major tranquilizer and antipsychotic drug that is used to treat schizophrenia and mania and to control severe anxiety and nausea or vomiting. Chlor-promazine also enhances the effects of painkillers and is used to treat terminally ill patients and those undergoing anesthesia. Chlorpromazine works primarily by blocking dopaminergic receptors.
Side Effects common side effects include dry mouth and drowsiness. Sometimes, it also causes movement abnormalities, such as tardive dyskinesia.
choline A basic compound found in plant and animal tissue that is essential to the normal metabolism of fat. This dietary substance is the forerunner of acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter). choline has been implicated as a possible aid to improving memory by increasing the amount of acetylcholine in the brain. Other tests suggest choline may improve thinking ability, muscle control, and the nervous system.
Repeated studies of administering choline to treat the memory problems of Alzheimer's disease patients have resulted in conflicting evidence, although most found that giving choline was not helpful. Other studies suggest choline might be useful in heading off some deterioration in the early stages of the disease.
Still other studies have suggested that egg yolk (a dietary source of choline) may be useful to patients suffering from memory problems and seem to show an improvement in alcoholics and drug addicts. The major dietary source of choline is lecithin; foods rich in lecithin include eggs (average size), salmon, and lean beef. While some researchers dismiss the idea that eating these foods can significantly improve memory, other scientists note at least that a "normal" level of lecithin in the diet may not be enough as people age.
phosphatidyl choline is used by the body as part of cell membranes, including those of neurons. Nerve and brain cells especially repair and maintain themselves with large quantities of this substance.
Research suggests that levels of choline drop as a person ages and that levels are especially low in people with Alzheimer's disease.
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