The Secret to Pain Free Breastfeeding
Breast milk See breast-feeding. breast-feeding Nursing at the breast. A baby can get HIV from its mother during pregnancy (before birth), during delivery (the most common way babies are infected), and through breast-feeding. Exclusive breast-feeding is giving the baby breast milk only. Breast milk is very nutritious and helps protect a baby from diseases. It can also help a mother and baby bond. It may help a baby who is born infected stay healthy and avoid germs from formula feeding. A women is less likely to become pregnant while exclusively breast-feeding, which therefore helps her to space her children. Breastfeeding can increase the risk of HIV transmission. A baby is at greater risk of getting HIV through breast-feeding if the mother breast-feeds her baby for a long time becomes infected with HIV while breast-feeding gets cracked or bleeding nipples gets mastitis is very sick, or has a high viral load or a low CD4+ count, or has a lot of virus in her breast milk. Replacement or...
A family history of allergic rhinitis is the greatest known risk factor for the condition. other risk factors include higher social class, male gender, breast-feeding for more than one month, being the first born, having a mother with asthma, and having a dog in the home.
The identification of a human tumor virus immediately suggests strategies for tumor prevention and control. Public heath measures can be instituted to protect the population from exposure or to identify carriers or people at elevated risk of cancer. Successful examples of this approach are the elimination of HBV and HCV from the blood supply and the use of Pap screening to identify women with HPV-induced cervical dysplasia. In a more recent example, maternal-to-infant transmission of HTLV-1 is reduced if carrier mothers refrain from breast-feeding (Hino et al., 1997). Another well-established modality to control viral infection is vaccination. An effective hepatitis B vaccine is already reducing the incidence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (Huang and Lin, 2000), and on the basis of clinical trials demonstrating protection against persistent high-risk HPV infection and the development of precancerous lesions, HPV vaccines were recently approved for...
In addition to the Paracelsus principle regarding the dose of the chemical, we have to consider how chemicals are administered or the circumstances of exposure. There are certain conditions such as pregnancy or during breastfeeding when exposure to chemicals of any type is unwise or should be reduced as much as possible. There are patients such as the elderly or very young children whose dose may need to be reduced or to whom the drug may not be administered. There are also some genetic factors that make individuals sensitive to a particular drug or group of drugs, which should not be administered to such individuals (see pp. 71-2 on hydralazine). We now have the information to be able to adopt a more flexible approach and make the use of chemicals much safer, at least in some cases.
Chromium concentrations in breast milk were examined in 17 apparently healthy exclusively breast-feeding women at 60 days postpartum using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer with 50Cr as an internal standard 24 . The mass ratio of 50Cr to 52Cr isotope was measured and the natural chromium in the breast milk samples was calculated. Over the three-day collection period the mean value was 3.43 + 0.39nmolCr L. Breast milk chromium did not increase with dietary chromium intake (r 0.03). Based on an average breast milk consumption of 780 mL day at 2 months postpartum 25 , babies would have received 0.14 g Cr day. (This was in contrast to the previous ESADDI of 10-40 g day for infants aged
Inherited ovarian cancer, but should be considered in patients who meet any one of the following Bethesda clinical criteria for diagnosis (1) colorectal cancer diagnosed before age 50, (2) a history of synchronous or metachronous malignancies, (3) one or more first-degree relatives with an Lynch syndrome-related tumor diagnosed before age 50, or (4) two or more relatives with Lynch syndrome-related tumors diagnosed at any age. Protective factors include breastfeeding and use of oral contraceptives.
AbuRahma et al.29 analyzed 18 pregnant patients who had Greenfield filters inserted for DVT of the lower extremity and or PE. The DVT diagnosis was made using duplex imaging. Conventional full-dose intravenous heparin was initiated until the filter was inserted, followed by subcutaneous heparin until labor, and continued for six weeks post-partum in 13 patients who were breast-feeding. Warfarin was given postpartum in the other five patients. The mean age of these pregnant patients was 25 years. The indications for Greenfield insertion included three patients with PE while on anticoagulation, two with significant bleeding secondary to anticoagulation, four for free-floating iliofemoral DVT, two for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and seven with iliofemoropopliteal DVT occurring one to three weeks prior to labor, for prophylactic reasons. Fourteen of 18 cases were diagnosed in the third trimester. Filters were inserted via the right internal jugular vein by cutdown in the first four...
After graduating from medical school, primary care pediatricians complete three years of pediatric residency, where they work with newborns, children, adolescents, and young adults in both community and hospital-based settings. The three-year residency includes mandated rotations in general pediatrics, normal newborn care, and a period of time in subspecialty areas, such as allergy immunology, cardiology, critical care neonatal and child adolescent, endocrinology metabolism, gas-troenterology, hematology oncology, nephrology, neurology, and pulmonology. Further options for subspecialty education include adolescent medicine, ambulatory pediatrics, behavioral pediatrics, developmental disabilities, emergency medicine, genetics, infectious disease, and rheumatology.
Transmission from mother to child is also a major mode. In the absence of treatment, 20-30 of seropositive women give birth to an infected child. Infection can occur in the second half of pregnancy, at delivery and also by breast feeding. Severe infection of children results in death in the first year of life. Otherwise the evolution follows that seen in adults.
While it is known that HIV may be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or from mother to child through childbirth or breastfeeding, at present it is unclear when the transmission of HIV to the child occurs. The virus has been isolated from the placenta, the amniotic fluid, and the fetal tissue. Infection may occur prenatally, at delivery, or through breast-feeding. Present research suggests that mother-to-fetus transmission is most likely to occur during the birth process itself, generally through exposure to infected blood and mucus in the birth canal.
The AAP also recommends allowing babies to use pacifiers at nap time and bedtime throughout the first year of life, based on research showing that pacifier use reduces the risk of SIDS. If you breastfeed your baby, wait until she is one month old to begin pacifier use to ensure that breastfeeding is firmly established. If the baby refuses the pacifier, do not force it on her, and do not reinsert it once she falls asleep.
A report in the January 2001 issue of Obstetrics and Gynecology indicates that although many women in the United States are aware that HIV-infected pregnant women can transmit their infection to their infants, some are not so sure how the virus is actually passed on. Emmanuel Walter of Duke University Medical Center found that almost 40 percent of the 1,400 pregnant women surveyed were not certain whether an HIV-positive woman could transmit the virus to her baby via breast-feeding. About 33 percent thought that babies born to a women with HIV would definitely become infected, and 49 percent were not aware that there are drugs that can help reduce the risk of new-borns' contracting HIV. It was noted, however, that about 90 percent of the women questioned had been offered an HIV test during their pregnancy, that most had agreed to the test, and that 60 percent said that routine testing of all pregnant women should be required by law. Central to a woman's right to control her body,...
With respect to humans even less data are available, and therefore our conclusions with respect to the influence of physiological variables on motivational events related to the maternal condition are even more tentative. First, we have the correlational data of Fleming et al. (1997a), which indicated that primiparous women felt more attached to their infants on day 1 postpartum as their estradiol-to-progesterone ratio increased toward the end of pregnancy. Second, in related work, Fleming, Corter, Franks, Surbey, Schneider, and Steiner (1993) have found that primiparous women on days 2-4 postpartum rate infant-related odors as more attractive than do nulliparous women. Third, we note the reviews of Carter and Altemus (1997) and Uvnas-Moberg (1997), who have been strong proponents of the view that lactation in women is associated with decreases in general fearfulness and stress reactivity, and that these effects may help mothers care for and protect their offspring under stressful and...
Newborn infants are a special case in vitamin K nutrition for several reasons lipids are not easily transferred across the placenta, the neonatal liver is immature with respect to prothrombin synthesis, breast milk is low in vitamin K and the infant gut is sterile at birth. As a result of this unique combination of factors infants can develop a condition known as haemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN). The term HDN was first used in 1894 by Townsend who described it as a self-limiting bleeding disorder of newborns of unknown origin (Shearer, 2000). Until the late 1960s HDN was thought to be a problem of the first week of life however, two other forms have now been identified late HDN, a more serious condition, that occurs between weeks 3 and 6 of life and early HDN occurring in the first 24 hours, probably caused by antagonistic drugs taken during pregnancy. Late HDN is rare, about 4-70 cases per 100000 births but world-wide is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality....
A 6-year-old boy was admitted to the medical center with a 4-year history of rapid somatic growth and a 6-month history of pubic hair growth. The patient was the full-term product of a normal vaginal delivery following an uncomplicated first gestation in a 34-year-old healthy female. Birth weight was 8 lb 9 oz (3.9 kg) and length 21.5 in. (54.6 cm). There were no neonatal problems. The mother ceased breastfeeding the infant at 10 days of life and changed to formula because he did not seem to gain weight. Thereafter, weight gain was normal. Between 9 and 18 months of age, the patient's linear growth was just above the 95th percentile, but by 21 years of age, his height was average for a 4 -year-old child. His tall stature was disregarded by his family and pediatrician, who considered this normal since his parents were tall father 74 in. (1.90 m) and mother 66 in. (1.68 m) . When the patient was 3 years old, his mother observed that his penis was larger than that of age-matched peers,...
In 2000 the CDC reported that more than 90 percent of current cases of AIDS in children, and almost all new HIV infections reported in young U.S. children, resulted from transmission of the HIV virus from the mother to her child during pregnancy, birth, or through breast-feeding. Between 6,000 and 7,000 children are born to HIV-infected mothers each year in the United States. However, between 1992 and 1997 the number of infants who became HIV positive when born to an infected mother plummeted by 50 percent as a result of new antiretroviral medications now given to the mother before the baby is born. Because transmission often occurs during delivery, cesarean section may be indicated for some women. The virus also has been detected in breast milk, so infected mothers should not breast-feed.
Summary Women and Epilepsy, a brochure from Epilepsy Ontario, presents information on how seizure disorders relate to the various phases of a woman's life, from puberty to menopause. The first section focuses on adolescence, highlighting (1) menstruation, (2) relationships and disclosure, (3) and birth control. The second section discusses prepregnancy planning, focusing on fertility and libido as they relate to epilepsy. The third section looks at pregnancy, examining (1) the role of heredity, (2) seizures during pregnancy, (3) possible complications during pregnancy, (4) drugs and the developing fetus, (5) nutrition, (6) labor and delivery, and (7) breast feeding. The fourth section focuses on practical concerns for women with small children, including recommended safety precautions. The fifth section discusses epilepsy and
The postpartum period usually brings dramatic sleepiness and fatigue because the mother's ability to sleep efficiently has not returned to normal, because she is at the mercy of her newborn's rapidly cycling shifts between sleeping and waking, and because breast-feeding promotes sleepiness. Researchers are probing whether sleep disturbances during pregnancy may contribute to postpartum depression and compromise the general physical and mental well-being of new mothers.
Mixed breast-feeding is giving the baby breast milk and other drinks, such as formula, glucose water, or traditional medicines. In many places, mixed feeding is the social norm. Note, too, that mixed feeding (breast milk plus formula) is the most dangerous method, because formula feeding can irritate the lining of the baby's stomach, making it easier for the HIV in breast milk to enter and cause an infection. In the United States and other developed nations, HIV-positive women are advised not to breast-feed and to use formula instead. This is because most women in these regions have easy access to formula, clean water for mixing and washing, and refrigeration. Women in developed regions can usually get health care if the baby becomes sick to prevent a case of diarrhea from becoming fatal. Although formula feeding may be the obvious choice for preventing HIV transmission, it is not easy to use. During the first years of the epidemic, in developing countries, where many people do not...
In female mammals the costs of pregnancy and milk production are especially high, amplifying the difference between male competitiveness and female choosiness. For example, the minimum investment human female ancestors could have made in their offspring would have been a nine-month pregnancy followed by at least a couple of years of breast-feeding. The minimum investment our male ancestors could have made in their offspring would have been a few minutes of copulation and a teaspoonful of semen. (For most male primates, that is not only the minimum, but the average.) Females could have produced a child every three years or so. Males could have produced a child every night, if they could find a willing sexual partner. This theoretical difference often plays out as a practical difference. In hunter-gatherer societies, almost no woman bears more than eight children, whereas highly attractive men often sire a couple of dozen children by different women.
Cause Most children are infected at birth from infected mothers. There is no evidence that breastfeeding spreads hepatitis C, but infected mothers should consider abstaining from breast-feeding if their nipples are cracked or bleeding. Otherwise, hepatitis C is spread primarily through blood-related sources, such as transfusions and kidney dialysis. it is the cause of most cases of post-transfusion hepatitis. The risk of sexual transmission appears to be small, and there is no evidence that this type of hepatitis can be spread by casual contact, through food or by coughing or sneezing. Some people carry the virus in their bloodstream and may remain contagious for years.
Although passing on one's genes to the next generation and beyond is clearly an important evolutionary outcome, sometimes the parents and children have divergent interests. It is not genetically advantageous to fully invest in parenthood at all times. Evolutionary models describe selection for deferring parenthood when conditions are not favorable to their survival (Boone & Kessler, 1999)- It may at times be beneficial, from the perspective of passing on one's genes, for parents to not safeguard the survival of one particular child, in order to invest their limited resources in other children who have been born or may be born in the future. The one child may have genetic shortcomings or the environmental context may not be favorable for survival (such as in times of famine). Even when times are not so austere, the interests of parent and child may diverge. Jay Belsky (1993) gives the example of a toddler's best interest through continuing breastfeeding, but a mother's interest in...
That HIV can be passed from a women to her child through breast milk. In areas where nutritionally sound alternatives are readily available, breastfeeding is discouraged for HIV-positive women. Megestrol passes through breast milk, and although it has not been shown to cause problems in nursing infants, women should consider alternatives to breast-feeding while taking the drug. Note, too, that Megestrol has been shown to decrease testosterone levels therefore, people taking the drug may want to have their testosterone levels monitored and utilize testosterone replacement therapy as appropriate.
The World Health organization (WHo) recommends bottle feeding for HIV-infected mothers who reside in the united States or Europe. Formula feeding in many developing countries is not considered as safe after reviewing the various risks for the two alternatives, WHo judged that breastfeeding is preferable to the risk of bottle-feeding in these areas, irrespective of the presence of HIV in the mother. See breast-feeding transmission.
In addition, efforts to address other risk factors associated with vertical transmission have revealed more information on the roles of breast-feeding, maternal viral load, and elective cesarean sections. Noting the obstacles to the elimination of breast-feeding among HIV-positive women in developing countries, researchers have identified alternative approaches to preventing transmission. These include providing antiretroviral therapy during breast-feeding, preventing HIV seroconversion in HIV-negative mothers during breast-feeding, treating breast sores and other infections in the mother and mouth sores in the infant, vitamin A supplementation in the mother, and possibly avoidance of mixed feeding.
The influence of another facet of postnatal nutrition, breastfeeding, is described in a recent review (Singhal and Lucas, 2004). Evidence is accumulating to suggest that breastfed preterm infants show slower growth than those fed formula and subsequently demonstrate a lower risk of the components of the metabolic syndrome CHD, obesity, hypercholesterolemia and raised blood pressure.
The average person has 70 mg in their body and to maintain this they need to take in at least 1 mg day, while breast-feeding women need around 1.5 mg. It has been suggested that these levels are too low and that an intake of 2 mg day would be more beneficial for everyone, a view that seems to be supported by the effects that a low-copper diet had on volunteers. They were found to have increased levels of cholesterol, higher blood pressures, and a lack of energy.
Shed light on observations that breastfeeding lowers the subsequent risk of obesity and possibly CVD in later life (Arenz etal., 2004 Rich-Edwards etal., 2004). The period of postnatal growth may be a critical time during which the pattern of nutrition can affect subsequent longevity.
More than 90 percent of infants born to women with PKU who are not on a specialized diet will have mental retardation and may also have small head size, heart defects, and low birth weight. These infants cannot be treated with a special diet since they do not have PKU. Therefore, women who have PKU should be on a phenylalanine -restricted diet at least one year before pregnancy and should stay on the diet while breast-feeding to increase the chance of having a healthy child.
Any discussion about the evolution of breasts has to take this mammalian heritage as the starting point. Milk-substitute manufacturers have worked very hard for almost a century to convince women that they are not mammals and have no business breast-feeding. Even many science journalists support this view, as when some recent research was reported as showing that breast-feeding raises IQ by five points, rather than bottle-feeding reduces IQ by five points as if bottle-feeding was the biological norm. The popularity of bottle-feeding and breast implants should not mislead us into viewing breasts as nothing more than sexual ornaments. During human evolution, female breasts would have been producing milk about half of the time between puberty and menopause. Babies probably nursed for at least a year or two, as they do in hunter-gatherer societies today. Without contraception, after a mother stopped nursing one baby she would typically have conceived...
More than 90 percent of infants born to women with PKU who are not on a specialized diet will have mental retardation, and may also have small head size, heart defects, and low birth weight. These infants cannot be treated with a special diet since they do not have PKU. Therefore, women who have PKU should be on a phenylalanine-restricted diet at least one year before pregnancy and should stay on the diet while breast-feeding to increase the chance of having a healthy child.
Atrophic vaginitis is a condition that occurs when the vulvar vaginal tissue lacks estrogen. It occurs most commonly in postmenopausal females, but can also occur in situations that induce a hypoestrogenic state, such as when women are breastfeeding or taking medications such as depomedroxyprogesterone or tamoxifen. Atrophic vaginitis does not affect all women. Typically, women with atrophic vulvovaginitis experience burning that can range from intermittent to constant. Symptoms can be exacerbated with urination or with wiping after urination. In addition, some patients experience urinary urgency, frequency, and nocturia, and some patients also experience vaginal dryness and pain with
New Mothers Guide to Breast Feeding
For many years, scientists have been playing out the ingredients that make breast milk the perfect food for babies. They've discovered to day over 200 close compounds to fight infection, help the immune system mature, aid in digestion, and support brain growth - nature made properties that science simply cannot copy. The important long term benefits of breast feeding include reduced risk of asthma, allergies, obesity, and some forms of childhood cancer. The more that scientists continue to learn, the better breast milk looks.