Ways To Improve Your Body Image

Mirror Madness

Mirror Madness

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Secondary Somatosensory Cortex Sii 231 Identification of SII

Initial evidence of a secondary somatosensory area (SII) in humans comes from 8 out of 350 patients who experienced somatic sensations, illusions of movements, or paresthesia in different body parts following electrical stimulation of surface cortex lateral to the face representation in SI, and near the posterior horizontal ramus of the Sylvian fissure.179-181 Similar effects are reported from directly stimulating the exposed surface of the upper bank of the Sylvian fissure after temporal lobectomy180 or through intracortical electrodes.76 In addition, recordings from the upper bank of the Sylvian fissure (parietal operculum) of monkeys234'235'237 and near the Sylvian fissure in a few patients141,236 reveal somatosensory evoked responses additional to those in SI. In bold extrapolations from sparse data, Penfield and Woolsey independently summarize their findings as a single somatotopic representation in the parietal operculum, which consists of an upside-down body image with the head...

The Multidimensional Bodyself Relations Questionnaire

Thomas F. Cash of Old Dominion University. For more information see T. F. Cash (1997). The Body Image Workbook An 8-Step Program for Learning to Like Your Looks. New Harbinger Oakland, Cal. Dr. Cash has other tests related to body image available at http www.body-images.com.

Guardianship See surrogacy

Guided imagery one of many visualization therapies that uses a variety of visual techniques to treat disease. Visualization therapies are based on inducing relaxation in patients and having them visualize their medical problems, literally willing them away. Positive results have been documented with patients suffering loss due to disease, altered body image, or the threat of death. Positive results have also been documented when a total cure may be out of the question. Guided imagery exercises also are used to help patients cope with stress. In these therapies, people imagine themselves in an environment they associate with relaxing a peaceful beach, a lake, or a favorite mountain. Closing their eyes and taking a few deep, easy breaths, they remember the details of the setting the sights, smells, and sounds and focus on feeling peaceful and relaxed.

Fitness as a Defense Against Mortality Awareness

With the distinction between proximal and distal defenses as a guide, Jamie Arndt, Jeff Schimel, and Jamie Goldenberg (2003) reasoned that intention to exercise should be an ideal avenue to study the different effects of both kinds of defense. The intention to exercise is obviously a proximal defense in that people are motivated by the desire to be healthy and avoid disease. It is also a distal defense hi that it bolsters self-esteem and body image. In support of this reasoning, health and appearance are often the first and second reasons given in surveys on why people decide to exercise. The study by Amdt and colleagues examined the prediction that mortality salience should therefore increase both reasons for wanting to exercise, namely increasing fitness and looking better (self-esteem). More specifically, Study 1 examined the proximal defense theory (no delay) of exercise, and Study 2 examined a combination of proximal and distal (delay) defenses. Both studies also recruited...

Randall J Nelson PhD

Over the last several years, considerable effort has been directed toward demonstrating the location and characteristics of these representations, decoding the signals of neurons or ensembles of neurons within these areas, and relating the time-variant signatures of CNS activity to the actual behaviors being produced. In addition, advances in the understanding of the use of haptic information during behavior have paralleled those described above. Thus, recent technological and conceptual advances in the field have allowed great strides to be made in the description and understanding of how the CNS manages information about its own body image. This knowledge, apart from its obvious scientific merit, is quickly leading to clinical applications in the fields of neurorehabilitation after peripheral nerve injury and during recovery from stroke. The purpose of this volume has been to gather, in one place, information about new avenues of pursuit in understanding how the brain deals with its...


The DV methodology described in this chapter has potential for wider applicability than simple correlation of spike trains with hand movements. Any type of behavioral activity that can be imaged through the camcorder's viewfinder could, in principle, be analyzed with these methods. Obvious experimental uses include studies of locomotor behavior, pathfinding in mazes, or tactile exploratory movements (Lederman et al., 1988). Possible clinical applications include studies of motor disorders or stereognostic tests of cognitive function in which recordings of EMG or EEG would replace the spike trains described in this report. The brain's own body image would thus be complemented by objective measurements of the body's actual behavior.