Symptoms By Visible And Functional Disease

To estimate the relative importance of each symptom to the clinical picture of venous disease we evaluated the odds ratios (OR) for each symptom in each of the 12 categories of venous status formed by crossing the three categories of functional disease with the four categories of visible disease using logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, BMI, education, and racial/ethnic group (see Table 3.4). Aching (OR 2.20) and swelling (OR 2.99) were significantly associated with DFD even in subjects without visible disease. These two symptoms were significantly associated with DFD across all categories of visible disease, with the strongest association in subjects with TCS. Aching was significantly associated with VV regardless of venous functional status and was associated with TCS except in those with normal functional examinations. Itching followed a similar pattern being significantly associated with varicose veins regardless of functional status, and with TCS except in those with normal functional exams. However, the OR for itching with varicose veins and DFD was twice the level of the parallel ratio for aching (5.31 and 2.82, respectively). Swelling had associations very similar to itching for varicose veins, but was associated with much higher rates when TCS was present (ORs 11.61, 6.94, and 6.17 for swelling, itching, and aching, respectively, in subjects with DFD and TCS). Heaviness, tired legs, and cramping each had modest associations with disease in the presence of both functional and visible abnormalities. Although the symptom of restless legs was associated with disease for subjects with both DFD and


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