Ayurveda the Science of Life

Modern Ayurveda

This easy program presents a great deal of information packed in less than 8 hours of knowledge that was gathered by one of the world's most recognized people on spirituality andAyurveda. Cate Stillman dedicates 8 hours of deep knowledge about spirituality and enlightenment that will greatly enhance your life in many ways. You will experience a lot of joy in life and fulfillment, as well as getting rid of the insecurities and frustrations that you might be facing in today's world. It will save you the trouble of having to spend years and years in the schoolsof chakras and energy in very little time that will cover all you need, you will get to know your body's rhythms and how to fix them, how to balance your energy, the ways of healing, yoga practices, ways of eating and even practices you should be doing every day that will correct your body's circadian rhythms for the day. That way, you will become the master of your own body and mind, you will finally achieve satisfaction and fulfillment. You can get all the three tracks and the free mat to practice instantly once you make a successful purchase, that way, you will be able to access the information that you need in no time. Read more...

Modern Ayurveda Summary


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Sleep as Part of a Healthy Lifestyle

As you can see, the consequences of sleep deprivation are serious and potentially even life-threatening, in both the short term (increased accident risk) and the long term (increased disease risk). For this reason, it's vital that you think of getting enough sleep as an essential element of maintaining good health as important as getting regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, and practicing good dental hygiene. In fact, all of these aspects of health have much in common. They begin with awareness you need to recognize that sleep is not a luxury, but a basic component of good health.

Adopt a Healthy Lifestyle

We saw in Chapter 3 how good sleep promotes good health. The reverse is also true. Good health habits such as exercising regularly, maintaining a healthy diet, and avoiding cigarettes and excessive alcohol set the stage for good sleep. Exercise regularly. Exercise is extremely important to healthy living. It improves fitness, prevents illness, and increases longevity. Exercise also improves sleep. Research has repeatedly shown that exercise provides three critical benefits you fall asleep faster, attain a higher percentage of deep sleep, and awaken less often during the night.

Know how to file an appeal if your health benefits claim is denied

Understand how your plan handles grievances and where to make appeals of the plan's decisions. Keep records and copies of correspondence. Check your health benefits package and your SPD to determine who is responsible for handling problems with benefit claims. Contact PWBA for customer service assistance if you are unable to obtain a response to your complaint.

Herbal medicines

Many traditional medicines and herbal remedies are used throughout the world and in many countries there is little, if any, regulation. In the USA alone this industry is worth a billion dollars per year. In the UK some herbal medicines are licensed, others do not require a licence when sold or supplied within particular guidelines, while yet others (such as herbal remedies) are sold as food supplements and are controlled by food regulations. In the case of the latter, no medicinal claims are allowed to be made. Although plants are by definition natural, they contain many chemical substances, some of which can be used as drugs but others may be very toxic. Unfortunately many of the general public think that, as they are natural, herbal remedies and herbal medicines must be safe. But just as with man-made synthetic drugs, herbal remedies can and do cause harm to patients taking them. There are so many herbal remedies and medicines that it is not possible to do more in this book than...

Nutritional Background

Similar developments took place in the United States. In 1988, the U.S. Surgeon General published a major review on nutrition and health. It proposed that energy in the diet derived from fat should be reduced to 30 (USDHHS, 1988). A further review carried out on behalf of the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, 1989) provided a broad scientific consensus for the U.S. government report Nutrition and Your Health Dietary Guidelines for Americans (USDA USDHHS, 1990). The recommendations of the Surgeon General were supported by a number of health-related organizations such as the American Heart Association and the American Cancer Society, on the basis that the incidence of coronary heart disease and cancer would be reduced by decreasing the amount of fat and cholesterol in the diet (Przybyla, 1990). By the end of the 1980s, the governments of most developed countries in the western hemisphere had drawn up nutritional recommendations advising consumers to...

How Do You Envision Your Practice Style

Some medical students prefer short patient interactions with no continuity, whereas others want to have life-long relationships with all those under their care. In general, women like spending more clinical time than men do with their patients, particularly regarding issues of counseling, preventive medicine, and psychosocial development.8 If you share this preference, then consider careers in primary care fields. If you are more action oriented and like working at a fast pace, then think about emergency medicine, anesthesiology, or surgery. If you seek the latest technical gadgets, then cardiology, radiology, and radiation oncology may be the best specialties for you.

Alternative insemination See artificial insemination

Alternative medicine Approaches to medical diagnosis and therapy that have been developed outside the established standards, practices, and institutional sites of conventional medical science. Included are a great number of theories and systems, including therapeutic nutrition, chiropractic, homeopathy, structural, energetic therapies and mind-body therapies traditional non-Western ethnomedicinal system such as Chinese medicine and ayurveda, which combine botanical medicine with other applications other uses of botanical substances and various treatments that simply have not been accepted by the medical establishment. This is not to say that, were these methods subjected to scientific study, all of them would be found to be ineffective. Alternative medicine has been variously called natural, complementary (the preferred term in Europe), and numerous other terms referring to elements of a particular modality or tradition. Alternative medicine is not equivalent to holistic medicine, a...

The foundations of goalbased thinking

Medical care for patients and (ii) the number of research participants is fewer than the number of future beneficiaries or (iii) that the benefit to future patients is of more magnitude than the harm to the research participants, if the number of participants is greater. Chapter One mentioned the leukaemia trials which have led to significant improvements in healthcare. Bentham's criterion of increasing pleasure (good health) or decreasing pain (curing disease or desisting from harmful treatments) is clearly met in the example. The argument could be taken a step further to postulate that the need for such research was and is paramount, and not morally optional. Without it and research like it, medicine would remain in the dark ages, probably doing more harm than good.

Epilepsy Part of Your Life Living with Seizure Disorders

Living with Seizure Disorders is a booklet about day-to-day living with epilepsy and some of the special issues that may arise. The booklet contains general information based on the experiences of many people with epilepsy, and its recommendations are drawn from studies and research. Topics include (1) information about epilepsy (2) how to adjust to epilepsy (4) how to understand your feeling (5) staying healthy (6) living in society with epilepsy (7) tips for living with epilepsy in today's world (8) the Epilepsy Foundation of America and offers contact information and (9) selected books, videos, and pamphlets.

Avlosulfon See dapsone

Ayurveda An Indian spiritual tradition more than 5,000 years old. Ayurvedic tradition holds that illness is a state of imbalance among the body's systems that can be detected through such diagnostic procedures as reading the pulse and observing the tongue. Nutrition counseling, massage, therapy, natural medications, and other modalities are used to address a broad spectrum of ailments, from allergies to AIDS.

Selecting Your Doctor2

When you have compiled a list of prospective doctors, call each of their offices. First, ask if the doctor accepts your health insurance plan and if he or she is taking new patients. If the doctor is not covered by your plan, ask yourself if you are prepared to pay the extra costs. The next step is to schedule a visit with your chosen physician. During the first visit you will have the opportunity to evaluate your doctor and to find out if you feel comfortable with him or her. Ask yourself, did the doctor

The role of government

Up to the late 1980s (with the exception of wartime) governments in Britain have always been reluctant to interfere in the personal behaviour of citizens, even in the cause of improving health. This reluctance can be traced back to nineteenth-century traditions of liberal resistance to quarantines and other measures of state repression to prevent the spread of infectious epidemics. Such policies were favoured by the absolutist dictatorships on the European continent, but were regarded as anathema to capitalist principles of individual freedom (especially in matters of trade). Yet these traditions were cast aside in the great health scares of the last decade, in the government's quest for enhanced popularity and authority.

The Regulation Of Lifestyle

Nor can very much be changed by the trendy fashions in changing 'life-styles', all the magazine articles to the contrary dieting, jogging, and thinking different thoughts may make us feel better while we are in good health, but they will not change the incidence or outcome of most of our real calamities. The 'big four' injunctions of health promotion to stop smoking cigarettes, to eat a healthy diet, to drink alcohol in moderation, and take regular exercise have become firmly established in popular consciousness. People may not heed the advice coming at them from the government, the media, the medical profession, but nobody can now be unaware of the key components of what is officially regarded as a healthy life. The huddles of furtive smokers outside ordinary houses as well as public buildings symbolise the ascendancy of preoccupations about health over social behaviour.

Concluding Observations

In the previous sections, the committee has outlined what population health means in terms of understanding not only the risks of various exposures to individuals but also the importance of incorporating concepts related to the distribution of risk in populations. This chapter has outlined a way to understand how social, environmental, and biological conditions shape population health. Population-based interventions, such as tobacco control policies, show that it is possible to implement cost-effective strategies that benefit society as a whole and improve the health of many segments of the population. Population health improvements will have to focus attention on both overall improvement in the nation's health and reduction of the disparities in health, as recommended by Healthy People 2010. To achieve this goal, the nation will have to develop innovative strategies for interventions for a broad set of health determinants. Many of the determinants of health are part of the broad...

Managing Emotion and the Need to Establish Common Ground

The use of complementary and alternative medicine has mushroomed in recent years. Patients may insist that they want to try an alternative therapy (for example, acupuncture, herbal remedies, or shamanic healing) in place of or in conjunction with a traditional therapy that their physician has prescribed. Some patients may forgo more proven therapies for this type of treatment, leaving physicians with ethical dilemmas related to the

Dietary sources supplementation and fortification

Legislation was introduced in several countries during World War II which required the addition of iron and calcium, as well as of certain water-soluble vitamins, to bread and flour in order to combat nutritional deficiencies caused by food restrictions. The success of these measures in improving health led to the extension of the legislation into peacetime. Some countries, such as the UK, still require that bread and flour be fortified with calcium and iron (Statutory Instrument, 1984).

The Doctorpatient Relationship

Although dermatologists have more of a consultative role, they maintain a high level of patient contact. They establish long-term relationships with their many patients whose chronic skin conditions require multiple follow-up appointments over the course of several years. Patients appreciate their dermatologists for their equal emphasis on preventive medicine and immediate treatment of acute skin diseases. While dealing with the current problem at hand, dermatologists also make sure to educate their patients on the importance of skin cancer prevention staying out of the sun, using sunscreen, and watching their own suspicious moles. Many patients do not realize that mole self-checks are just as important as monthly breast self-examinations.

Choosing an Insurance Plan

There are a number of official government agencies that help consumers understand their healthcare insurance choices.30 The U.S. Department of Labor, in particular, recommends ten ways to make your health benefits choices work best for you.31 1. Your options are important. There are many different types of health benefit plans. Find out which one your employer offers, then check out the plan, or plans, offered. Your employer's human resource office, the health plan administrator, or your union can provide information to help you match your needs and preferences with the available plans. The more information you have, the better your healthcare decisions will be. 3. Look for quality. The quality of healthcare services varies, but quality can be measured. You should consider the quality of healthcare in deciding among the healthcare plans or options available to you. Not all health plans, doctors, hospitals and other providers give the highest quality care. Fortunately, there is quality...

State intervention in personal life

In the screening programme the author was assigned an 'adviser' who would 'help her with her health' on an ongoing basis and monitor her progress towards 'better health'. The extensive questionnaire Taking the first step to better health' included the tendentious and extraordinarily patronising statement that the screening 'has been devised to help you change the way you look after your health. It is a programme of pro-active, preventive, care, dedicated to monitoring your health on an ongoing basis with the aim to give you a new, positive view on how to stay healthy in the years ahead'. The author took umbrage at (a) the assump-tion that she was not healthy already, and (b) the assumption she didn't know how to look after herself As Bridget Jones also reflects, guilt is a more common response to health promotion initiatives than anger. When women have come in to the surgery worried about a breast lump, I have occasionally inquired whether they routinely carry out self-examination....

If Calcium Is Bad for My Arteries Should I Stop Eating It

So should you run out and get an EBCT scan Probably not, especially if you have a high or low risk for heart attack. The test is not likely to help low-risk individuals who would probably have low scores and are likely to stay healthy in any case. At the other extreme, high-risk individuals should receive treatment regardless of their calcium scores, so an EBCT is unlikely to help them. If your level of risk is in the middle, there might be a value in determining your calcium score to assess how aggressively to treat you, but as of now, it's unproved how valuable it would be. Plus, insurance companies most likely would not cover it. Like other hightech diagnostic tests, EBCTs are now being marketed directly to the public. For a fee, you can bypass your doctor and buy yourself 5

The First Antibiotics

It seems ironic that medical researchers were successful in developing a preventive medicine for viruses, which were unknown to science and unseen by man, but were not able to fight off known bacterial infections. The key was finding a way to kill a bacterium cell without harming human cells.

Share Ownership with Constituents

The message for leaders should be clear. Ownership defines where the responsibility for the job lies. On your health care team, there are no deposits that will protect you against loss due to carelessness or lack of motivation. That is, you cannot have your staff sign an agreement that they will foot the damage for you if they fail to come through on a project for which you are responsible. If you are responsible for the outcome and you want the person doing the job to be responsible for the outcome right along with you, give that person ownership, not a lease.

The Politics Of Health Promotion

The development of state-sponsored medical regulation of lifestyle in Britain was a prolonged and uneven process which may be divided into three more or less distinct phases. In the late 1970s, the Labour government first took up the cause of prevention, in a series of policy initiatives which made little immediate impact, but marked a significant innovation on which future policy-makers could build. A decade later, Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government launched what was claimed to be the biggest public health campaign in history in relation to Aids, and in the early 1990s extended its involvement in health promotion through the Health of the Nation initiative. After its election victory in 1997, New Labour appointed the first minister of public health and made the promotion of 'healthy living' a central theme of policy, not merely for the Department of Health, but for other government ministries. Looking at this period as a whole, the most striking features are the advance of...

Health maintenance organization HMO An

HMOs provide comprehensive services for a fixed, prepaid fee. When you join a group plan offered by an HMO, you pay a flat fee for all your health care bills, regardless of how much health care you actually get. HMOs finance nearly all medical care. Unlike commercial insurance companies, HMOs allow little choice in physicians and hospitals. Because competition among HMOs for employer contracts is fierce, costs must be kept low. Consequently, the HMO must carefully regulate hospital admissions, expensive drugs, and expensive procedures and must preapprove any consultation or procedure done outside the resources of the HMO.

Thoughts On Internist Career Satisfaction

There are indications, however, that advances within general internal medicine could improve job satisfaction. The option to divide inpatient and outpatient practice between hospitalists and primary care physicians has the potential to decrease both on-call responsibilities and total work hours. This separation of roles could also allow the outpatient-based internist more time to spend with each patient during clinic visits.5 As training in psychosocial and preventive medicine becomes a central component of residency, internists will be better prepared to address these issues as aspects of multiple complex medical problems. Finally, the job satisfaction of all physicians depends on their ability to regain control over medical management decisions. This would allow an internist's time to be devoted to practicing medicine rather than constantly negotiating insurance coverage and financial reimbursement.

Do You Need a Memory Evaluation

If you're concerned enough about your memory to wonder if something's wrong, you should see your doctor. Begin with a consultation with your primary care physician. Because this doctor knows you and your medical history, he or she is in an advantageous position to assess the big picture of your health and consider the more common medical and psychological conditions that can cause memory loss.

Constraints on innovation

It is clear that it is never going to be possible to argue that a GM plant is safe any more than it is possible to argue that a plant produced by conventional plant breeding is safe. The very concept can be addressed only in the context of a history of safe use as a human food. Clearly, the overwhelming evidence supports the view that health benefits arise as a consequence of the regular consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables, few if any of which have any close compositional relationship to the wild types from which they were bred. Similarly their production, storage and distribution has depended on the use of a wide range of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. These chemicals are extensively tested for safety before approval is given for their marketing and use but this has not removed the widely held view amongst consumers that 'organic products' are better for your health. There is no evidence to support this view and any adverse health effects that there might be as a...

Primary Care Sports Medicine

Sports medicine is the practice of preventing and treating sports-related injuries, as well as promoting exercise as preventive medicine for the general population. Those internists practicing sports medicine often provide acute care of injuries during athletic events. Most work closely with orthopedic surgeons, although most athletic injuries, as many studies have shown, do not require surgery. The treatment of basic medical problems is considered to be sports medicine if the patient is an athlete or the problem is related to exercise.

The functionality of meat

Typical Western omnivorous diets over the last 40 years have been relatively high in protein and fat with insufficient dietary fibre, fruit and vegetables. Meat intake is by definition the key difference between vegetarian and omnivorous diets, thus comparative studies have tended to exaggerate the health benefits of a vegetarian diet so reinforcing a negative health image for meat. It has long been recognized (Burr, 1988) that although vegetarianism seems to confer some protection against heart disease, it is not clear if this is due to abstinence from meat or high consumption of vegetables. Meat intake has provided a marker for a generally 'unhealthy' diet in the past (American Dietetic Association, 1993 COMA, 1991 Sanders and Reddy, 1994 Thorogood, 1994). Furthermore, vegetarians have tended to be more health conscious, they traditionally smoke less, consume less alcohol, tea, and coffee, and tend to exercise more, thus their good health could be attributed to any or a combination...

Charles Darwin To John Lubbock

I sincerely hope that you keep your health I suppose that you will be thinking of returning (Mr. Wallace was in the Malay Archipelago.) soon with your magnificent collections, and still grander mental materials. You will be puzzled how to publish. The Royal Society fund will be worth your consideration. With every good wish, pray believe me,

Your Cholesterol Lowering Diet

Many people have been on a host of different diets in their lives. Maybe you've tried Weight Watchers, the Zone, or, more recently, the Atkins diet. While any of those plans can help you lose weight, they're not the philosophy I ask my patients to adopt. I tell them to think of a diet not as something that's going to restrict specific foods but as a new attitude toward eating. Instead of thinking of eating as something you do to satisfy cravings that are going to come back the more you satiate them, I tell patients to think of food as the very thing that keeps their body going. Put healthy foods in, you'll get a healthy life out.

Problems In Quality Of Care

Evidence shows that racial and ethnic minorities do not receive the same quality of care afforded white Americans. These findings are consistent across a range of illnesses and health care services and remain even after adjustment for socioeconomic differences and other factors that are related to access to health care (IOM, 2002b). Furthermore, poor-quality health care is an important independent variable contributing to lower health status for minorities (IOM, 2002b). For example, racial differences in cervical cancer deaths have increased over time, despite the greater use of screening tests by minority women (Mitchell and McCormack, 1997). The lower quality of care also compounds the adverse health effects of other disadvantages faced by minorities, including lower incomes and education, less healthy living environments, and a greater likelihood of being uninsured.

La Crosse encephalitis See encephalitis la crosse

While not all children deficient in lactase have symptoms, those who do are considered to be lactose intolerant. Even though lactose intolerance is widespread, it need not pose a serious threat to good health. Children who have trouble digesting lactose can learn which dairy products and other foods they can eat without discomfort and which ones they should avoid. Many will be able to enjoy milk, ice cream, and other such products if eaten in small amounts or eaten with other food. Lactase liquid or tablets may also help digest the lactose.

Alternative Medical Systems

Traditional oriental medicine emphasizes the balance or disturbances of qi (pronounced chi) or vital energy in health and disease, respectively. Traditional oriental medicine consists of a group of techniques and methods including acupuncture, herbal medicine, oriental massage, and qi gong (a form of energy therapy). Acupuncture involves stimulating specific anatomic points in the body for therapeutic purposes, usually by puncturing the skin with a thin needle. Ayurveda is India's traditional system of medicine. Ayurvedic medicine (meaning science of life ) is a comprehensive system of medicine that places equal emphasis on body, mind, and spirit. Ayurveda strives to restore the innate harmony of the individual. Some of the primary Ayurvedic treatments include diet, exercise, meditation, herbs, massage, exposure to sunlight, and controlled breathing. Naturopathic medicine is based on the theory that disease is a manifestation of alterations in the processes by which the body naturally...

Henry E Sigerist 18911957

The task of medicine is to promote health, to prevent disease, to treat the sick when prevention has broken down and to rehabilitate the people after they have been cured. These are highly social functions and we must look at medicine as basically a social science. Civilisation and Disease Ch. 12. Phoenix Books, New York (1962)

Collaboration With Governmental Public Health Agencies

Governmental public health agencies may also play an important role in preventive medicine and public health education. Health departments, for example, provide unique venues for the training of nurses, physicians, and other health care professionals in the basics of community-based health care and gain an understanding of population-level approaches to health improvement. Furthermore, public health students and preventive medicine residents gain practical experience in health department rotations, where they participate in program planning and evaluation and learn about assessing a community's health care needs and implementing strategies that change the conditions for health.

An Ailing Public Health System Exposed in the SARS Crisis

For a long time, the governance of Chinese CDCs was decentralized. All CDCs were administered by local health bureaux had no efficient mechanism to coordinate and disseminate information across localities. In response to this, the Chinese government re-centralize the system by restructuring the Academy of Preventive Medicine into a new public health agency at the national level, namely Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, in January 2002.20 The Center undertakes the duties as follows

Nutrients Affecting The Normal Pancreas

There are a few studies on the effects of dietary ingredients on the nontumoral pancreas. One of the most striking observations is the effect of raw soy flour on the pancreas of several animal species. In the rat, it induces acinar cell hyperplasia, adenoma, or even carcinoma (see Chapter 14), whereas it is ineffective in this regard in any other mammalian species. In chicks, feeding raw soybeans has depressed growth and the enlarged the duodenum and pancreas.38 Exogenous putrescine has overcome this toxicity.38 Feeding raw lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus L.) and lima bean fractions to chicks produced serious histopathological changes within the pancreas and some other tis-sues.39 The rat has also been shown to be exceptionally sensitive to gabapentin, which induces pancreatic acinar cell hyperplasia.40 The herbal medicine keishi-to and its components were tested in the rat. Although keishi-to (TJ-45) had no detectable effect, one of its components, TJ-9, induced chronic pancreatitis.41...

Sticking with Exercise

Meeting your exercise goals, even short-term ones, is cause for celebration. It reflects your commitment to improving your health. Find ways to pat yourself on the back. Whether your reward is small or large, make sure it's something meaningful and enjoyable. Rewards to avoid are those things that you may regret soon after, such as eating an ice cream cone if your ultimate goal is losing weight. A better choice might be a new CD to listen to while you walk.

Telling Good Studies from Bad continued

A real-life example of the problems of observational studies is what happened with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The data suggesting that HRT was good for the heart was based on observational studies. When HRT was put to a randomized controlled test, the old thinking was reversed. How could this be We now assume that the women in the observational studies who took HRT also had healthier lifestyles that contributed to the fact that they suffered fewer heart problems.

Foods that contain toxic substances

We have seen how micro-organisms such as fungi, bacteria, and plankton can cause toxic contamination of food. Plants themselves may also have naturally occurring toxic constituents. For example, as we saw in the discussion on herbal remedies in Chapter 6, the pyrrolizidine alkaloids are found in many plants which may contaminate crops such as wheat and hence find their way into the food we consume.

Media And Health Communication

This section discusses the use of specific media to promote health messages. It first addresses public service announcements (PSAs) and then discusses the role of emerging media channels the entertainment media and the Internet in conveying health messages. The section concludes with an examination of social marketing and media advocacy, strategies that use media as part of a broader approach to changing individual behavior or promoting social change. The results noted are compelling however, researchers and health communicators increasingly understand that PSAs play a significant but limited role in promoting health messages and should be considered part of a broader health communication strategy. advertising, researchers have proposed that a federal tax be levied on tobacco advertising and promotion (Bayer et al., 2002). The impact of a 10-cent tax would generate about 2.1 billion a year, which would substantially increase the funds currently available for antitobacco advertising....

Prevention and Proaction The Path to Optimal Memory

No matter how old you are, it's not too late to take steps to prevent memory loss. In this chapter, I review thirteen strategies for achieving and maintaining optimal memory. Some are good health habits that can reduce the risk of illnesses that might impair your memory as well as the likelihood that you'll need medications with memory-related side effects. Others are strategies that appear to strengthen the brain and enhance cognitive function. Best of all, they're neither expensive nor difficult to carry out. Obtain regular exercise Put out the cigarettes Take vitamins Involve yourself with others Maintain healthful nutrition Aim for a good night's sleep Learn something new Moderate alcohol intake Engage in life Manage stress

Contraindications and Interactions Hidden Dangers

Be sure to read the label every time you use a nonprescription or prescription drug, and take the time to learn about drug interactions. These precautions may be critical to your health. You can reduce the risk of potentially harmful drug interactions and side effects with a little bit of knowledge and common sense.

Education And Training

Accredited schools of public health graduated 5,568 students. Of all degree recipients, 89.9 percent received a master's degree (61.5 percent received an MPH degree) and 10.1 percent received doctoral degrees (of these, 6.7 percent received a doctor of philosophy PhD degree and 2 percent received a DrPH degree) (ASPH, 2000). It is estimated that accredited graduate programs in community health and preventive medicine and in community health education graduate an additional 700 to 800 master's degree students each year (Davis and Dandoy, 2001). Many of these graduate programs in public health are represented by the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine. Additionally, in 1997-1998 there were 9,947 master's graduates of programs of public administration and public affairs, many of whom emphasized health policy and management and public health in their training (National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration, 1998). The Association of University Programs in...

Young Woman with Recurrent Abdominal Pain

Prior to age 17, the patient never had any significant illnesses, although she had required phototherapy for neonatal jaundice. She was the eldest of four children (two sisters and one brother) who, along with her parents, were in good health. There was no history of gastrointestinal or gynecologic problems in her family, although an aunt on her father's side had periodically suffered unexplained abdominal pain. After her marriage and despite being told that AIP was a genetic disorder that had a 50 chance of being inherited by each of her children, the patient at age 26 became pregnant. However, she had no attacks during pregnancy and delivered a healthy son. She was fine until 6 months postpartum when a severe attack prompted hospitalization and a 4-day course of hemin albumin infusions. When the patient's youngest sister also began having attacks of abdominal pain and was diagnosed with AIP, the patient decided to have a tubal ligation. By age 28, 6 years after the diagnosis of AIP...

Biological Based Therapies

Herbal therapy employs an individual herb or a mixture of herbs for healing purposes. An herb is a plant or plant part that produces and contains chemical substances that act upon the body. Special diet therapies, such as those proposed by Drs. Atkins, Ornish, Pritikin, and Weil, are believed to prevent and or control illness as well as promote health. Orthomolecular therapies aim to treat disease with varying concentrations of chemicals such as magnesium, melatonin, and mega-doses of vitamins. Biological therapies include, for example, the use of laetrile and shark cartilage to treat cancer and the use of bee pollen to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

Types Of Female Genital Alterations

Large-scale effort to sanitize cities and bodies would also encourage putting self-polluters into insane asylums and then using them as a captive population for experimenting with advances in genital surgeries and devices of restraint. Even private entrepreneurs got into the sanitary game. Wellness centers sprung up all over the country, a good example of which is the Kellogg Center for Clean and Healthy Living (75). Not only were Kellogg's corn flakes sold as a healthy non-stimulant designed to dampen all sexual passions, but his centers were the hotbed for restraining techniques (41,76). Sylvester Graham, a Presbyterian minister, invented the Graham cracker, which, together with a mild vegetarian diet, was intended to reduce sexual cravings, while C.W. Post marketed his Postum cereal as the Monk's Brew.

Box 341 Medical Genetics Specialist

Medical genetics specialists have an MD degree plus specialty training in an area such as pediatrics or internal medicine, plus fellowship subspecialty training in the diagnosis and treatment of genetic disorders, birth defects, and other types of malformations. As more and more is learned about the genetic causes of human health problems and effects of teratogenic agents, the role of the medical geneticist is becoming increasingly important and specialized. Your family physician can give you some information about genetics, but there is a limit to how much training can take place on any given specialty topic during the education of a family practitioner, a pediatrician, or an internal medicine specialist. If you have questions about a complex, severe, or rare medical condition in yourself, your child, or some other family member and are trying to make major decisions about having additional children after a child with a birth defect and or genetic disease has been born or decisions...

The Legs That Launched A Thousand Ships

It is possible that facial features are a clue to genetic or nurtured quality, or to character and personality. Facial symmetry may well prove to be a clue to good genes or good health during development.24 The face is the most information-dense part of the body is how Don Symons put it to me one day And the less symmetrical a face, the less attractive. But asymmetry is not a common reason for ugliness many people have perfectly symmetrical faces and yet are still ugly. The other noticeable feature of facial beauty is that the average face is more beautiful than any extreme In 1883, Francis Galton discovered that merging the photographs of several women s faces produced a composite that is usually judged to be better looking than any of the individual faces that went into making it The experiment has been repeated recently with computer-merged photographs of female undergraduates The more faces that go into the image, the more beautiful the woman appears.26 Indeed, the faces of models...

To What Are You Committed

Principles first The Oath notably promotes the principles of beneficence and justice twice, deploying in two different directions. The first looks outward, for the benefit of the ill and to keep them from injustice. This pertains to the role of the physician as promoting health in society and engaging in matters of public health, human rights, and harmful ecological change.29 The principles are employed a second time, in this case in a vow to benefit the ill while keeping far from all voluntary and destructive injustice. This ethic looks inward to the physician's conduct of the clinical relationship. These principles are still serviceable though contemporary ethics has added a new one respect for a patient's autonomy.

Committee Biographies

Valente, Ph.D. (University of Southern California) is the director of the Master of Public Health program and an associate professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine at the University of Southern California School of Medicine. He is newly arrived from the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, where he spent 9 years conducting research and teaching health communication, program evaluation, and network analysis. His main research interest is understanding health-related behavior through mathematical and network models using empirical studies and computer simulations. Dr. Valente conducts research on substance abuse prevention and treatment programs and is also interested in the evaluation of communication programs designed to promote health-related behavior. He is also the author of Network Models of the Diffusion of Innovations (Hampton Press, 1995) and Evaluating Health Communication Campaigns (Oxford University Press, 2003). He received a B.S. in

Table 151 Preview of Maslows Theory

Maslow thought the methods of science were far too restrictive to be useful for his vision of a growth-oriented psychology. This has seriously detracted from his role in mainstream psychology, though the appeal of humanistic theoretical ideas remains as a reoc-curring issue. Because of his focus on the most healthy (self-actualized) individuals, Maslow's theory is less comprehensive than one would want for a general theory of personality, neglecting detailed description of the vast majority of people who do not fit his goal of self-actualization. The theory is comprehensive enough to apply to business and to ideas about adult healthy functioning, though not with the precision one might wish. Even more than Rogers's theory, Maslow's ideas of self-actualization have been applied to business, undoubtedly because of his own background in his family business and the insights that gave him. He did not, however, apply his theory explicitly to therapy in the detailed way that Rogers undertook.

Implications For Therapy Of

If depletion of protein chaperones and inhibition of proteasomes are significant in the pathogenesis of protein folding diseases, would upregulating these pathways be a reasonable therapeutic strategy On the protein chaperoning side, our studies indicate that coordinate upregulation of multiple HSPs, particularly those that work coordinately such as HSP70 and HSP40, is more likely to be beneficial than a single HSP (Batulan et al., unpublished results). Many drugs known to magnify the heat shock response mediated through the transcription factor HSF1 are not particularly effective in cultured motor neurons or are too toxic (12). However, recent studies show potential for hydroxy-lamine derivatives (48) and celastrol, a quinone methide triterpene and an active component from Chinese herbal medicine (128) as regulators of the heat shock response in an as needed manner. Other components of the UPS (e.g., ubiquitin E3 ligases) that can sequester mutant proteins until they can be degraded...

Materialspecific Impairment Of Memory

Temple (1992b) described Dr S., an intelligent and highly educated lady, who had sustained no neurological injury or disease and was in good health. However, throughout her life she had experienced severe difficulties with memory for faces and visual patterns. Another member of her family is also reported to have similar difficulties. Dr S. had high academic attainments, reflecting good semantic memory. She also had a well-developed vocabulary. Further, her episodic memory for the stories in the Wechsler Memory Battery was very good. However, she had a severe impairment in memory for faces, houses, buildings and visual patterns. The impairment in memory for faces produced a specific form of developmental prosopagnosia. The pattern of her difficulties on face processing was interpreted in relation to the model of Bruce & Young (1986). In relation to this model, it was suggested that Dr S. had specific difficulty in retaining or making use of the face recognition units needed to...

Can You Treat Hiv With Macrobiotic Diets

A macrobiotic diet is a radical departure from the dietary customs of the Western world. proponents of this lifestyle argue that such a diet of natural foods, cooked in accordance with macrobiotic principles, can promote health and minimize disease. Some supporters claim that a macrobiotic diet is an effective primary treatment for cancer. others claim that it can be effective when combined with other forms of treatment. Critics caution that macrobiotic diets are hazardous because they are both nutritionally unbalanced and restrictive, excluding nearly everything but grains. The American Medical Association, the Food and Drug Administration, and many nutrition experts say that a macrobiotic diet can be harmful. The National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society believe that strict adherence to it poses a serious health hazard and that it is not effective in preventing or treating cancer. They further claim that there is no scientific evidence supporting its use, either...

The Organismic Valuing Process

Profitable to conscious experience will be avoided if they feel wrong to this inner guide. Thus, internal experience, rather than external rules, directs choices. This inner valuing process is natural in the infant, who values food and security. Although this is not usually emphasized, some have interpreted Rogers's organismic valuing process in terms of the body, interpreting physical symptoms and healthy functioning as evidence of contact with the organismic valuing process (Fernald, 2000). With development, people unfortunately substitute external rules for inner experience, as they learn values from society that interfere with psychological development (Rogers, 1964).

Plantibiotics and Pharmaceutical Farming

Plants have been used as sources of pharmaceutical drugs across the millennia. For example, high concentrations of salicylic acid (aspirin) are found in some plant tissues that people long ago discovered could be ingested for pain relief. Some of the first science practiced by archaic humans probably involved the identification and study of plant species with medicinal and therapeutic properties herbal medicine has been practiced widely (e.g., in China) for more than 2000 years. Thousands of natural medicinal compounds continue to be harvested from wild and domestic plants today or biochemically synthesized from blueprints that plants provided. However, only in recent years has modern science gained the ability to engineer GM plants that can produce therapeutic proteins from targeted human genes. It will be interesting to monitor the extent to which this new capability might revolutionize pharmacology. A tremendous promise for the future lies in this endeavor, so for now I give it a...

Glucose6phosphate dehydrogenase G6PD deficiency 201

China for treatment of various disorders. There are three different families of ginseng the oriental and American ginsengs (Panax schinseng), the Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) and the desert ginseng (Rumex hymenosepalus). For thousands of years, ginseng has been the most prized of herbal remedies, with a host of alleged benefits, including relief of fatigue, relief of stress, and other systemic benefits.

The Idealized Self Moving away from the Real Self

The profoundly disturbing consequences of turning from the real to the idealized self are suggested by the comparison Horney (1950) makes. The process corresponds to the devil's pact . . . the selling of one's soul (p. 155). The neurotic is like Faust, who sold his soul to the devil for a bit of fleeting pleasure and power. The healthier choice is to turn away from false pride and instead to accept the ordinariness of one's real self (Horner, 1994).

Adlers View of Some Possible Traits by Birth Order

Adler (1929 1969, 1931) insisted that early recollections are always consistent with people's present style of life and that then subjective account of these experiences yields clues to understanding both then final goal and then present style of life. One of Adler's earliest recollections was of the great contrast between Ins brother's Sigmund's good health and Ins own sickly condition. As an adult, Adler reported that

Why Consider A Career In Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology is an exciting and challenging field that involves the complete care of the patient. It offers physicians the opportunity to practice preventive medicine, medical management, and surgical treatment of a wide variety of disease processes. It is a field in which physicians have a tremendous impact on their patients' health and quality of life and in which, as a result, their patients are some of the most satisfied in all of medicine. It also allows the physician to become an expert on one of the most complicated organ systems in existence one in which miraculous new advances are constantly being achieved.

Stages of Adlerian Psychotherapy

Changing to a healthier lifestyle necessarily involves increased social interest. Benefits are expected not only for the client but also for others. Tinling (1990) suggested that the mother of a female incest victim unwittingly contributed to the family problem by an unhealthy, victimized style of life an increase in her social feeling would make incest less likely in the family. (Obviously, this is only one perspective on a complex issue the mother is not the only one to blame or to change.)

Biography of Alfred Adler

Adler's poor health was in sharp contrast to the health of his older brother Sig-mund. Several of Adler's earliest memories were concerned with the unhappy competition between his brother's good health and his own illness. Sigmund Adler, the childhood rival whom Adler attempted to surpass, remained a worthy opponent, and in later years he became very successful in business and even helped Alfred financially. By almost any standard, however, Alfred Adler was much more famous than Sigmund Adler. Like many secondborn children, however, Alfred continued the rivalry with his older brother into middle age. He once told one of his biographers, Phyllis Bottome (1939, p. 18), My eldest brother is a good industrious fellow he was always ahead of me . . . and he is still ahead of me

Indicators for Qualities Other than Fitness

When trying to attract a sexual partner, heritable fitness is not the only thing worth advertising. When males and females cooperate to rear offspring, they should care about more than each other's good genes. They should seek mates in good health because they are more likely to survive as partners and parents. They should seek mates capable of efficient cooperation and coordination, so they make an effective team. Since health and future cooperation cannot be assessed directly, they must be estimated using indicators such as energy level and kindness. Those indicators can evolve according to the same principles as fitness indicators.

Baby with Petechiae and Bruises

At 6 months of age he was referred for a pediatric hematology evaluation. He was taking no medications except phenobarbital. There was no family history of bleeding problems, and his parents and older brother (full sibling) were in good health. Physical exam revealed a well-developed, well-nourished, developmentally appropriate 6-month-old infant with a band of petechiae around the lower third of the left upper arm, where the phlebotomist's tourniquet had been placed.

The strange death of King Charles II

Charles died of an acute insult to his brain, which caused the epileptic seizures he exhibited during his last few days of life. The hand paralysis following the first of these is a common complication of epileptic seizures known as Todd's Palsy. However, it is the autopsy which explains why the 54-year-old king, who up to then was in remarkably good health for a man of his age, was suddenly taken ill and died. The autopsy showed the outer parts of the brain to be engorged with blood while the ventricles of the brain contained much more water than normal. The rest of his organs were sound.

Adaptation and Adjustment

Healthy functioning is generally portrayed as integrated or unified that is, with little conflict and adaptive in the social world. Psychoanalytic theorists described intrapsychic conflict as evidence of maladjustment, and Dollard and Miller explained such conflict in learning terms. Allport also emphasized integration or unity. Many theorists, notably Freud, warn that unconscious processes, set in action by earlier maladaptive learning, can undermine healthy personality functioning. The unconscious has its advocates, though Jung argued for a balance between the conscious ego and the unconscious aspects of the psyche. Although most personality theories focus on the individual rather than considering society, a few theorists (e.g., Adler, Allport) have suggested that healthy personalities contribute more to society or bring fewer prejudices to social interaction than do less healthy personalities. The evaluation of healthy functioning is affected by cultural values, as well as...

Table 71 Preview of Allports Theory

Roy DeCarvalho (1991a) reports that Allport was the first to use the term humanistic psychology. Allport urged personality theorists to use concepts that take into account the unique capacities of humans (as opposed to animals) and emphasize healthy functioning. His emphasis on the whole person, the self, has continued in the humanistic movement (Maddi & Costa, 1972), although his own theoretical focus could more accurately be portrayed as eclectic (Nicholson, 1997).

From alternative therapy to complementary medicine

The BMA first offered a lengthy history and defence of the traditions of scientific medicine, taking up about one third of the report. Only then did it provide a series of (overwhelmingly disparaging) assessments of a range of alternative therapies, including acupuncture and homeopathy, herbalism and hypnotherapy. It concluded that these and many other therapies had 'little in common between them, except that they pay little regard to the scientific principles of orthodox medicine' (BMA 1986 77). The report emphasised that the 'fundamental division' separating orthodox and alternative approaches was 'the scientific principle which underlies the former, and the testing of theories by systematic observation which that principle implies' Whereas a few years earlier the BMA had been concerned to draw a line of principle between orthodox and alternative therapies, it now sought to make a pragmatic distinction between different forms of non-conventional treatment. Having abandoned a...

The Masturbation Scare

Masturbation was not an object for prescientific or Galenic medicine, which reigned supreme from the 2nd century AD until the late Middle Ages. For 1500 years until the 17th century of Western history, the precepts guiding medical practices were based on the Galenic conception of the body as a flux of fluid humors black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm. Maintaining good health required the balance of these humors in their correct proportions disease was signaled by either an excess or deficiency in these fluids (9). Hence, masturbation was considered quite therapeutic in certain cases, because it led to the evacuation of excessive seed in the body (10). Therefore, medieval physicians such as Avicenna, Albert the Great, and Riverius recommended the friction of the genitals for health purposes (11,12). This understanding of masturbation implied that it was not a moral issue within premodern medical thought. Even though some premodern physicians such as Boorde and Boerhaave in the...

Symptoms and detection of strychnine poisoning

The effects of strychnine usually appear rapidly, within ten to fifteen minutes. As with most poisoning cases, the victim appears to be well and in good health, and then suddenly falls ill following the eating or drinking of something or the taking of a preparation or medication. Within minutes the victim will complain of stiffness, often in the back of the neck. Tremor and twitching start, followed by convulsions. Occasionally there is only one massive convulsion before death, but usually there are five or more. They are painful and last about a minute, and the contortions of

The effects of lead on the human body

Symptoms of acute poisoning with half this amount in their blood, but in any case a value in excess of 80 g 100 ml indicates the need for antidote therapy. Some quite remarkably high blood lead levels have been encountered, and one premature baby born to a Sikh woman in Adelaide, Australia in 2001 had record high levels for a child. The mother had been taking a herbal remedy sent from India whose tablets contained 9 of lead compounds. Her baby's blood was found to have almost 250 g 100 ml, and she was suffering from various symptoms of advanced lead poisoning. Treatment with antidotes eventually saved the baby's life and after three months the blood lead level was down to a less life-threatening 35 g 100 ml. This penetration of lead from the mother's blood into her foetus shows how insidious it can be.

Young Man with Edema and Decreased Urine Output

A 19-year-old man presented to the hospital complaining of swelling of his ankles, abdomen, and eyelids for the past 4 days. He had been in good health until several months ago when he noted a bloated sensation after eating. He also thought that he had gained weight recently, noting that his jeans seemed tighter. Four days before presentation, he experienced headaches and mild abdominal pain. At bedtime, there were depressions in his legs from the elastic in his socks. In the morning his legs were less swollen, but his eyes appeared puffy. These symptoms abated somewhat by evening, but lower extremity swelling recurred. He noticed that his urine appeared a bit darker than usual, and he thought that he might be urinating less frequently. Except for some mild upper respiratory congestion, which he had attributed (along with the initial eye puffiness ) to allergies, he reported no other symptoms. He denied blurred vision, rashes, joint pains, fevers, or grossly bloody urine. The past...

Social Connectedness and Health

Pathways related to health behaviors, health care, access to material resources such as jobs, and direct physiological responses leading to disease development and prognosis. For instance, evidence suggests that, in general, social network size or connectedness is inversely related to risk-related behaviors. People who are socially isolated are more likely to engage in such behaviors as tobacco and alcohol consumption, to be physically inactive, and to be overweight (Berkman and Glass, 2000). Behavioral pathways such as these do not appear to account for a large part of the association between social isolation and poor health, but they are important to consider. It is important to note that networks themselves have generally been shown to exert powerful influences on the behavior of both adolescents and adults, so that networks can either promote health or increase risk depending on the norms of the networks themselves.

Role Of Businesses And Industries In Promoting A Healthy Environment

The private and public sectors significantly influence health when their goals are incompatible with conditions that promote healthy behaviors or physical environments. When such goals are in conflict and significant health hazards arise, governmental agencies have a responsibility to act. Over the past 30 years, the U.S. government has passed numerous environmental laws and regulations to protect the health of the public (see Table 6-2). These laws have often been passed in response to industrial contami- The food and beverage industry generates products that may contribute to disease and disability if consumers make choices potentially incompatible with good health. In light of the intensifying obesity epidemic in the United States, the industry has been asked to work in partnership with other sectors to help consumers in their efforts to make healthier lifestyle decisions that will promote health by reducing obesity. In October 2002, the Health and Human Services Secretary, Tommy...

Middle Aged Woman with Colles Fracture

A 59-year-old Caucasian female was referred to an endocrinologist following treatment for a fracture to her left wrist. She reports that the fracture occurred approximately 2 months earlier when she tripped on a rough sidewalk and fell while walking her dog. She is otherwise in good health. On physical examination, the patient is a 5-ft-tall, 94-lb middle-aged woman who describes herself as physically fit and in good health. She reports running 3-4 miles 3 times per week and participating in additional physical exercise that includes weight and resistance training. Her past medical history includes two full-term, uneventful pregnancies, menopause at age 41, but no history of thyroid disease, diabetes, or Cushing syndrome. A daily multivitamin supplement is her only current medication. She has never received hormone replacement therapy. She has no documented family history of osteoporosis, although she recalls her grandmother losing height as she aged and developing a dowager's hump,...

Adult Male with New Onset Ascites

A 56-year-old white male presented with abdominal and ankle swelling of several months' duration. There was no history of chronic medical problems, except for impotence over the past 3-4 years for which he occasionally took sildenafil. The patient was on no other medications. He was a successful accountant, married with three children. He was a -pack day smoker and drank two or three beers each day. His father had been killed during World War II, and he had an uncle who died of liver cirrhosis 10-15 years previously. He had two brothers and two sisters who were all in good health.

What Are the Domains of Alternative Medicine87

Traditional oriental medicine emphasizes the balance or disturbances of qi (pronounced chi) or vital energy in health and disease, respectively. Traditional oriental medicine consists of a group of techniques and methods including acupuncture, herbal medicine, oriental massage, and qi gong (a form of energy therapy). Acupuncture involves stimulating specific anatomic points in the body for therapeutic purposes, usually by puncturing the skin with a thin needle. Ayurveda is India's traditional system of medicine. Ayurvedic medicine (meaning science of life ) is a comprehensive system of medicine that places equal emphasis on body, mind, and spirit. Ayurveda strives to restore the innate harmony of the individual. Some of the primary Ayurvedic Naturopathic medicine is based on the theory that disease is a manifestation of alterations in the processes by which the body naturally heals itself and emphasizes health restoration rather than disease treatment. Naturopathic physicians employ...

Work Closely with Your Doctor

Talk with your doctor about the paperwork he or she submits to your health plan. If there have been problems with coverage in the past, you might ask your doctor or the hospital to send an information package to the plan that includes studies supporting the procedure's safety, benefits, and medical appropriateness. This package might include Be sure to keep your own copy of any materials that the doctor sends to your health plan for future reference. Give Your Health Plan a Deadline

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

While these are not the most poisonous chemicals produced by plants, they are widespread and have in the past caused, and still cause, serious illness. A significant number of poisoning cases have been due to the use in herbal remedies of plants containing these alkaloids.

Properties Of Chocolate

Those who use chocolate, ordinarily enjoy the most perfect health, and are the least subject to the multitude of ailments which destroy life their embonpoint is stationary. These two examples any one can verify in society by a scrutiny of those the regimen of whom is known.

Poisonous Chemicals Designed by Nature

Been known to humans for hundreds, and probably in some cases thousands, of years. They have been used for warfare, murder, suicide, infanticide, political assassination, and execution. Indeed, as noted earlier, toxikon is the ancient Greek word for arrow poison. The use of these poisons was recorded in 1200 bc in the ancient poetic work from India, the Rig Veda. In Homer's Odyssey, Odysseus was 'seeking the deadly poison wherewith to anoint his bronze-tipped arrows'. The poison may well have been the natural toxin aconite, which is derived from the plant known variously as wolfsbane or monkshood. Ovid in his book Metamorphosis referred to it as akonitos. This and other natural poisons used for killing will be discussed further in Chapter 9 (see pp. 213-14, 227-30). Some have been unwittingly responsible for disease and death, and even now plants containing toxic chemicals contribute to disease when used in herbal remedies.

Technological and Scientific Advances

Genomics is expected to transform the practice of medicine from disease screening and diagnostics to treatment. In fact, some health care may come to involve the detection of disease at the gene level, permitting preventive treatment before the disease even begins to unfold (Pricewater-houseCoopers, 1999). However, the promise of genetics is constrained by an incomplete understanding of interactions among genes and between genes and the environment (Austin et al., 2000). This not only poses research challenges but also raises other contentious issues concerning the causes of ill health, personal rights and responsibilities, and the possibility of achieving health equity. For example, can individual choices and behaviors be leveraged against genetic heritage and broader ecological factors in a way that is fair Additionally, new genetic technologies may compromise efforts to improve overall population health if they lead to the stigmatiza-tion and exclusion of certain groups....

National Parent Network on Disabilities NPND

National Safety Council The nation's leading advocate for safety and health, founded in 1913 and chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1953. The National Safety Council has been working for generations to protect lives and promote health with innovative programs. The Council is a nonprofit, nongovernmental, international public service organization dedicated to improving the safety, health, and environmental well-being of all people.

Blood And The Cardiovascular System

The system that circulates blood is the cardiovascular system, shown in schematic form in Figure 9.1. It consists of two major components the muscular part of the heart, called the myocardium, and the network of blood vessels composed of arteries, veins, and capillaries. Blood circulation is the body's transportation system that supplies tissues with the oxygen, nutrients and their metabolites, and hormones that they need for their function. Blood carries carbon dioxide, encapsulated dead cell matter, and other wastes away from tissues. Circulating blood is crucial to maintaining body homeostasis, with temperature, pH, and other crucial parameters kept within the narrow ranges required for good health. A number of toxicants have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system.

Health As A Social And Political Undertaking

It is hardly necessary to argue that good health is fundamental to a good society (Beauchamp, 1988). Without a certain level of health, people may not be able to fully participate in many of the goods of life, including family and community life, gainful employment, and participation in the political process. Ethicists point to the special role that health plays in the enjoyment of an active life, a thriving community, and a productive nation (Daniels, 1985). This view is also grounded in international codes and agreements to which the United States is party, from the World Health Organization's Constitution (WHO, 1946) to the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which ascribe intrinsic value to health. The actors selected by the committee to illustrate their potential individual power to promote health and the role they can play in an intersectoral public health system include the community, the health care delivery system, business, the media, and academic...

Populationlevel Preventive Interventions

The evidence presented and discussed in this chapter aims to demonstrate that taking into account the environmental and social determinants of health is essential to creating effective population-level interventions for health improvement. Health risk is related to a complex of social, economic, and political factors that both surpass and powerfully interact with downstream elements such as individual behaviors, biological traits, and access to health care services. There have been few empirical tests of population-based approaches to health promotion that focused on risk-related social conditions, but in an effort to understand how such approaches might work, several examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency (e.g., cost) of population-based interventions to prevent disease and promote health.

The 21st Century

Of Preventive Medicine WILLIAM CALVERT, M.S., M.B.A., M.P.H., Chairman, Department of Defense Sexually Transmitted Diseases Prevention Committee, and Program Manager, Sexual Health and Responsibility Program, Navy Environmental Health Center, Department of Navy ANN CARY, Ph.D., M.P.H., A-CCC, Director, Institute for Research,

Case Notes

In contrast to the inhibition of an enzyme, which usually only needs a single dose, induction requires repeated exposure to a chemical but often only small amounts are needed. As well as some drugs, many other chemicals can cause this effect including hydrocarbons found in smoke and substances found in vegetables. This effect, unlike inhibition, can occur as a result of exposure to environmental chemicals and things in food which often are present at lower levels in our bodies than the levels of drugs. The phenomenon of induction was first discovered to be caused by a barbiturate drug, which was used to put patients to sleep but was found to become less and less effective after repeated doses. It was eventually found that this tolerance was due to induction of the enzyme that is responsible for metabolizing the drug itself. Therefore as the patient continued to take the drug its metabolism increased and so its effect on the patient decreased. Hence higher and higher doses of the drug...

Gayle Reiber

Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0607, USA Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0607, USA


Communities that provide practical and service-oriented learning opportunities for students. Academia also assures workforce competence by providing high-quality education and training (ES 8), in addition to its substantial roles in evaluation and research (ESs 9 and 10). America's businesses and employers have the opportunity to promote health and prevent disease and disability in their own workforces (ES 3). Employers are also a critical source of health care payment for personal health care services (ES 7). Furthermore, because businesses are closely involved with communities, they can collaborate in partnerships that monitor, identify, and address community health problems (ESs 1 and 4). Finally, the mass media can educate, inform, and thus empower (ES 3) communities with accurate and timely health communications.


Patients with anxiety disorders are high utilizers of medical services and have much greater health-care costs than other patients, even after adjustment for concurrent medical conditions. This effect is evident in a study of one large health maintenance organization (HMO), in which the top 10 per

Hoanalytic Treatment

Development or if fixations are resolved through psychoanalytic treatment. Freud described psychoanalysis with the metaphor of archaeology. The analytic process tries to dig up primitive material long buried by repression and to bring it to the surface, to consciousness, so that it can be considered with the skills of the more developed ego. Freud's formula for achieving health is Where id was, there shall ego be (1933 1966a, p. 544).

St Johns wort

This herb (Hypericum) is widely used for the treatment of mild depression indeed, in Germany it outsells the synthetic drug Prozac. It has been shown to be effective and adverse effects do not seem to be a problem. However, it does interfere with the disposition of other drugs. In particular, it will generally reduce the activity of certain other drugs which may lead to a failure of treatment. This occurs because St John's wort is able to induce the enzymes that metabolize other drugs. The amount of the enzyme is thus increased, which leads to increased metabolism and excretion of the other drugs. Therefore a drug given after the herb has been used may not reach the required therapeutic concentration, or will not be active for so long, or conversely more of an active or toxic metabolite could be produced (see p. 34 for further explanation of this effect). Thus drugs used for the treatment of blood clots (warfarin), asthma, and heart disease, and the contraceptive pill, can all be...


Exclusive breast-feeding is giving the baby breast milk only. Breast milk is very nutritious and helps protect a baby from diseases. It can also help a mother and baby bond. It may help a baby who is born infected stay healthy and avoid germs from formula feeding. A women is less likely to become pregnant while exclusively breast-feeding, which therefore helps her to space her children. Breastfeeding can increase the risk of HIV transmission. A baby is at greater risk of getting HIV through breast-feeding if the mother breast-feeds her baby for a long time becomes infected with HIV while breast-feeding gets cracked or bleeding nipples gets mastitis is very sick, or has a high viral load or a low CD4+ count, or has a lot of virus in her breast milk.

Seat Belt Laws

Although there are ethnic differences in seat belt use, rates of seat belt use are higher in states that implement and enforce restraint laws (Davis et al., 2001 Schiff and Becker, 2002). Seat belt laws have had a significant impact on modifying behavior and thus decreasing risk and improving health outcomes across the population. Such strong effects for any single piece of legislation illustrate that this orientation can be effective. A meta-analysis of research regarding the effectiveness of interventions to

The Irritable Wife

A 33-year-old Caucasian woman presented to her primary healthcare provider with complaints of anxiety and a racing heartbeat. She was in good health until these symptoms began approximately one year ago. Over the same period of time, her menstrual periods had become irregular, she had lost 15 lb (7 kg) unintentionally, and she was having social problems with her spouse and coworkers because of irritability. She slept poorly, complained of occasional loose stools, and was easily overheated. She insisted at night that the air conditioner be set to 65 C. She also complained that her lower neck was bulging, as were her eyes.


A lower level of interest in reduced-fat foods in France compared with Germany and the U.K. has been reported (Anon., 1992). While sales of reduced-fat foods in France have in general grown in recent years, there are signs, as in Germany, that consumer interest is waning. Indicative of this was a 7.8 volume sales decline for reduced-fat spreads in 1992. While as a general rule the European consumer has shown a growing preference for healthier alternatives to traditional products, it is important to be aware of the strong regional variations relating to consumption of reduced-fat foods. As an example, it is possible to cite the considerable variation for penetration of reduced-fat

Alternative Remedies

Several natural therapies are promoted as treatments for heart disease. Some have been put to the test in scientific studies and look promising, but others have not held up to scientific scrutiny. Many such herbal remedies and alternative treatments available in drugstores and on the Internet remain unproved and therefore should be taken with caution. And because herbs and other nutritional supplements are not reviewed for purity or effectiveness by the FDA, you can't be sure that what you're buying is effective or even that the bottle contains the substance on the label. If you take any herbal remedies, be sure to tell your doctor. These preparations may hinder or exaggerate the effects of prescription drugs used to manage cardiovascular disease. Indeed, heart patients are more vulnerable than most others to adverse 42 drug interactions. Here is some information about two popular

The Complete Compendium Of Everything Related To Health And Wellness

The Complete Compendium Of Everything Related To Health And Wellness

A lot of us run through the day with so many responsibilities that we don't have even an instant to treat ourselves. Coping with deadlines at work, attending to the kids, replying to that demanding client we respond and react to the needs of other people. It's time to do a few merciful things to reward yourself and get your health in order.

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