Know Your Healthy Berries

Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

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Defensins and Potato Famines

Herbivorous insects are obvious pests on agricultural crops, but viruses and legions of other microscopic agents of plant diseases are at least as destructive. Thus, scientists have sought ways to engineer crop plants with genetic resistance to infectious microbes as well. In chapter 1, efforts to control the ringspot virus on Hawaiian papaya trees were described. Similar plans of attack have been drawn against other viral disease agents. For example, a transgenic strain of yellow crookneck squash, engineered for resistance to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus, has gained approval for the marketplace. Also in the research or production pipeline are many other such GM crops including transgenic potatoes and tomatoes resistant to mosaic viruses, sweet potatoes resistant to feathery mottle virus, wheat resistant to yellow dwarf virus, raspberries that can withstand bushy dwarf virus, peanuts resilient against spotted wilt virus, and transgenic plum trees resistant to plum pox virus.

Biology And Life Cycle

C. cayetanensis is like the majority of eimerid coccidians in that the end result of infection in its host is the production of an oocyst that undergoes sporogony outside the host's body. What sets this parasite apart from the majority of Eimeriidae is the apparent length of time it takes to complete sporogony. Parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria tenella usually complete sporogony within 1-5 days, the process being dependent on oxygen and temperature (Frenkel et al., 1970 Norton and Chard, 1983). Under favorable laboratory conditions, C. cayetanensis completes sporogony in from 8 - 14 days (Ortega et al., 1993 Smith et al., 1997) while a baboon isolate sporulated more rapidly (5 days) (Smith et al., 1997). Sporulation times and conditions that may affect them are not known for oocysts passed into the environment. Other cyclosporans, C. caryolytica and C. talpae, both of moles, have been reported to complete Sporulation in 4-5 and 12-14 days respectively (Ortega et al.,...

Protozoal Foodborne Pathogens

C. cayetanensis is a recently described apicomplexan parasite that has been found in food. Most recently, it has been responsible for a number of outbreaks in North America associated with consumption of imported raspberries. It has also been associated with undercooked meat and poultry, and contaminated drinking water and swimming water. Clinically, it causes a self-limiting diarrhea, with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain in immunocompetent patients but may lead to a more persistent diarrhea in immunocom-promised individuals. C. cayetanenis is diagnosed by direct stool microscopy and oocyst autofluorescence, which appears blue by Epi-illumination and a 365-nm dichroic filter and green by a 450-490-nm dichroic filter. In the laboratory, oocysts may be induced to sporulate, even in the presence of potassium dichromate used to preserve the specimens. After 1-2 weeks, approximately 40 of oocysts contain two sporocysts with two sporozoites in each. Excystation requires a number of...

Poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans One of

The most common plants in the United States that is poisonous to touch, causing a contact dermatitis in most people. The leaves of the poison ivy plant are glossy green, may be notched or smooth, and almost always grow in groups of three. However, according to some experts, there are exceptions leaves may sometimes appear in fives, sevens, or even nines. In early fall, the leaves may turn bright red. Although it usually grows as a long, hairy vine (often wrapping itself around trees), it also can be found as a low shrub growing along fences or stone walls. Poison ivy has waxy yellow-green flowers and green berries that can help identify the plant in late fall, winter, and spring, before the leaves appear. poison ivy is found throughout the United States, but it is most common in the eastern and central states.

Poison oak Toxicodendron diversilobum A

Plant that is poisonous to touch, closely related to poison ivy. The leaves of poison oak occur in groups of three and are very similar to oak leaves, from which the plant gets its name. The underside of the leaves is much lighter green because of the thousands of tiny fine hairs that cover them. Berries may be green or white, although not all plants bear fruit. Poison oak usually grows as a low shrub on the west coast, from Mexico to British Columbia. (See poison ivy for details on treatment and prevention.)

Poison sumac Toxicodendron vernix [L Kuntzel [Rhus vernix L This poisonous tree a relative of poison ivy and poison oak

To 13 long narrow leaves growing in pairs with a single leaf at the end of the stem. In the spring the leaves are bright orange and look something like velvet as the season progresses, they become dark green and glossy on the upper surface and light green on the underside. In the fall the leaves turn red or orange. Poison sumac can be differentiated from nonpoisonous sumacs by its drooping clusters of green berries nonpoisonous sumacs have red, upright clusters of berries. Poison sumac can grow to be 25 feet tall, although it is more often found between five and six feet tall. It is found in swampy areas throughout the eastern United States. (See poison ivy for details on treatment and prevention.)

Flattened head syndrome See positional plagio

Many different common foods may trigger an allergic reaction, including citrus fruits, dairy products, wheat, eggs, fish, cola drinks, artificial coloring, shellfish, berries, tomatoes, pork, and nuts. Infants prone to allergies may be especially sensitive to milk and milk products, wheat, eggs, and citrus fruits. Allergic reactions can be caused by even very tiny (even undetectable) amounts of the food. For example, a child who is allergic to peanuts could go into anaphylactic shock after eating a food that only has been touched by peanuts. Food additives also may cause problems. About 15 percent of children who are allergic to aspirin are also sensitive to Yellow Dye 5 (tartrazine).

Preview of Biological Theories

Imagine a small group of our ancient human ancestors. They are almost all related in some way, with a few women who have been coaxed or kidnapped from other clans. They seldom see other humans, and when they do, they are apprehensive and aggressive. One male is clearly the privileged one when it comes to food and mating. There is relative peace, except for occasional sexual jealousy or rivalry for status. The females gather food, with their superior memoiy for locations of fruits and berries found in the past, and care for their children. Some of the males have gone to hunt, using their superior spatial abilities so useful for throwing spears. The children watch and imitate the skills their parents know. The adults speak with one another, telling tales of past hunting successes or talking about one another's social behavior.

Nonallergic Hypersensitivity Reaction

A direct effect of vasoactive amines on the organism which are not degraded in GI tracts due to the lack of mono- and diaminooxidase (MAO and DAO) or their blockade by medicines or alcohol. This group of amines includes tyramine (in cheddar, emmental, roquefort cheeses, pickled fish, and walnuts), phenylethylamine (in chocolate), serotonin (in bananas), octopamine (in lemons), and histamine (in fermented foods, e.g., blue cheeses, but also in strawberries, tomatoes, wines, and in mackerel that have not been stored properly scombrotoxin illness ).

Floral diversification

Et al., 2003), and they possibly appear more plausible in the case of plants whose growth form is more 'open' and modular than that of animals. In line with this, De Craene (2003) provided morphological evidence for the evolutionary significance of homeosis in the flowers of diverse angiosperms such as Rosaceae, Papaveraceae and Lacandonia. For example, there is strong phylo-genetic and morphological evidence that the petals of the Rosaceae (comprising well-known cultivated plants such as roses, strawberries and apples) were derived from stamens (De Craene, 2003).

Chemicals Used to Kill

Another poisonous plant that was widely used was deadly nightshade, a single berry of which contains a lethal dose. Livia, the wife of Emperor Augustus, cunningly injected some of the juice into figs on his personal tree in order to poison him without arousing suspicion. Deadly nightshade berries contain the chemicals atropine and scopolamine, which have similar actions (they are described as anticholinergic). A victim of poisoning with atropine or deadly nightshade will suffer from a dry mouth and find it difficult to speak and swallow. They will have a high temperature, an increased pulse rate, a rash, and possibly peeling skin. The pupils will

Hyoscine and the screaming mandrake root

Scopolamine is often found with another alkaloid, atropine, to which it is very similar. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) contains not only atropine but also scopolamine. When dropped into the eye, the juice of the berries was found to cause the pupils to dilate. It was used for this purpose by women during the Renaissance, leading to the name 'belladonna', because it made the women appear more beautiful. The berries were also successfully used by Roman poisoners like Livia and Agrippina, the wives of the emperors Augustus and Claudius. One deadly nightshade berry may be enough to deliver a fatal dose of the alkaloids. (The other part of the Latin name for deadly nightshade, Atropa, is from Atropos, meaning 'the fate that cuts the thread of life'.)

Poisonous Chemicals Designed by Nature

In addition to these substances and the normal constituents of living things, such as DNA, fats, and sugars, there are many toxic chemicals manufactured by plants, animals, and micro-organisms. Some of these will be explored later (see pp. 239-57). These natural but synthetic chemicals are often used by the plant or animal for protection, as they engage in chemical warfare against predators. Plants may be trying to stop animals such as birds or insects eating their berries, seeds, or leaves. For example, many fruit kernels and pips contain cyanides, while the deadly nightshade plant produces atropine in its berries. Both can be lethal to humans. Thus many plants produce natural insecticides.

Cornucopia of GM Products

Perfect fruit, and several genetically engineered strains have or soon will hit the shelves. It is hoped that Clagene's High-Sweetness tomato will live up to its name. Another example is the Endless Summer Tomato, claimed by its producer (DNAP Holding Corporation) to have superior color, taste, and texture, as well as extended shelf life (up to 40 days postharvest). Other GM produce expected to enter the marketplace in the near future may be juicier cherry tomatoes, firmer and sweeter peppers, strawberries that resist spoilage, bananas and pineapples that stay fresh longer, and new seedless varieties of eggplants and tomatoes.

Detection and treatment of organophosphate poisoning

In the case of acute poisoning resulting from excessive exposure there are two antidotes that can be used. The first is atropine (which is found in deadly nightshade berries and is also known as belladonna), which antagonizes the effects of the acetylcholine that accumulates in the body

The effect of MAP on the nutritional quality of fresh fruits and vegetables

The vulnerability of different fruits and vegetables to oxidative loss of AA varies greatly, as indeed do general quality changes. Low pH fruits (citrus fruits) are relatively stable, whereas soft fruits (strawberries, raspberries) undergo more rapid changes. Leafy vegetables (e.g. spinach) are very vulnerable to spoilage and AA loss, whereas root vegetables (e.g. potatoes) retain quality and AA for many months (Davey et al, 2000). Fruits and vegetables undergo changes from the moment of harvest and since l-AA is one of the more reactive compounds it is particularly vulnerable to treatment and storage conditions. In broad terms, the milder the treatment and the lower the temperature the better the retention of vitamin C, but there are several interacting factors which affect AA retention (Davey et al, 2000). The rate of postharvest oxidation of AA in plant tissues has been reported to depend upon several factors such as temperature, water content, storage atmosphere and storage time...

Pleistocene and Holocene

During the days, women would have gathered fruits, vegetables, tubers, berries, and nuts to feed themselves and their children. Men would have tried to show off by hunting game, usually unsuccessfully, returning home empty-handed to beg some yams from the more pragmatic womenfolk. Our ancestors probably did not have to work more than twenty or thirty hours a week to gather enough food to live. They did not have weekends or paid vacation time, but they probably had much more leisure time than we do.


Allergen A protein or hapten that induces the formation of anaphylactic antibodies and may precipitate an immune response a substance that causes an allergic reaction. Among common allergens are inhalants (dusts, pollens, fungi, smoke, perfumes, odors of plastics) foods (wheat, eggs, milk, chocolate, strawberries) drugs (aspirin, antibiotics, serums) infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, animal parasites) and contactants (chemicals, animals, plants, metals).


The association of C. cayetanensis with foodborne disease transmission was first suggested in 1995 by illness in an airline pilot who had consumed food prepared in a Haitian kitchen and brought on board the airplane (Connor and Shlim, 1995). Foodborne association was again implicated in 1995 in small outbreaks in the United States (Koumans et al., 1998 Herwaldt, 2000). Larger outbreaks, occurring in 1996 and 1997 in both the United States and Canada contributed to this organism's notoriety and called attention to the fact that imported foodstuffs facilitated in the distribution of this parasite (Herwaldt et al., 1997, 1999). Investigations associated with initial outbreaks in 1995 and 1996 implicated a variety of sources, including raspberries and strawberries, as possibly being the responsible agents of disease transference. Interestingly, the implication that strawberries might have been responsible caused considerable consternation and economic loss among US growers through early...

Poisonous Parts

Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are closely related species, all three containing a colorless or slightly yellow oil called urushiol. Skin contact with this oil causes an allergic reaction. While each of these three plants contains a slightly different type of urushiol, they are so similar that children sensitive to one type will react to all three. The entire plant contains urushiol and is therefore poisonous leaves, berries, stalk, and roots.


Males of most species decorate their bowers with mosses, ferns, orchids, snail shells, berries and bark. They fly around searching for the most brilliantly colored natural objects, bring them back to their bowers, and arrange them carefully in clusters of uniform color. When the orchids and berries lose their color, the males replace them with fresh material. Males often try to steal ornaments, especially blue feathers, from the bowers of other males. They also try to destroy the bowers of rivals. The strength to defend their delicate work is a precondition of their artistry. Females appear to favor bowers that are sturdy, symmetrical, and well-ornamented with color.


Compounds or are produced during cooking or fermentation. They occur naturally in pineapples or strawberries, and constitute flavouring compounds in cheese and wine. Ascorbic acid is a furanone. Naturally occurring furanones may play a role in inhibiting bacterial infections and biofilm formation by interfering with quorum sensing.