (1987), who predicted that different types of early attachment styles would distinguish the kind duration, and stability of adult love relationships. More specifically, these investigators expected that people who had secure early attachments with then caregivers would experience more trust, closeness, and positive emotions in their adult love relationships than would people in either of the two insecure groups. Likewise, they predicted that avoidant adults would fear closeness and lack trust, whereas anxious-ambivalent adults would be preoccupied with and obsessed by their relationships. Ushig college students and other adults, Hazan and Shaver found support for each of these predictions. Securely attached adults did experience more trust and closeness in their love relationships than did avoidant or anxious-ambivalent adults. Moreover, the researchers found that securely attached adults were more likely...

Case 3 A 70Year Old Man with Widespread Cancer

Once more, medicine is a collaborative effort, and the most important participants in the collaboration are the patient and family. Consulting physicians, social workers, nurses, and clergy help. Their different points of view may reflect their professional paradigms of care, who they are as individuals, and their values and prejudices, which they may not even recognize. But there must always be a primary caregiver, the general contractor who is ultimately responsible and who can integrate diverse points of view into a single set of recommendations and a plan. Someone has to be in charge. Though I provided no specific anticancer treatment, I did much more. I assessed his needs and the needs of his family in the broadest sense, and I addressed his prognosis with all of them. I involved others family and hospice nurse in his care.

Creating an Environment Ripe for Change

The tried and true can be very influential. A multidisciplinary team of managers at a small hospital was meeting to discuss written patient communications. Six months before, standardized communications, including letters describing the hospital's services and providing visitor information general health and safety information materials designed to provide information for families and caregivers and discharge preparation sheets, had been developed over a period of three months and circulated through various approval committee members before becoming part of patient admission kits. Now, half a year later, the team was meeting to determine whether any changes needed to be implemented in light of cost, effectiveness, and patients' response to the information.

Project Title Childhood Epilepsy Factors Affecting Adaptation

Variables (e.g., parenting and family resources) to predict child mental health disturbances and academic problems over the first year following the first recognized seizure. The sample will be 360 children (ages 6-14 years, IQ 70) with a first recognized seizure and 240 healthy siblings (ages 6-17 years). There also will be a pilot sample of 60 children with seizures who have IQs between 55 and 70. Neurobiological data will include results from MRI, EEG, and individualized tests of academic achievement, intelligence, and neuropsychological functioning. Data on child and family variables will be obtained from the major caregiver and from children who are at least 8 years old. Data analyses will include repeated measures analysis of covariance, multiple regression, and structural equation modeling. No previous studies have investigated all of these important variables together within the context of childhood epilepsy, especially those with low IQ. Findings will greatly increase...

Aphasia Treatment Psychosocial Issues

Recovery and response to rehabilitation in aphasia are also significantly influenced by emotional and psychosocial factors. The aphasic person's family and other caregivers need to be involved as much as possible in intervention, and this involvement extends beyond discharge. The experienced disability rather than the impairment itself is the focus of rehabilitation. Rehabilitation increasingly includes community-based work and support from not-for-profit organizations and self-help groups.

Immediate hypersensitivity

Nations have imposed testing requirements as conditions of entry, denying entry to those who test positive for the virus. Whereas the WHo stresses the importance of cooperation in fighting the pandemic, these countries, including the United States, continue to exclude immigrants and aliens who are infected with HIV. Many countries, however, have heeded the WHO. Some have altered their restrictive travel and immigration laws to allow the entry of HIV-positive aliens. Several countries require HIV testing, not as a condition for exclusion, but as an alert to domestic health care facilities or other care givers within the country. Still others explicitly admit HIV-positive aliens within their borders, following WHo's spirit of global solidarity.

Communication Disorders in Infants and Toddlers

Early intervention services under Part C is decided by each state's lead ICC, and as a result, varies from state to state. Eligibility is often determined by the presence of a developmental delay in physical, cognitive, speech and language, social or emotional, and adaptive (i.e., self-help) skills or eligibility may be based on the degree of risk that the child has for developing a delay. There are three types of risks established risk, biological risk, and environmental risk. In the case of established risk, a child displays a diagnosed medical condition, such as Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, or Turner's syndrome, that is known to influence development negatively. Children with an established risk qualify for early intervention services. In contrast, a child who is biologically at risk exhibits characteristics (e.g., very low birth weight, otitis media, prematurity) that may result in developmental difficulties. A child with an environmental risk is exposed to conditions that...

Aberrant Hygiene Practices

Rare cases of aberrant genital hygiene practices in young girls have been reported in the North American medical literature (37,38). They involve three classes of behavior. The first is a ritualistic focus by the parent on invasive and sometimes painful inspection and washing of the child's genitalia. This may be related to parental suspicion of sexual abuse. The second is a form of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, whereby the parent repeatedly solicits medical intervention for perceived or fabricated genital problems in the child. The third is an overt form of abuse, usually by a male, involving the application of creams or ointments to the child's genitalia for the purpose of the perpetrator's sexual gratification. All three classes are forms of abuse requiring intervention, which may include referral of the child and the caregiver for treatment and, when appropriate, reporting to child protective services.

Issues of Clinical Relevance

The above case shows several values that are important in Nicaraguan families, including family loyalty and obligation and respect for and caregiv-ing of the elderly. In Nicaragua, the daughter might have been able to help care for her father with the support of an extended family in a society accustomed to taking care of the elderly at home. But in the United States, her energy was focused on everyday survival, and being a caregiver of her father felt like an

The Transactional Model of Development and Intervention

The effectiveness of prelinguistic intervention in enhancing later language development depends on the operation of a transactional model of social communication development (Sameroff and Chandler, 1975 McLean and Snyder-McLean, 1978). The model presumes that early social and communication development is facilitated by bidirectional, reciprocal interactions between children and their environment. For example, a change in the child such as the onset of intentional communication may trigger a change in the social environment, such as increased linguistic mapping (i.e., naming objects and actions that the child is attending to) by their caregivers. These changes then support further development in the child (e.g., increased vocabulary), and subsequently further changes by the caregivers (e.g., more complex language interaction with the child). In this way, both the child and the environment change over time and affect each other in reciprocal fashion as early achievements pave the way...

Effects of Prelinguistic Communication Intervention

The effects of maternal responsivity as a mediator and moderator of intervention effects rippled throughout the longitudinal follow-up period. Yoder and Warren demonstrated that children in the PMT group with relatively responsive mothers received increased amounts of responsive input in direct response to their increased intentional communication (Yoder and Warren, 2001b). Furthermore, the effects of the intervention were found on both protoimperatives and protodeclaratives (Yoder and Warren, 1999a), became greater with time, and impacted expressive and receptive language development 6 and 12 months after intervention ceased (Yoder and Warren, 1999b, 2001a). It is important to consider this finding in light of the substantial number of early intervention studies in which the effects were reported to wash out over time (Farren, 2000). Finally, the finding that amount of responsive input by the primary care-giver was partly responsible for the association between intentional...

Norwalk agent virus infection 371

Parents and the school should not underestimate the gravity of this disability. The main problem in the painstaking approach to teaching the child is the caregiver's faulty impression that the child is much more adept than he is. Everyone tends to overestimate the intelligence of NLD adolescents. The child should be shielded from teasing, persecution, and other sources of anxiety.

Getting Past The Wall Of Silence

This data, full of implications at both fact-finding and intervention levels, concerns the connection found between the mentalistic ability of children and the quality of the attachment they establish with their caregivers, whether they be parents or teachers. enhanced (within a context), while directly or indirectly affecting the other spheres. From a perspective sensitive to the developmental potentialities of the relationships with multiple caregivers (van Ijzendoorn et al., 1992), teachers have a crucial role in shaping the course of the child's development in all its spheres, as well as facilitating cognitive development. The school caregiver may represent an excellent emotional opportunity for the child, which interconnects with the emotional processes and ups and downs in the relationship he has established with his primary caregivers. In the light of more recent research carried out by Fonagy (Fonagy, Redfern & Charman, 1997 Fonagy & Target, 2001) and Meins (1997 Meins at al.,...

Positional plagiocephaly 409

Ommended that caregivers change a child often and make frequent trips to the toilet. swim diapers or pants are not a substitute for frequent diaper changing. Caregivers should wash child thoroughly (especially the anal area) with soap and water before swimming. Invisible amounts of fecal matter in the anal area can end up in the pool. (see also

Personalized Medicine for a Renal Transplant Patient

On physical examination, the patient had hypopigmented macules (ash-leaf spots) located on the face, trunk, and buttocks. The patient also had a retinal phacoma, a grayish yellow plaque, in his retina. Extraocular movements were normal without nystagmus. There was also truncal ataxia. He could take a few steps with guidance, but otherwise could not ambulate independently. Overall, the patient was alert, active, and in no acute distress. Currently, the patient lives with his mother, who is his primary caregiver. The patient is unable to work or drive but has been seizure-free for several years, due to successful control with multiple medications (phenytoin, carbamazepine, and lorazepam). For the past several years, the patient has been on dialysis for ESRD. The final assessment showed a 35-year-old mentally retarded male with ESRD due to TSC. It was also evident that the patient had a strong family support system that could provide transportation and ensure that the patient took his...

Box 345 Organizations

There are many other places that you can turn to for information. An Internet search finds organizations such as the Alliance of Genetic Support Groups, the March of Dimes, and the National Organization for Rare Disorders. Some individuals who are trying to take an active role in communication about disorders in their families have established Web pages that present information or reach out to others with similar problems. There are several ways to locate an organization that provides information or support relative to a particular disease. For many different diseases, organizations raise funds for research, provide support groups, and provide information about the disease. One example is The Foundation Fighting Blindness, which supports research, carries on educational programs, has local chapters throughout the country, and holds national meetings attended by patients, family members, caregivers, and educators who want to understand more about forms of retinal degeneration, such as...

Alzheimers Disease Dementia

Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia may disrupt sleep regulation and other brain functions. Sleep is usually fragmented, with more awakenings and more time spent awake as the night progresses. Deep sleep is reduced, and REM sleep is less well organized. Wandering, disorientation, and agitation during the evening and night, a phenomenon known as sundowning, can require constant supervision and place great stress on caregivers. In such cases, benzodiazepine drugs or small doses of antipsychotic medications such as haloperidol (Haldol) and thioridazine (Mel-laril) are often helpful. However, these drugs should be used carefully since they can also increase disorientation and falls.

Mental Illness and Substance Abuse

Clinical evidence suggests that women with mental illness or substance abuse are more likely to be abandoned by their partners than are men with similar problems (Beckman and Amaro 1986 Lex 1991). In Latino families, the stigma of mental illness and substance abuse is often increased for women because of their inability to meet expectations such as primary caregiving of children and nurturing the rest of the family. Latinas are therefore at risk for losing an important source of support, as well as an important source of self-esteem in fulfilling expected roles in the family.

Adaptive social contact

When three or four adults are sitting in a living room your child consistently tries to be closer to his her mother or caregiver than to the others. 39. When the child's caregiver leaves him her with unfamiliar babysitters the child becomes very upset and tries to stay with the caregiver. 40. When the child is hurt he she comes to you, his her caregiver, to make it better. 42. When the child ventures into new space he she periodically returns to the mother or caregiver for refueling before venturing out again. The child plays peek-a-boo with his her mother or caregiver (hiding and then suddenly reappearing).

Perineal Hygiene Among Older Women

Elevated skin wetness, elevated pH, and the presence of fecal enzymes set the stage for skin damage. Hydrated skin is more susceptible to mechanical forces, whereas the elevated pH induced by urinary ammonia alters skin barrier function and activates fecal enzymes that compromise skin integrity. Moreover, several additional factors increase the risk of skin injury in older people (181,182). Skin atrophy makes the tissue inherently more fragile. Skin hydration following occlusion is significantly greater, and dissipated more slowly, in aged skin (183). Immobility increases the impact of mechanical forces moving an immobile person across a chair or bed produces not only superficial friction but also generates shear forces in the underlying tissue because of pressure from the sacral bone (184). In those with impaired immune function, overgrowth of cutaneous pathogens or invasion of fecal bacteria is more likely to be a complication. Poor nutritional status can impede tissue...

National Foundation for Brain Research A

National Multiple Sclerosis Society A national support group for patients with multiple sclerosis (ms) and their families that supports and coordinates research into the cause, treatment, and cure of MS. The group provides services for patients, helps establish Ms clinics and therapy centers, and sponsors public education. The society sponsors Project Rembrandt, a biennial competition for artists with MS. The society provides information and referrals and offers community services, counseling, training programs for caregivers, swimming programs, vocational rehabilitation, and loans medical equipment. The group maintain an information resource center and library, maintains a speakers' bureau, and compiles statistics.

Margaret Mahlers View

Margaret Mahler Stages Development

To Mahler, an individual's psychological birth begms during the first weeks of postnatal life and continues for the next 3 years or so. By psychological birth, Mahler meant that the child becomes an individual separate from his or her primary caregiver, an accomplishment that leads ultimately to a sense of identity As infants gradually realize that they cannot satisfy their own needs, they begin to recognize their primary caregiver and to seek a symbiotic relationship with her, a condition that leads to normal symbiosis, the second developmental stage in Mahler's theory. Normal symbiosis begms around the 4th or 5th week of age but reaches its zenith during the 4th or 5th month. During this thne, the infant behaves and functions as though he and his mother were an omnipotent system a dual unity within one common boundary (Mahler, 1967, p. 741). hi the analogy of the bird egg, the shell is now beginning to crack, but a psychological membrane in the form of a symbiotic relationship still...

Social Reintegration and Self Esteem

Not-for-profit organizations and centers such as the Pat Orato Aphasia Center in Ontario and the Aphasia Center in Oakland, California, provide community-based programs for aphasic people and their families, including the training of relatives and professionals as better conversation partners. Through such programs, the psychosocial well-being of both aphasic participants and their families is improved (Hoen, Thelander, and Worsley, 1997). Training volunteers as communication partners results in gains in psychological well-being and communication among aphasic participants, caregivers, and the communication partners themselves. In philosophy and approach, these centers resemble United Kingdom charities such as Speakability and Connect. Organizations like these are increasingly offering more long-term and psychosocially oriented programs. Many use volunteers, who figure increasingly in social reinte-

The Deaf Child And His Development

It is known that the effects of deafness on a child's mental development are connected primarily with the communicational and linguistic functions and everything that is involved in their development. These effects depend both on the age of onset of deafness in the child and whether his caregiver or the people in his primary relational environment are deaf as well - things that are obviously closely connected with each other. If deafness occurs from birth or straight afterwards, its effects are not diagnosed immediately. Studies carried out (see Freedman, 1971 Chess & Fernandez, 1980) show that in the first year of a deaf baby's life he can respond satisfactorily to external stimulation, imitate gestures and vocalise (this tends to diminish in time). So a baby with a hearing impairment does not, at the outset, demonstrate any particular problems, but they become very evident later in cognitive and linguistic development (Marcelli, 1989). The onset age can be crucial when linked with...

Otitis Media Effects on Childrens Language

Skills between 1 and 5 years of age (Roberts et al., 1995, 1998, 2000). They did find that the caregiving environment (responsiveness of the child's home and child care environments) mediated the relationship between children's history of OME and associated hearing loss and later communication development at 1 and 2 years of age (Roberts et al., 1995, 1998, 2000, 2002). That is, children with more OME and associated hearing loss tended to live in less responsive caregiving environments, and these environments were linked to lower performance on measures of receptive and expressive language skills. More recently, Roberts and colleagues reported that children with greater incidence of OME scored lower in expressive language upon entering school but caught up with their peers in expressive language by second grade. However, a child's home environment was much more strongly related to early expressive language skills than was OME. These and other ongoing prospective studies highlight the...

Social Connectedness and Health

Powerful epidemiological evidence supports the notion that social support, especially intimate ties and the emotional support provided by them, is associated with increased survival and a better prognosis among people with serious cardiovascular disease (Orth-Gomer et al., 1988 Berkman et al., 1992 Case et al., 1992 Williams et al., 1992) and strokes (Friedland and McColl, 1987 Colantonio et al., 1992, 1993 Glass et al., 1993 Morris et al., 1993). The lack of social support, expressed in terms of conflict or loss of intimate ties, is also associated with health outcomes and risk factors such as neuroendocrine changes in women (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 1997), high blood pressure (Ewart et al., 1991), elevated plasma catecholamine concentrations (Malarkey et al., 1994), and autonomic activation (Levenson et al., 1993). Caregivers of relatives with progressive dementia are characterized by impaired wound healing (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 1995, 1998). Social conflicts have been shown to...

Theory Of Mind And Affects In Deaf Children

As we believe that theory of mind abilities develop in a combined process between the child and his caregivers, in this study we have examined deaf children by considering their theory of mind development to be closely connected to the child-adult emotional relationship, defined in terms of security of attachment. Given the particular way deaf children interact with other people, which is often characterised by difficulties and isolation, it is absolutely essential in this context to widen our research to figures other than parents, who are emotionally significant for the deaf children's growth, such as teachers. the affective dimension - in terms of the quality of attachment - of the relationship between deaf children and their caregivers (parents and teachers), compared with that of the children in the control group the connection between theory of mind ability and affective relationships within the family and at school.

Parental Behavior and Personality Development

The ideal family atmosphere provides warmth, goodwill, and healthy friction with the wishes and wills of others (Horney, 1950, p. 18). Such an environment allows the child to develop a secure feeling of belonging, instead of basic anxiety. Healthy parenting requires that the parents themselves be capable of genuinely loving the child, and that is not possible if they have emotional problems. Many parents fall short of this ideal. One of the goals Horney described for psychoanalysis was to advise parents how to raise healthy youths, thus breaking the repeating cycle of neurosis through each generation. Psychoanalysts exploring these issues suggest that it is important for parents to pay attention to their infants' emotional experiences. This requires that the mother (or other caregiver) be able to understand the infant's emotion and to respond appropriately, for example, by mirroring an infant's distress or joy. If this experience is deficient, the child will develop with deficits in...

Getting Started with the Miller Method

These are some of the poignant comments that parents have shared with us over the years. The challenge is to help the special child come alive or to break through so that when one knocks, someone answers. But what does a breakthrough mean It means several things. It means that the child responds to parents and familiar professionals with smiles and delight when they play with him or her, that he or she acknowledges other people's existence and returns affection, that he or she shows through behavior a preference for the parent or caregiver over strangers, and that he or she can play with and even tease others all behaviors that show that he or she is becoming more conscious of the self in relation to others. In short, that the child is becoming alive as a person capable of independent action and choices.

The Childs Disorder Is Not The Fault Of Parents

It is completely understandable for parents to take their child's unrespons-iveness as a rejection. However, it is important to get past this notion as soon as possible for two very important reasons. First, the child's aberrant, non-responsive behavior is not a rejection of parents or caregivers and the child tends to behave like this with everybody. The distressing behaviors of self-preoccupation, eye avoidance, and failure to respond to affection are part of the child's bioneurologically based problem. The same is true if he or she is a scattered child. The child's central nervous system does not allow him or her to take in and process information the way typical children can. In other words, the autistic child does not have the tools to respond to parents or professionals without assistance. Second, if the child is viewed by parents as rejecting, a natural, self-protective tendency is for them to pull back. And that can trigger more distressing behavior. The special child needs...

Separation Anxiety Disorder

Children with separation anxiety disorder have intense anxiety about being away from home or caregivers to the point where social or school functioning is affected. Such children have a great need to stay at home or close to their parents. When they are apart, these children may worry excessively about their parents, and when they are together, the children may cling to parents, refuse to go to school, or be afraid to go to sleep. Repeated nightmares about separation and physical symptoms such as stomachaches and headaches are also common.

Critique of Object Relations Theory

As a guide to the practitioner, the theory fares somewhat better than it does hi organizing data or suggesting testable hypotheses. Parents of young infants can learn of the importance of a warm, accepting, and nurturing caregiver. Psychotherapists may find object relations theory useful not only in understanding the early development of their clients but also in understanding and working with the transference relationship that clients form with the therapist, whom they view as a substitute parent.

Social contact

In spite of the above, there are features of Monte's social functioning which suggest a basis for successful intervention. I refer to the finding that Monte has a strong emotional bond with his mother (or primary caregiver). He wants to be near her, goes to her to make it better when he is hurt, and seems to draw on her as a source of security enabling him to venture into the world. Also positive is his ability to respond to vigorous Get you games.

Emesis Vomiting

Munchausen-by-proxy (a disorder in which a parent or other caregiver poisons or, in another manner, undermines a child's health in order to attract attention to themselves) in which babies manifested cardiac symptoms secondary to a parent secretly administering ipecac to them. In general, a much greater problem for these babies was the failure to thrive associated with the chronic vomiting brought on by the ipecac.


Buddy Generally, a volunteer caregiver who works with a person with HIV or AIDS, providing or arranging for an array of services, such as home care, daily living needs (personal hygiene, clothing, bed linens, etc.), transportation, and personal or social support. A buddy provides comfort and assistance and helps a person afflicted with HIV AIDS maintain as much personal dignity as is possible with this disease. Many AIDS service organizations support some form of buddy system. Buddies often begin working with persons with HIV or AIDS that they do not know. Often, more than one buddy will be assigned to a patient. A patient's needs, capabilities, and limitations from one day to the next generally determine the care and support that are provided. Buddy training and ongoing buddy education are often required of all persons who volunteer as caregivers. Most AIDS service organizations offer buddy support meetings to help buddies deal with stress and burnout, as well as their own grief.


Training for volunteer caregivers often covers the medical aspects of HIV AIDS, coping (including stress and burnout), counseling, and practical matters, such as home care, paperwork, or dealing with institutions. Care of caregivers themselves is also a concern of nurses, social workers, and others who manage chronic patients. Generally, caregivers are in need of emotional support and comfort because of the extreme stress of their lives.

Role Expectations

Gender-based roles are strongly emphasized in traditional Latino culture. A Latino woman is considered largely in her role as mother and care-giver. These beliefs will exert their influence on reproductive health practices. Abortion often is not an option for Latino women, and the use of contraceptive methods may be unacceptable because of religious beliefs, especially in those less acculturated. Female sterilization may be considered a way to facilitate promiscuity by traditional Latino men and thus may lead to objections in treating family members. Latino men are expected to be good family providers, tend to be less communicative than Latina women, and generally are not to display emotion based on a cultural script usually referred to as machismo. Sexual behavior is viewed in largely moralistic terms, and double standards are commonly held regarding appropriate sexual behavior. In many Latin American countries, it is acceptable for men to have several sexual partners, including...


Whenever the primary care physician suspects cognitive dysfunction, he or she should perform a cognitive mental status examination. Such an examination serves several purposes it determines whether there is a deficit in cognitive performance, it identifies the aspects of cognition that are impaired, and it quantifies the degree of impairment. The evaluation should also include an assessment of noncognitive phenomena (e.g., mood, illusions, hallucinations, delusions) because a variety of psychiatric disorders can impair cognition and cause distress in the patient or caregiver, or both.

Related Research

Both object relations theory and attachment continue to spark some empirical research. For example, object relations has been used to explain the formation of eating disorders. This research rests on the assumption that having unresponsive or inconsistent caregivers leads to children's inability to reduce anxiety and frustration. As applied to eating disorders, when these individuals feel anxious, they look for comfort hi external sources and food is a primary means of soothing and regulating then anxiety. Prior research has supported these assumptions, primarily hi women. For instance, Smolak and Levine (1993) found that bulimia was associated with overseparation (detachment) from parents, whereas anorexia was associated with high levels of guilt and conflict over separation from parents.

Encephalitis 169

Emergency room information When a child is taken to the emergency room for an injury or illness, there is some important information care-givers should always be prepared to provide. This includes a list of the child's allergies (especially to medications), drugs the child is currently taking, preexisting illnesses, height and weight, plus a record of immunizations. Emergency Information for Caretakers Caregivers should know not only how to get in touch with parents at all times but also the name and phone number of the child's doctor. This is vital in case of medical emergency, if the parents cannot be reached. parents who are going to be separated from a child on a vacation or business trip should leave a medical release allowing the child's caregiver to authorize medical care. However, in a life threatening emergency a medical release would not be necessary, because medical personnel are authorized to do what they must to save the life of someone involved in an accident or other...

Family planning 179

Family-centered care Health and social-service care that recognizes and respects the crucial role of families in the lives of their members. It supports families in their natural caregiving roles, promotes normal patterns of living, and ensures family collaboration and choice in the provision of services to family members who are sick.


This confirms the deaf child's difficulty in establishing a secure attachment with his caregiver, in a situation in which the dyad is characterised by different sensorial conditions (deaf child-hearing caregiver) (Meadow, Greenberg & Ertine, 1983). It also shows how the differences between the clinical and control groups are not limited to relations with the family caregiver, but extend, when there are severe separation situations, to affective relations with the school caregiver, confirming that the representation of internal working models has been transferred to a different significant partner (van Ijzendoorn et al., 1992). As far as the relation between mentalizing ability and affective relations is concerned (see Table 2 for the significant results), the ANOVA shows that deaf children who successfully carry out the unexpected transfer task, compared with those who do not, rely more on their own ability (self-reliance) to face mild separations, and get higher means scores in the...

Ptsd 407

Sonal relations, and because self-empowerment in the age of AIDS is increasingly important, the role of psychological services is often critical to the well-being of the AIDS-inflicted person. psychological services are also designed to support AIDS care-givers and those (partners, family, friends) coping with the fear of AIDS. These services often focus on living or on dying. They may include peer counseling or counseling by social workers support groups (either facilitated or unfacilitated) therapy groups (generally facilitated by a mental health professional) or individual therapy (provided by mental health professionals including psychologists, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses). They may be provided independently, under the auspices of an AIDS service provider, under the auspices of AIDS-advocacy organization, or by another organization. They may be free or fee-based.

Sterilizing immunity

Stigma More than a decade into the pandemic, HIV and AIDS still carry an enormous social stigma, harming persons who are infected, persons perceived to be infected, and uninfected family members and caregivers as well. Transmission of HIV in this country has been, and still is for some,

Shaken baby syndrome

Shaken baby syndrome is difficult to diagnose unless someone accurately describes what happened. Physicians often report that a child with possible shaken baby syndrome is brought for medical attention due to falls, difficulty breathing, seizures, vomiting, altered consciousness, or choking. The caregiver may report that the child was shaken to try to resuscitate it. Babies with severe or lethal shaken baby syndrome are typically brought to the hospital unconscious with a closed head injury.

Heinz Kohuts View

Kohut Theory

According to Kohut, infants require adult caregivers not only to gratify physical needs but also to satisfy basic psychological needs. In carhig for both physical and psychological needs, adults, or selfobjects, treat infants as if they had a sense of self. For example, parents will act with warmth, coldness, or indifference depending hi part on their infant's behavior. Through the process of empathic interaction, the infant takes in the selfobjects responses as pride, guilt, shame, or envy all attitudes that eventually form the building blocks of the self. Kohut (1977) defined the self as the center of the individual's psychological universe (p. 311). The self gives unity and consistency to one's experiences, remains relatively stable over time, and is the center of initiative and a recipient of impressions (p. 99). The self is also the child's focus of interpersonal relations, shaping how he or she will relate to parents and other selfobjects.

Treatment Approach

If a patient is limited by spasticity, then a number of treatment strategies can be attempted. A treatment plan is formulated in conjunction with the patient and or caregiver to meet agreed functional goals. Although an increase in mobility or dexterity is the desire of many, at times the ease of care-giving is the primary objective. Either of these functional goals can be further defined by what musculoskeletal alteration must be achieved. Depending on the limitation, tone reduction, improved range of motion, or altered joint position may be the goal of treatment. Each of these goals may require a different treatment strategy. It is apparent from clinical trials that choosing an appropriate patient is necessary when considering BTX injections. As with any other treatment strategy, the goals of the intervention must be carefully reviewed with the patient and caregiver. Controlled tone reduction may be practical but it is not enough to validate BTX treatments. The justification of...


The etiologies and pathophysiological mechanisms of spasticity are varied and affect a wide array of patients. Although Botox has relatively few approved indications, its use has expanded over the past decade to include the treatment of spasticity, which has proven to be of great benefit in patients with disabling focal muscle overactivity. Appropriate patients must be chosen and functional goals must be clearly outlined and discussed with the patient and caregiver. Once defined, Botox may become part of an overall treatment protocol aimed at maximizing patient function. As further research provides a stronger scientific foundation, the use of BTX injection to treat spasticity as well as numerous other medical conditions will gain wider acceptance.

Chromosome Analysis

Today's prenatal caregivers and their patients must chose among traditional amniocentesis, early amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, or, sometimes, percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (see Chaper 12). A decision concerning whether ploidy analysis via FISH is warranted must be made, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is often a factor in the diagnosis of certain open fetal lesions, but AFP and AChE cannot be performed on all sample types. Many disorders can be also diagnosed by biochemical or molecular methods, and ethical dilemmas surround the potential to prenatally diagnose late-onset disorders such as Huntington's disease. Screening for increased potential or predisposition to develop certain cancers or other diseases will create new moral and ethical pitfalls. Each of these might ultimately affect the number of cells available for chromosome analysis, and all of these issues can play a role in the timing and choice of sampling procedure.

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