Frequency Analysis

The first property to be discussed is the relative frequency of the different symbols in a message. Typical written english has a characteristic distribution of letter frequencies. The most frequent letter is 'e' with a probability of 12.7 , then't' at 9.1 closely followed by 'a' and 'o' at 8.2 and 7.5 . At the tail of the league are 'q' and 'z' at 0.1 . (It may be noted that the scores for each letter in the game 'Scrabble' wherein players form interlocking words by laying letters on a grid...

Ofer Markman

Procognia (Israel) Ltd., 3 Habosem St., Ashdod, Israel 77610 This chapter entitled Challenges in Glycoinformatics will review new themes in describing and archiving glycostructures, their interface with the analysis tools and how to extract relevant glycomic data out of those. Glycoinformatics is the common technology and electronic language that connects the field of glycobiology. It allows the presentation, and the description of glycomolecules in a useful way that enables...

Patentability Of Information

While in the preceding, much emphasis has been put on the exclusion of patentability of computer programs as such, the fourth item of the exclusion list in Art. 52.2 is also of importance in the field of Bioinformatics. More precisely the prohibition on patenting information is formulated as an absence of patentability for representations of information, defined solely by the content of information. In the context of Bioinformatics this is quite an important issue, since one of the main objects...

What Are Their Relations To Glycomics And Other Omics

Glycomolecules in this chapter is a general term describing sugars, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides and glyco-conjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids and glycoseaminogly-cans) the molecules that bind them (lectins) and the molecule that process them e.g. glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Glycoinformatics is the general technology that store, process and analyze the information on glycomolecules. Glycomics is the interface of wet-bench glycoanalytical technology and glycoinformatics to...

Patentability Of Computers And Program Therefore

One of the latest leading case law is the Decision of Technical Board of Appeal 3.5.1 dated 1 July 1998 (T1173 97). Herein, it is stated that a computer program product is not excluded from patentability ( . . . ) if, when it is run on a computer, it produces a further technical effect which goes beyond the normal physical interactions between program (software) and computer (hardware). In this respect, the normal interaction of a computer refers to the physics that is needed to operate a...

Yakir Benny

DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS, THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY OF JERUSALEM, ISRAEL E-mail msby mscc.huji.ac.il ZUCCHI CLAUDIA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY, UNIVERSITY OF MODENA AND REGGIO EMILIA, VIA CAMPI, 183, I-41100 MODENA, ITALY E-mail Zucchi unimore.it Active site the truedimensional location in an enzyme or in a functional protein where the actual activity takes place (usually where the enzymatic reaction happens see site) Algorithm An algorithm is a procedure for solving a problem. The word derives from...