Index

Adenovirus, 17 Aedes aegypti, 36-37 Agrobacterium tumifaciens, 71 AIDS (acquired immuno deficiency syndrome), 10, 19, 63, 64 air travel, 59 American Society for Microbiology, 10 anaerobic bacteria, 67, 74, 83 aniline dye, 33, 45 anthrax ancient viruses and, 13, 54 bioterrorism and, 65-66 dormant spores of, 15 isolation of, 32-34 antibiotics digestive problems and, 23-24 disease control and, 51 function of, 45-47 resistance to, 52-53 see also specific names of antibiotics antibodies, 40, 45 arboviruses, 60-61 Arctic, 10-11, 16, 83 Aretino, Spinello, 79 arsenic compound 606, 45 artwork, cleaning of, 79-80, 90 Aspergillus niger, 70 ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate), 92

Australian National University, 11

bacilli, 13 Bacillus subtilis, 70 bacteria anatomy of, 13, 15-16 beneficial types of, 10, 39 breeding environment of, 10-11

dormant forms of, 15-16 movement of, 14-15 nitrogen-fixing, 21 oil-eating, 74-76 reproduction of, 18-19 silver-making, 90 species of, 13-15 temperatures and, 74, 82-83 bacterial plasmid, 68 Bacteriological and Toxic Weapons Convention, 65 bacteriophages, 17, 37, 52-53, 89

Beijerinck, Martinus, 34-36 Belcher, Angela, 88-89 benzene, 76 binary fission, 18-20 biocontainment unit, 59 biomining, 72-74 bioprocessing, 69 bioreactors, 69 bioremediation fuel spills and, 76-77 industrial plants and, 76 military ammunition sites and, 76

mining sites and, 78 oil spills and, 74-76

radioactive sites and, 79 toxic waste cleanup and, 82 bioterrorism, 64-66 Black Death. See bubonic plague blue-green algae. See cyanobacteria Boccaccio, Giovanni, 29 boils, 15

Borrelia burgdorferi, 60 botulin, 66

Bristol-Meyers Pharmaceuticals, 47-48 bubonic plague, 25-29 Burkholder, Paul, 48 Bush, George W., 66

cancer, 84-86 carbon dioxide, 82-83 cells antibiotics and, 45-46 bacteria composition and, 13 genetic engineering and, 68, 71

genomes and, 81-82 HIV and, 63 injured, 39 memory, 40, 45 microbial fuel, 90-92 cellulose, 22-23

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 9, 50, 57, 63-64 Chain, Ernst Boris, 46 Charleston, South Carolina, 76 chemical spills. See bioremediation chicken cholera, 34 chicken pox, 40, 44, 84 China, 8-9 Chloromycetin, 48 cholera, 53, 56-57 citric acid, 70

cocci, 13 colds, 17

Conversion and Battle of Saint Efisio (Aretino), 79 copper industry, 72-73 coronavirus, 17 cowpox, 42

Cradle of Life (Schopf), 12 creosote, 78 crown gall disease, 71 crystallization, 38 cyanide, 78 cyanobacteria, 14, 76 cystic fibrosis, 87

DDT, 78

decomposition, 21-22, 32 deer tick, 60

Deincoccus radiodurans, 79 dengue fever, 60 d'Herelle, Felix, 52-53 diabetes, 70

digestion, 22-23, 39, 70 dinosaur extinction, 13 diphtheria, 46 diplo, 13 diseases antibodies and, 40 drug therapy and, 84 spread of, 54-56 study of, 57-59 weather and, 62 vaccines and, 43-45 Division for Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases, 57

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) antibiotics and, 46 cell reproduction and, 19 genome and, 24 viral, 16-19, 24, 37, 72 see also genetic engineering

Drell, Daniel W., 82

Ebola virus, 17 E. coli, 14, 90, 92 ecosystem, 20-21, 24 Ehrlich, Paul, 45 electrical conductors. See nanotechnology Eliava Institute, 53 encephalitis, 60 environmental contamination. See groundwater contamination epidemics, 25-28 epidemiologists, 57-59 Escherichia coli. See E. coli evolution, 13

Exxon Valdez (oil tanker), 74-75

fermentation, 31-32, 67 Feynman, Richard, 88 Finlay, Carlos Juan, 36 flagella, 14-15, 92 Fleming, Alexander, 46-48, 51-52

Florey, Howard Walter, 46 flu, 10, 17, 44 food chain, 11

fermentation and, 67 genetic engineering and, 68-72

foot-and-mouth disease, 36 fossils, 13 Frosch, Paul, 36

gene therapy, 86-87 genetic engineering agriculture and, 71-72 drugs and, 70-71 long-term effects of, 72 mining and, 74 process of, 68

Genome for Life, 82 genome projects, 81-84 germ banks, 66 germ theory, 33-34 Gibbs, Adrian, 11 Global Public Health

Intelligence Network, 57 global warming, 82-83 gold processing, 73-74 Great Pestilence. See bubonic plague groundwater contamination gasoline and, 77 mining microbes and, 78 oil-eating bacteria and, 74-76 wastewater treatment and, 74 see also bioremediation Guinness Book of World Records, The, 79

Heatley, Norman G., 46 Heymann, David, 59 high-fructose corn syrup, 70 histamine, 39

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), 17, 19, 63-64 Homestake Mine, 78 hoof-and-mouth disease, 70 horizontal gene transfer, 51 Hudson River, 74 human growth hormone, 70 Hunt, Mary, 46-47

immune system chemical releases and, 39-40 HIV and, 63-64 human body's defenses and, 39

immune response and, 41, 43 vaccines and, 42-45 influenza. See flu ingrafting, 41-42

inoculations. See ingrafting Institute for Cancer Studies, 85 insulin, 70

intestinal tract infections, 17 Ivanovski, Dmitri, 34-36

Jenner, Edward, 42-43, 49 Jerome L. and Dawn Greene Infectious Disease Laboratory, 61

Kautzer, Schyan, 54 Knott, Max, 38 Koch, Robert, 31-32, 45 Koch's postulates, 33-34

lactic acid, 67, 70 Lactobacillus bulgaricus, 70 Leeuwenhoek, Antoni van, 30-31 Leuconostoc, 67 Lipkin, Ian, 61 lock-and-key system, 19 Loeffler, Friedrich, 36 Lyme disease, 60 lymphocytes, 40

malaria, 60 Matrix (films), 90 Mayer, Adolf, 34 McDonald, John, 24 measles, 44, 84 Meister, Joseph, 43 meningitis, 46 Merck & Company, 49 methane, 84

Methanococcus jannaschii, 83-84

Microbial Genome Project, 81-82 microbiology, 30 microscopes bacterial observance and, 30-31 electron, 16, 38 Mina Al-Ahmadi terminal, 75-76

mining industry, 72-74, 78, 90 mitochondria, 19 mold, 46-49, 67 monkeypox, 54-56 Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley, 41-42

mosaic viruses, 34-38, 71 mosquitoes, 36, 61 MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), 84 mummies, 12-13 mumps, 44, 84 mutation, 51, 55, 72

nanotechnology E. coli bacterium and, 92 microbial fuel cells and, 90-92 microchips and, 88 silver-making bacteria and, 90 Nelmes, Sarah, 42 Newsweek (magazine), 51 New York City Health

Department, 60 New York Times (newspaper), 52 Nies, Loring, 77 nitrogen, 21

North River wastewater treatment plant, 74 nose spots, 14-15

Oak Ridge Laboratory, 78-79 Old Lyme, Connecticut, 60 Olds, G. Richard, 56

Pacific Ocean, 11 Pasteur, Louis, 31-34, 43, 67

PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), 78 penicillin, 46-48, 52 Penicillium chrysogenum, 47 Persian Gulf War, 75-76 Petri, Julius, 33 petri dish, 33, 35 Phage therapy, 52-53 phagocytes, 40 Phipps, James, 42 photosynthesis, 14 plague, 10, 13, 25-29 plants, 20-21 plasmids, 51 pneumonia antibodies and, 40 host cells and, 19 penicillin and, 46, 52 polio, 13, 44, 54, 84 protease, 70 protein, 82, 84 Pseudomonas stutzeri, 79, 90

rabies, 34, 43 radiation, 12, 79 Rajneesh cult, 66 Reed, Walter, 36-37 Renaissance, 27 respiratory infections, 17 Rhizobium, 21 Rhodoferax ferrireducens, 91 riboflavin, 70 RNA (ribonucleic acid) gene therapy and, 87 genetic engineering and, 68 HIV and, 63

microbial multiplication and, 19

virus composition and, 16-17 Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 48

Royal Society of London, 31

rubella, 44 Ruska, Ernst, 38

Sabin, Albert, 44 Salk, Jonas, 44 salmonella, 40 salmonella typhosa, 15 Salyers, Abigail, 10 SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), 8-9, 17, 57-59 scarlet fever, 46 Schopf, J. William, 12 septicemia, 52 severe combined immunodeficiency, 87 sickle-cell anemia, 87 Siena (Italy), 25 silkworm disease, 32-33 Sitala, 29-30 skin, 39-40 smallpox epidemic of, 27-28 eradication of, 49 ingrafting and, 40-42 stored samples of, 49-50 vaccines and, 84 Snow, John, 56-57 soil, 11, 48 sore throats, 15 spirilla, 13 spirochaeta, 15 spirochete, 45, 60 spores, 15-16 Stanley, Wendell, 38 staphylo, 14 staphylococcus, 15, 46 Steward, William H., 51 strepto, 14 streptococcus, 15 streptomycin, 49 Synechococcus, 83 syphilis, 15, 45

TCE (trichloroethylene), 78 tetanus, 44 Theiler, Max, 43-44 Thiobacillus ferooxidans, 73 Tropical Disease and Travel Medicine Center, 56 tuberculosis, 34, 45, 49 Tura, Agnolo di, 25-26 typhoid fever, 15, 53 typhus, 48

United Nations, 49 United States biological warfare and, 65 Department of Agriculture

(USDA), 46-48 Department of Defense

(USDOD), 91 Department of Energy (DOE),

79, 81-84 gasoline, contaminated groundwater and, 77 Geological Survey (USGS), 76, 78

monkeypox and, 55 phage therapy and, 53 smallpox samples and, 49-50

vaccinations, 40, 42, 49-50, 66 vaccines, 34, 42-44, 45, 84 variola, 27

Varro, Marcus Terentius, 30 VDEPT (virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy), 85-86

viral replication, 37 viral wire, 89 viruses, 16 ancient, evidence of, 12-13 arthropod-borne, 60 attack methods of, 18-19 beneficial functions of, 24 environmental changes and, 59-60 filterable, 36 reproduction of, 19-20 virus vectors, 68 vitamins, 69-70

Waksman, Selman, 49 Wenzel, Richard, 51 West Nile virus, 60-62, 63 Whitewood Creek, 78 Whitmarsh, Eileen, 54 World Federation for Culture

Collections, 66 World Health Organization

(WHO), 9, 49-50, 57-59, 64 World Trade Center attack (2001), 66 World War II, 79 World Wide Web, 57

X-ray crystallography, 38

yeast, 67

yellow fever, 36-37, 43-44, 60 Yersinia pestis, 25

zinc sulphide, 89

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