Natural Cure for Heartburn
GERD is a digestive disorder in which the stomach's juices (acid and digestive enzymes) flow backward, or reflux, into the esophagus. The lining of the esophagus is not equipped to handle these caustic substances, so it becomes inflamed, causing heartburn and other symptoms. Lying down in bed often worsens heartburn and disrupts sleep. You may be able to avoid this problem by abstaining from heavy or fatty foods, as well as coffee and alcohol, in the evening. You can also use gravity to your advantage by elevating your upper body with the use of an under-mattress wedge or by placing blocks under the bedposts. Just using extra pillows is not enough. Over-the-counter and prescription drugs that suppress stomach acid secretion can also help.
Feeling that the patient's condition did not warrant immediate admission to the hospital, emergency staff instructed the patient to make an appointment at the local gastroen-terology clinic within a week. By the time of her clinic appointment, the patient's symptoms had resolved. Bloodwork, including a chemistry profile and complete blood count, were sent to the lab. A urine pregnancy test was negative. The patient was given a prescription for an H2 blocker, and was instructed to begin taking it in the event that she continued to experience symptoms of heartburn. She was instructed to follow up with another clinic appointment in 2 weeks. At the follow-up appointment, the patient complained of recurrent episodes of nausea, vomiting, indigestion, and upper abdominal pain. She noted that the abdominal pain became worse several hours after eating a meal. The patient was informed that her complete blood count showed a mild microcytic anemia. Iron studies were consistent with iron...
Indigestion Another name for an upset stomach that usually results when a child eats too much food, or eats too quickly. Also known as dyspepsia, only very rarely does indigestion mean a person may have a more serious digestive problem or an ulcer in the digestive tract. stress and not enough sleep may make indigestion worse. obesity also tends to promote indigestion. Indigestion causes pain or burning in the middle of the belly, nausea, bloating, uncontrolled burping, and heartburn. The best way to prevent indigestion is to avoid foods that seem to cause it. Children with the tendency toward indigestion should eat healthy, smaller meals throughout the day, avoiding junk food, fatty foods, too much chocolate, and too many citrus fruits. Eating slowly and avoiding stress can also help. In addition, children should never exercise with a full stomach. Indigestion is fairly common, but usually it only happens occasionally. A child who gets indigestion despite a healthy diet, plenty of...
In addition to the above types of apnea, the cessation of breathing also can occur in connection with Apparent Life-Threatening Events (ALTEs). An ALTE itself is not a sleep disorder but an event that is a combination of apnea, change in color, change in muscle tone, choking, or gagging. Most ALTEs can be frightening to see, but they usually are uncomplicated and do not recur. However, some ALTEs (especially in young infants) are associated with medical conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), infections, or neurological disorders. These medical conditions require treatment, so all children who experience an ALTE should be seen by a doctor immediately.
Bile-acid resins A class of drugs that have been shown to reduce LDL bad cholesterol by 10 percent to 30 percent in HIV-negative people examples include cholestyramine (Questran) and colestipol (Colestid). These drugs bind with cholesterol in the intestines and prevent it from being absorbed into the bloodstream. The cholesterol is then removed from the body with each bowel movement. Bile-acid resins are often used in combination with other lipid-lowering drugs. This is because bile-acid resins can actually cause triglyceride levels to increase. Side effects of these drugs include stomachaches, bloating, flatulence (farting), heartburn, and constipation. Another problem with bile-acid resins is that they should be taken two hours before other medications, including antiretrovirals. This can be challenging for HIV-positive people who are already overwhelmed by a two- or three-times-daily medication schedule. Bile-acid resins have not yet been studied in HIV-positive patients with...
When patients report both anxiety and somatic complaints, it is easy to assume that their apprehensiveness is a result of their medical condition. That is often true, of course, but sometimes the opposite relationship holds. Even when a medical disorder is present, not all anxiety is normal. Anxiety disorders are significantly more common in patients with chronic medical illnesses than in those without. Furthermore, anxiety disorders can provoke, maintain, or worsen certain medical conditions (e.g., hypertension, gastroesophageal reflux, myofascial pain). Whether or not a patient has a medical disorder, then, nervousness or worry should prompt a search for an anxiety disorder.
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is characterized by severe hypersecretion of gastric acid, refractory peptic ulcer disease localized to the stomach and the upper gastrointestinal tract, malabsorption, and diarrhea, which is sometimes severe. Nausea, vomiting, and heartburn are present in about 35 of the cases. Approximately 25 of ZES patients present with bleeding. These are primarily patients with the sporadic form of the disease and not those with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). ZES is often associated with MEN1, a genetic dominant autosomal disorder due to mutations (over 25 have been documented) in the MEN1 gene on exon 10 of chromosome 11q13. The syndrome involves neoplasia in the parathyroid, pancreatic islet endocrine tumors, pituitary adenomas, and adrenal adenomas. The main pancreatic manifestation of MEN1 is a gastrinoma leading to hypersecretion of gastrin and its physiological consequences. ZES is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in MEN1. The ZES...
Being on the front line of medicine also offers the intellectual stimulation and challenge of diagnosis. As the first physician to hear and understand the patient's complaint, your skill as a diagnostician directs the treatment plan. Being an effective diagnostician requires skill as an historian and examiner as well as the ability to synthesize history, physical examination findings, laboratory data, and study results. For example, internists are commonly presented with chief complaints of cough and heartburn. Although many of these cases can be attributed to upper respiratory infections or gastroesophageal reflux, the detail-oriented internist recognizes the necessity of a thorough history and physical to determine whether further workup is needed. But in today's health care environment of conservative resource utilization, only good clinical judgment can guide the appropriate decision to explore a patient's complaint further with laboratory tests and technological studies.
Epithelial ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed at a late stage. Presenting symptoms are vague, and the differential diagnosis includes a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. Diffuse abdominal pain, bloating, early satiety, dyspepsia, nausea, and increasing abdominal girth secondary to abdominal ascites are common symptoms. Because of the nonspecific symptomatology, approximately 75 of patients have advanced-stage tumor outside of the pelvis at the time of diagnosis.
The interactions between the gut microbial flora and the host are complex and, basically, include competition cooperation, and a combination of both (Table 43.3). In the competitive interaction, host and the microbes are competing for the same food. This is found primarily in carnivorous animals whose food is usually of animal origin, consisting largely of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. These animals have a highly acid stomach and duodenum, in which microbes are inhibited, allowing the host enzyme to digest the foods first and absorb the sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids.
Sure to high levels of radiation may also cause ovarian cancer. The most common type of ovarian cancer is the epithelial carcinoma in the ovary's outer layer. Frequently there are no symptoms in the early stages of ovarian cancer, making it difficult to obtain an early diagnosis, when there is the greatest chance for effective treatment. An ovarian tumor can grow for some time before pressure or pain can be felt or other problems are noticed. When symptoms do occur, they may include abdominal swelling or bloating, discomfort in the lower part of the abdomen, a full feeling after a light meal, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, gas, indigestion, weight loss, constant need to urinate, diarrhea, or constipation, and nonmenstrual bleeding. procedures used in the diagnosis and evaluation of ovarian cancer may include an internal exam of the uterus, vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder, and rectum, a pap smear, ultrasound, blood and urine tests, and x rays. Additional procedures that...
Investigation of heartburn, dyspepsia and occult blood loss are the commonest indications. Biopsies can be taken to diagnose Helicobacter pylori infection, inflammation or neoplasia. Plastic brushes can be rubbed along lesions, capturing superficial cells or pathogens to diagnose cancer and infection. Jejunal fluid can be aspirated and examined for pathogens such as Giardia lamblia.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) backward flow of stomach contents into the esophagus resulting from improper functioning of a sphincter at the lower end of the esophagus may cause symptoms similar to sinusitis GERD see gastroesophageal reflux disease reflux see gastroesophageal reflux disease and laryngopharyngeal reflux
Inflammatory conditions such as pachydermia, laryngitis sicca, and nonspecific laryngitis also are diagnosed with some regularity in the elderly (see infectious diseases aND iNFLammAtory coNdmoNs of the Larynx). These conditions might arise as a consequence of smoking, reflux, medications, or poor hydration and often coexist with vocal fold lesions that may be either benign or malignant. Age-related laryngeal changes such as mucous gland degeneration might be a factor in development of laryngitis sicca (Morrison and Gore-Hickman, 1986 Woo et al., 1992). Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is another inflammatory condition that is reported to occur with greater frequency in the elderly (Richter, 2000). Since GERD has been present for a longer time in the elderly in comparison with younger adults, it is a more complicated disease in this group. Often elderly patients report less severe heartburn but have more severe erosive damage to the esophagus (Katz, 1998 Richter, 2000).
Reflux, gastroesophageal (GERD) A disorder that occurs when stomach acid moves backward from the stomach into the esophagus. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) usually occurs because the muscular valve where the esophagus joins the stomach does not close properly. When the stomach acid comes into contact with the esophagus, it causes a burning sensation. Although many people experience heartburn occasionally, GERD occurs much more often and causes serious discomfort. Eventually, the reflux of stomach acid damages the tissue lining the esophagus, causing inflammation and pain. No one knows for sure why people get GERD, but more than one million children in the United states have the condition. Certain foods may be linked to acid reflux, including citrus fruits, chocolate, caffeinated drinks, fatty and fried foods, garlic and onions, mint, spicy foods, and tomato-based foods.
Cimetidine A drug that blocks the action of histamine (H-2), a substance secreted by mast cells, and thus inhibits the ability of the stomach to make acid. once acid production is decreased, the body is able to heal itself. Benefits include control of hypersecretory stomach disorders and effective treatment of peptic ulcer disease, reflux esophagi-tis, and heartburn. The drug has been shown to have some stimulating effects on the immune system and has been proposed as a treatment for the immune suppression associated with HIV. (The trade name is Tagamet.)
During our observations for fifty years, we have never known any indigestion to result from truffles. * * The translator has known several such indigestions. He once nearly became a martyr to a galatine de Perdrix truffee, at the restaurant of the late M. Dandurand. 4. From the daily conduct of the doctors of the law, who, caeteris paribus, consume more truffles than any other class of citizens. Doctor Malonet used to eat enough to give an elephant the indigestion. He however lived to be eighty-six. This state of things lasted some time, and all said he suffered from the indigestion caused by truffles at last nature came to the patient's aid, and Mr. S opened his mouth and threw up a single truffle, which struck the wall and rebounded, luckily without injury to the by standers. Thus there was no indigestion, but merely the interposition of a foreign body.
Therefore, according to Tissot, masturbation denuded the body of blood and, thus, gave rise to grave physical and mental consequences. Included among these were weakening of the digestive system, loss of or excessive appetite, vomiting, indigestion, breakdown of the respiratory system, general debility and lassitude, as well as damages to the faculties and memory. The consequences to women were even more grave, because masturbation led to hysteria, vapeurs affreuses, incurable jaundice, stomach cramps, prophase and ulceration of the womb, and clitoral rashes, for example. The young were particularly vulnerable, as the loss of precious liquid stunted their natural physical development and contributed to feeblemindedness (14,17).
In addition to diabetes, other medical issues included chronic hypertension and gastroesophageal reflux disease. His daily medications were insulin, hydrochlorothiazide, enalapril, aspirin, and omeprazole. He was a nonsmoker. His mother had a history of chronic hypertension and died at age 71 of complications of end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure.
Bile acid binders are used much less commonly nowadays because of their many side effects. These include constipation, heartburn, and a bloated feeling. Bile acid binders can also interfere with the action of many drugs, especially digitalis, beta-blockers, warfarin, thiazide diuretics, anticonvulsants, and thyroid hormone supplements. And people with high triglyceride levels should not take this type of medication because it tends to elevate triglycerides. Since ezetimibe has come along, anyone who would've been prescribed bile acid binders will probably get ezet-imibe instead.
Gynecology quickly developed a comprehensive and male-centered view of the female patient. Therapeutic pessaries were not only used to treat uterine diseases (e.g., infertility,20 postpartum infections,21 retained placentas,22 and amenorrhea23). They also were therapeutic, along with sex and marriage, in treating other conditions that were attributed to an obstructed, disordered, or wandering uterus (e.g., heartburn, suicidality, homicidal rage, hallucinations, depression, jaundice, sleepiness, and nasal congestion.24) One text went as far as to say, As for what are called women's diseases the womb is responsible for all such diseases. 25 Male physicians prescribed treatments for disorders of pregnancy, such as toxemia.26 They also prescribed contraception, If a woman does not wish to become pregnant, dissolve in water, misy as large as a bean and give it to her to drink, and for a year she will not become pregnant. 27 As the Oath notes, women were denied positions as medical teachers...
Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing and odynophagia is painful swallowing. Sensations arising from the oesophagus are usually felt retrosternally in the lower part of the centre of the chest. Heartburn describes a burning, unpleasant retrosternal sensation that may be caused by acid reflux from the stomach into the oesophagus. The lower oesophageal sphincter is relatively weak therefore, acid reflux is common even in health, but can be excessive, when it may cause oesophagitis. Chronic acid reflux can induce the epithelium to change from the normal squamous lining to a gastric or intestine-like columnar lining. This epithelial metaplasia is called Barrett's oesophagus and it increases the risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus.
Oral zinc therapy has also been demonstrated as effective in lowering copper stores. Zinc works by inducing enterocyte metallothionein, which sequesters dietary copper, preventing absorption and promoting elimination as the enterocyte sloughs into the intestinal lumen. Although zinc was originally promoted only as maintenance therapy after successful chelation, it has also been effective for initial therapy in asymptomatic patients and is better tolerated than D-penicillamine. Zinc acetate 50 mg 3 times daily, and taken away from meals is the most popular form and may have slightly less gastric irritation that the gluconate or sulfate salts. Some patients, including the young girl presented, have too much dyspepsia and cannot tolerate zinc. Sometimes giving the doses with meals improves tolerance, but higher doses may be required to control copper. Adding oral zinc to chelation therapy is also being studied.
Secondary insomnia results from another cause. Chronic secondary insomnia is often caused by an illness or disease it may be a sleep disorder (such as sleep apnea or narcolepsy), a nonsleep condition (such as angina, heartburn, or depression), or a medication taken for such a condition. Substances taken for reasons other than sleep or health such as alcohol, caffeine, or recreational drugs can also lead to the development of insomnia.
Dr Carter examined James and was told that he had been suffering from vomiting and diarrhoea for several days. He diagnosed chronic dyspepsia due to an irritant in the stomach. He prescribed a sedative (antipyrine), a medicine to increase salivation to ease his throat (jaborandi), and a mouthwash (chlorine water). Dr Carter noted the absence of bad breath despite the foul state of James's mouth. He ordered a continuation of the diet recommended the previous day with the addition of that Victorian cure-all chlorodyne.
These include common conditions, such as heartburn without significant acid regurgitation, and rare syndromes, such as globus hystericus, where patients sense a lump in the throat. Here symptoms mimic peptic ulcer disease, gastritis and other serious disorders, without any evident pathology. The commonest syndrome is non-ulcer dyspepsia.
Helicobacter pylori infection tends to reduce gastric acid secretion, particularly when it causes chronic gastritis, so that, theoretically, eradication of H. pylori infection, which reduces the risk of gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, may actually exacerbate acid reflux (see Chapter 31).
Heartburn is described by patients as an acid, burning sensation in the epigastrium or lower chest, often localized to just behind the sternum (retrosternally). It is the typical symptom of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Patients may also complain of epigastric pain and dyspepsia aggravated by meals, alcohol and lying flat in bed.
From infants who are failing to thrive to teenagers with possible signs of inflammatory bowel disease, the gastroenterologist plays an integral role in tough cases where a diagnosis is not known. Upper and lower endoscopy are your tools to visualize the disease process within the patient's gastrointestinal system and to biopsy the tissue for help in discerning between immune-mediated, infectious, and neoplastic etiologies. For instance, with infants, you use pH probes to help see whether chronic vomiting is gastroesophageal reflux alone or also due to a milk protein allergy. A significant number of children with chronic medical issues and problems gaining weight need a gastric feeding tube, and you will learn to insert this tube percutaneously aided by endoscopy. Emergencies needing a
The main symptoms include persistent heartburn and acid regurgitation, although some children do not experience heartburn. Instead, they may have pain in the chest or stomach a frequent sour taste of acid, especially when lying down a hoarse throat a feeling of burping acid trouble swallowing a feeling that food is stuck in their throat choking feeling dry cough or bad breath. Although a certain amount of reflux is normal in most people, it is sometimes overlooked in infants and children. Acid reflux can cause repeated vomiting, coughing, and other respiratory problems in children as young as newborns. When this happens, it is also called GERD. It is usually caused by an infant's immature digestive system most infants stop having acid reflux by the time they reach their first birthday. However, some children do not outgrow acid reflux and continue having problems into adolescence.
Reflux occurs when acid and other digestive juices in the stomach flow upward instead of downward. No doubt you've heard of the most common type, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which causes heartburn and can damage the tube connecting the throat and stomach (the esophagus) if left untreated. back of your throat (pharynx). LPR does not usually cause heartburn. As a result, it's sometimes referred to as silent reflux. Instead, it tends to cause symptoms like hoarseness, constant throat clearing, and the feeling of a foreign body in the throat just below the Adam's apple. Treatment for GERD and LPR starts with lifestyle and dietary changes. These simple antireflux precautions can lead to dramatic improvement
Causing diarrhoea.166 Furthermore, GI ADRs account for approximately 18 of all reported clinical adverse drug reactions and 20 to 40 of those in hospitalized patients.167 Given, however, that symptoms of disturbed GI function are encountered in everyday life, the actual incidence of drug-related effects is most likely extensively underreported. Most of the reported ADRs are functional in nature (nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea or constipation) with a fewer number related to lesions (e.g., ulceration) or enhanced susceptibility to infection (e.g., pseudomembranous colitis).168 Of these, it is estimated that approximately 80 are Type A-predictable pharmacological reactions.169 In addition to safety concerns, drug-related inhibition or enhancement of GI motor function can also lead to the alteration of a drug's pharmacokinetic profile owing to alterations in residency time of a drug in its site of absorption. Changes in plasma exposure of orally administered...
PH electrodes introduced into the oesophagus and stomach through the nose or mouth allow the frequency and severity of gastro-oesophageal acid reflux to be evaluated. Episodes of low pH in the distal oesophagus are correlated with symptoms, to ensure that reflux symptoms are actually caused by acid reflux. The test can be used to document the effects of medical and surgical treatment. In the Bernstein test, dilute HCl may be infused into the lower oesophagus, to determine if this reproduces heartburn for the patient.
The most significant side effect is an elevation of liver enzymes that, if untreated, could cause liver damage. This condition was reversed in all cases when therapy was reduced or discontinued. Weekly blood tests are required in order to detect the problem. Other side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, indigestion, and skin rash.
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Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.