Acetate is produced in several fermentative pathways. A large diversity of bacteria, collectively known as acetogenic or acetate-forming bacteria, produces
nongaseous acetate. These organisms include bacteria in the genera Acetobacterium, Clostridium, and Sporomusa. Some acetogenic bacteria are thermophilic.
Several biochemical reactions are used by acetogenic bacteria to produce acetate. Most acetogenic bacteria produce acetate from H2 and CO2 (Equation 6.2), while some produce acetate from H2O and carbon monoxide (Equation 6.3). Some acetogenic bacteria produce acetate from CO2 and methanol (Equation 6.4), and often six-carbon sugars or hexoses are degraded to acetate (Equation 6.5). Even propionate is converted to acetate.
C6H12O6 ^ 3CH3COOH
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