Scaffold Seeks Incorporation as Self after Implantation

Over the last few decades, several potential off-the-shelf implantable valves have been tested as a substitute for the autogenous venous valve. The valves may be allografts, xenografts, or synthetic in design.

Animal Studied/Poor Results

Transplantation of a fresh vein containing a valve from one canine to another without concern for rejection issues has been attempted. Of 14 fresh allografts tested, utilizing 24 hours of initial anticoagulation to boost patency, only 7% were patent and none competent over a four-week study period.1 Glutaraldehyde-preserved allografts, even when supported by a continuously functioning distal arteriovenous fistula (dAVF), would remain patent (80%) but rarely competent (25%) in the dog during a seven-week study.2

Xenograft transplantation initially was investigated using human umbilical vein that could be frozen, cleaned, fitted over an aluminum mandrel, and finally fixed with glutaral-dehyde to sculpture a bicuspid valve for implantation.3 The recipient was canine and all 10 transplants failed in three days both in terms of patency and competency. This experiment was unique in that the valve structure itself was not made in nature.

The Vein Book

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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