anaerobic: Without oxygen.
antibiotic: A substance that kills a bacterial infection.
bacteria: Microscopic one-celled organisms (bacterium: a single organism).
bacteriophage: A virus that infects bacteria.
bioremediation: The process of cleaning up the environment using microbes.
capsid: The protein coat of a virus.
cyanobacteria: A type of bacteria once called blue-green algae.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): The genetic material, found in the nucleus of a living cell, that carries the information about an organism and contains the codes needed to build proteins.
enzyme: A protein that controls chemical reactions.
flagella: Long, whiplike tails on some types of bacteria that allow them to move.
genetic engineering: The alteration of genetic material in an organism; involves the transfer of DNA from one cell to another.
genome: The complete sequence of DNA base pairs that code for a specific organism.
lymphocyte: A type of white blood cell that produces antibodies. microbe: A microscopic organism.
microbiology: The scientific study of microscopic organisms.
nanometer: An extremely small unit of measure; one-billionth of a meter.
nanotechnology: Research and engineering performed at a molecular level.
pathogen: A disease-causing organism.
phagocyte: A type of white blood cell that engulfs and destroys harmful bacteria.
plasmid: A small, circular molecule of DNA found in bacteria.
spore: A single bacterial cell covered with a special protective coat that allows it to remain in a resting state.
vaccine: A substance made from dead or weakened bacteria or viruses used to inoculate a person in order to prevent a disease and produce an immunity to it.
vector: An animal or insect that carries a bacteria or virus but is not harmed by it.
virus: A disease-producing particle composed of genetic material covered with a protein coat; a virus only can reproduce in a living cell.
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