Homemade Skin Care Recipes

Skintervention Guide: Purely Paleo Skincare

The Skintervention Guide contains more than 200 pages of downloadable, Fully Digital information that will radically change the way you think about skincare, body care, and everything in-between. For just $37 the key to natural skincare and a beautifully radiant body is at your fingertips. Heal Acne, Eczema, Scarring, Skin, Hair, And Nail Problems Naturally! Great Skin And A Beautiful Body Starts From The Inside. A Guide To Paleo And Primal Nutrition, Digestion, And The Right Routine For Gorgeous Skin And Body. As an added bonus, youll receive two Extra downloads: Skintervention Guide Easy Recipes to kickstart your journey, and Skintervention Guide Resources where I share all my fave goodies (North America-based) to pamper your skin naturally. Not only that, but you receive lifetime updates to the guide And access to my password-protected Online resource guide! Thats over 200 pages of in-depth, quality content; Bonus Guides, online support, and a lifetime of updates! Heres what I will share with you: The nutrients you need for beautiful skin, lovely hair and a radiant bodyand where to find them. Unexpected super-foods that are critical for skin wellness (conventional wisdom not welcome!) Why almost everyone needs digestive helpand how to get it. How to get nutrients where they need to go. The best products on the planet for cleansing and nourishing the skin (hint: there are NO unpronounceable ingredients or unnecessary chemicals!) Alternatives to conventional makeup, hair dyes and hair care products. Strategies for improving cellulite and tips for smart intimate and feminine care. How to ditch toxins in food, in your body, and in your body care routine! Read more here...

Skintervention Guide Purely Paleo Skincare Overview


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Contents: Ebook
Author: Liz Wolfe
Official Website: purelyprimalskincare.com
Price: $37.00

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My Skintervention Guide Purely Paleo Skincare Review

Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of blog have asked me about this manual, which is being advertised quite widely across the Internet. So I decided to buy a copy myself to find out what all the fuss was about.

This book served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

Microbial Interactions

The interactions among the members of microbial populations on skin are undoubtedly important, but poorly understood. Some may involve more or less direct interactions via competition for available nutrients. It is generally accepted that free fatty acids on the skin surface are products of microbial metabolism and that they are inhibitory to some organisms, particularly potential pathogens. Corynebacteria are among the most active lipase producers on skin (9), but micrococci have also been shown to be important contributors of lipolytic activity (10). It has been suggested that fatty acids are an important mechanism by which Gram-positive bacteria on skin exert an inhibitory effect over Gramnegative bacteria (11). Conversely, it has been shown that suppressing Grampositive skin populations with antibiotics can be followed by overgrowth of Gram-negative bacteria (12). Antagonism also can occur via excretion of bacterio-cins, which are a chemically diverse group of substances produced...

Autism Society of America Foundation ASAF

Aveeno bath A range of moisturizers, cleansers, and bath additives that are formulated from oatmeal, which has been used for centuries for its natural, soothing anti-itching action. All Aveeno products are specially formulated for dry and sensitive skin, and they are particularly effective in helping to relieve the itch associated with many skin conditions such as chicken pox, hives, rashes, psoriasis, poison ivy, and so on. Aveeno products are safe for children and babies.

Theoretical Perspectives in CVI Dermal Fibrosis and Ulcer Formation

The formation of venous ulcer and the mechanisms for dermal fibrosis are not known. In the early 1980s and through the 1990s various investigators proposed possible explanations for the underlying cause of advanced forms of dermal pathology in CVI patients. In 41 patients with venous ulcers, tissue biopsies were stained for fibrin. The tissues were found to have layers of fibrin around dermal capillaries of lipodermatosclerotic skin, but no fibrin was found in control normal skin. The pericapillary fibrin cuff observed in skin with lipodermatosclerosis was proposed to cause tissue fibrosis and hypoxia causing ulcer formation.17 A series of investigations on CVI patients determined that there were 24 fewer leukocytes leaving the dependent lower limb that was reversed upon elevation.18 This led to the hypothesis that leukocytes trapped in the microcirculation (dermal capillaries) resulted in tissue ischemia and venous ulceration.19 Growth factors are considered important mediators...

Alterations in Transforming Growth Factor Function

Transforming growth factor betal (TGF-pi) is an important growth factor with functional properties in regulating cell proliferation, extracellular matrix production, and immunosuppressive effects. A number of investigators have studied the role of TGF in patients with venous ulcer and lipodermatosclerotic skin changes. In an immunohistochem-ical study of venous ulcer and normal skin graft donor sites, in the venous ulcer biopsies there was increased a-2 mac-roglobulin, increased number of type I procollagen fibro blasts, and elevated immunoreactivity of TGF-pi within fibrin cuffs but not in the provisional matrix of the ulcer bed around the cuffs. In comparison, normal skin had restriction of a-1 macroglobulin to the vessel lumen, and procollagen and TGF-pi were present within the granulating matrix and adjacent to the wound margin. These data suggested that although TGF is present in venous ulcers it is distributed in the fibrin cuff and not available in the wound matrix due to...

Erosive Lichen Planus

Treatments for lichen planus include removing contact irritants and following the vulvar skin care hygiene guidelines thoroughly. Low-to-high-potency steroid ointments applied to the vulva and vaginal creams suppositories have been proven effective (29). In addition, recent case reports have shown that 0.1 tacrolimus (Protopic , Astellas Pharma U.S., Inc., Deerfield, IL, U.S.A.) or 0.1 pime-crolimus (Elidel , Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, U.S.A.) are also effective (30,31).

Pathogenicity Versus Latency

Antonsson, A., and Hansson, B.G. (2002). Healthy skin of many species harbours papillomaviruses, which are closely related to their human counterparts. J. Virol. 76 12537-12542. Antonsson, A., Erfurt, C., Hazard, K., Holmgren, V., Simon, M., Kataoka, A., Hossain, S., Hakangard., C, and Hansson, B.G. (2003). Prevalence and type spectrum of human papillomaviruses in healthy skin samples collected in three continents. J. Gen. Virol. 84 1881-1886.

Cytokine Regulation And Tissue Fibrosis

Leukocyte recruitment, ECM alterations, and tissue fibrosis are characteristic of chronic inflammatory diseases caused by alterations in TGF-P1 gene expression and protein production. To determine the role of TGF-P1 in CVI, dermal biopsies from normal patients and CEAP class 4, 5, and 6 CVI patients were analyzed for TGF-P1 gene expression, protein production, and cellular location.56 Quantitative RT-PCR for TGF-P1 gene expression was performed on 24 skin biopsies obtained from 24 patients. Patients were separated into four groups according to the ISCVS SVS classification for CVI normal skin (n 6), CEAP class 4 (n 6), CEAP class 5 (n 5), and CEAP class 6 (n 7). TGF-P1 gene transcripts for controls, Class 4, 5, and 6 patients were 7.02 7.33, 43.33 9.0, 16.13 7.67, and 7.22 0.56 x 10-14 moles g total RNA, respectively. The differences in TGF-P1 gene expression in Class 4 patients was significantly elevated compared to control and Class 5 and 6 patients (p < 0.05).56 An additional 38...

Definition of the Disease

The cause of hypothyroidism may be primary (thyroid dysfunction), secondary (pituitary dysfunction), or tertiary (hypothalamic dysfunction). Primary hypothyroidism is 1000-fold more common than secondary or tertiary causes.1 Hypothyroidism is associated with cold intolerance, weight gain, constipation, dry skin, bradycardia, hoarseness, and slow mental processing.1 In adults, the characteristic signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism may have an insidious onset. Chronic cutaneous changes include dry, puffy skin with a yellowish complexion as well as a thickening of the subcutaneous tissues due to accumulation of mucopolysaccharides. The hair becomes dry and brittle and is often sparse. The voice may deepen in pitch, and hypoventilation has been observed. Hypothyroid patients can show decreased pulse rate, decreased cardiac stroke volume, and decreased myocar-dial contractility that causes decreased cardiac output. Since peripheral metabolism is slowed, arteriovenous oxygen may not show a...

Role Of Matrix Metalloproteinases Mmps And Their Inhibitors In

As various proteases, cytokines or growth factors, cell-matrix interactions, and altered cell-cell contacts. TGF-Pt is a potent inducer of TIMP-1 and collagen production and inhibitor of MMP-1 through regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis. Several studies have demonstrated that prolonged and continuous TGF-Pt production causes tissue fibrosis by stimulating ECM production and inhibiting degradation by affecting MMP and TIMP production. Alterations in MMP and TIMP production may similarly modulate the tissue fibrosis of the lower extremity in CVI patients. Several investigators have reported that the gelatinases MMP-2 and -9 as well as TIMP-1 are increased in the exudates of patients with venous ulcers compared to acute wounds.70-72 However, analyses of biopsy specimens have demonstrated variable results. Herouy et al. reported that MMP-1, and -2 and TIMP-1 are increased in patients with lipodermatosclerosis compared to normal skin.73 In a subsequent investigation,...

Differential diagnosis

As far as pSS cutaneous involvement is concerned, cutaneous xerosis is an extraordinarily common problem, especially in the elderly, affecting at least 75 of the population aged 64 and older. Moreover, besides from elderly xerosis, pSS xerosis has also to be differentiated from dry skin secondary to underlying malignancy, renal insufficiency, obstructive biliary disease, hypothyroid-ism and idiopathic conditions (Vivino, 2001). Cutaneous vasculitis differential diagnosis includes both secondary vasculitis, due to infective agents, drugs or malignancies, and primary systemic vasculitis (mainly Mixed Crioglobulinaemia) (Gonzalez-Gay et al., 2003). Finally, annular erythema has to be differentiated from sub acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (Katayama et al., 1991).

Dermatitis seborrheic

Dermatitis, seborrheic An extremely common form of eczema that causes scaling around the nose, ears, scalp, mid-chest, and along the eyebrows. There may be psoriasis-like plaques and secondary infection as a result of scratching. It is often misdiagnosed by non-physicians as simply dry skin. However, the flaking caused by this type of dermatitis is not caused by dryness.

Dideoxycytidine ddC See zalcitabine dideoxyinosine ddl See didanosine

People with HIV are usually advised to take a multiple vitamin-mineral supplement that supplies the basic level of nutrients most important to body function. Many nutritionists believe that additional supplements are necessary. Symptoms that may be related to nutrient deficiencies and may be reversible with appropriate supplementation include serious fatigue, memory loss or other cognitive dysfunction, skin problems, neuropathy, weight loss, loss of the senses of smell or taste, appetite loss, muscle pain or cramps, digestive problems, night blindness, canker sores, constipation, depression anxiety, menstrual cramps, and menopausal problems. Many other symptoms in people living with HIV may be related to nutrient deficiencies.

Dermatologys Origins And Future Directions

Despite the growth of dermatologic specialization, primary care physicians are playing an increasing role in the treatment of dermatologic maladies. More than one quarter of Americans seen by their primary care physician have a skin-related complaint, and dermatologic disorders account for 6 of all chief complaints.5 Primary care physicians are becoming more comfortable in treating basic and uncomplicated dermatologic diseases such as acne and fungal infections. (The use of isotretinoin, which can cause birth defects, for the treatment of acne remains within the control of the dermatologists.) Many patients prefer dermatologists for these problems because they can offer patients advice on general skin care as well as prescribe medicine. Some dermatologists welcome the involvement of primary care physicians for basic needs and have consequently shifted

Adverse skin reactions to drugs

Antimalarials are generally well tolerated when compared with other disease-modifying drugs. In terms of cutaneous reactions, antimalarials can induce urticaria, pruritus (Holme et al., 1999), alopecia, hair bleaching, dry skin, pigment changes, rashes, flares of psoriasis, and exfoliating lesions (Vine et al., 1996), as well as a Stevens-Johnsonlike syndrome (Kutz and Bridges, 1995). Most patients continue HCQ therapy in the long term, but 3 discontinue HCQ because of adverse cutaneous reactions (Salido et al., 2002).

Why Consider A Career In Dermatology

Medical students interested in this specialty should not let the extremely competitive nature of the field dissuade them. It is a specialty that can lead to a very rewarding career in medicine. From the wide variety of skin problems to the different types of patients, dermatology is full of diversity. If you are seeking a high-pressured specialty with critically ill patients, then look elsewhere. In dermatology, the results of treatment are very visible and apparent to both the doctor and the patient. Unlike lowering blood pressure or treating diabetes, the effects of treating a skin disorder are obvious it will either go away or stay. Many medical students like this clearly defined aspect of dermatology, which applies to each step in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of skin diseases.

Results of Tendon Reconstruction

Evaluating the results of complex tendon reconstruction is difficult because the variables are too numerous (age of the patient procedures used type of injury accompanying nerve, bone, or vascular injuries and especially associated skin problems). We prefer the Tubiana classification system12 because it is based on proximal inter-phalangeal joint movement, which in our opinion displays the principal effect of the flexor tendon transfer. The arithmetical addition of degrees between extension and flexion compared with the hypothetical maximum amplitude, which does not distinguish between the metacarpophalangeal joint and the proximal inter-phalangeal or the distal interphalangeal joints, seems inadequate for this sort of salvage situation. Metacarpophalangeal joint movement is rarely altered substantially.

Pathways of transdermal delivery

In normal skin, the lipid morphology plays an important role in the barrier function of the stratum corneum.15 For the absorption of macromol-ecules from the skin, the pore size of the skin becomes very important. The effective pore size of ethanol-pretreated human epidermal membrane has been estimated to be between 22 and 54 A.16 Once a drug has crossed the epidermis, it can enter the systemic circulation via the papillary plexus in the upper dermis. Many models assume that this is the end point for percutaneous absorption, but it should be realized that some molecules will bypass the circulation and diffuse deeper into the dermis.12

The effect of MAP on the nutritional quality of fresh fruits and vegetables

Vitamin C is one of the most important vitamins in fruits and vegetables for human nutrition. More than 90 of the vitamin C in human diets is supplied by the intake of fresh fruits and vegetables. Vitamin C is required for the prevention of scurvy and maintenance of healthy skin, gums and blood vessels. Vitamin C, as an antioxidant, reduces the risk of arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and some forms of cancer (Simon, 1992). Ascorbate oxidase has been proposed as the major enzyme responsible for enzymatic degradation of l-ascorbic acid (AA). The oxidation of AA, the active form of vitamin C, to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) does not result in loss of biological activity since DHA is readily reconverted to l-AA in vivo. However, DHA is less stable than AA and may be hydrolysed to 2,3-diketogulonic acid, which does not have physiological activity (Klein, 1987) and it has therefore been suggested that measurements of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables in relation to their...

Common Bioengineering Techniques Erythema Quantification Skin Color Reflectance

The color of the skin, and of any object, depends on the wavelength of the light and the optical characteristics of the surface. Different chromophores, mainly hemoglobin and melanin in healthy skin, absorb different wavelengths of light. Detailed insight into the complex optical principles of the skin and chromophores is provided by Pierard and by Kollias (11,12). Measurement of skin color reflectance is a suitable method for erythema quantification in addition to clinical assessment. It has been applied frequently in the grading of contact dermatitis and irritant and allergic patch-test reactions (13). Its value has also been proven in studies on the vulvar skin with respect to erythema quantification in irritant contact dermatitis (7). Skin color reflectance is especially suitable for serial measurements and also can be used for ethnic skin (14,15). However, the sensitivity of an experienced dermatologist's eye may still be superior to instrumental erythema quantification (12).

Cutaneous Blood Perfusion Laser Doppler Flowmetry

The laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is an excellent noninvasive technique for monitoring cutaneous blood perfusion. As an early indicator of inflammation and changes in the microcirculation, LDF has been applied in many fields of clinical medicine and dermatology in healthy skin as well as in inflammatory diseases (17), and also for research purposes in the vulvar skin (5,8,18,19). Monochromatic, coherent light is emitted onto the skin and reflected at different wavelengths by the tissue and by the moving red blood cells in small vessels. The reflected light is detected photoelectrically and a dimensionless output signal is generated, which is proportional to the red blood cell flow. The signal is then processed in a personal computer, and the perfusion level can be displayed and

Bioengineering Methods Of Assessment

Visual inspection and scoring of vulvar irritation reactions may lack the sensitivity to recognize all cases of vulvar skin irritation, including low-grade dermatitis. The visual scoring system ranges from 0 to 4 normal skin, 0 slight redness, spotty or diffuse, 1 moderate, uniform redness, 2 intense redness, 3 and fiery erythema and edema, 4 (4,16). Various bioengineering instruments have enabled scientists to ascertain the vulva's unique skin characteristics objectively.

Sixth disease See roseola

For example, superfatted soaps contain excess fatty material and leave an oil residue on the skin, which is designed to improve mildness. Transparent soaps contain glycerin and varied amounts of vegetable fats. other soaps may be produced for specific purposes, such as oatmeal soap for skin that tends to break out. The choice of a proper soap demands on the child's age, skin texture, skin problems, and personal needs. All soaps are good at cleansing, but because of age, heredity, climate, and skin texture, there are many different methods of proper skin cleansing.

Perineal Hygiene Among Older Women

Tinea Tinea is a fungal infection of the feet, nails, and vulvar skin folds. Though a rare condition, its prevalence rises in older women because of diminished cellular immune responses (177). The most characteristic presentation is a ring-shaped eruption with an actively advancing border and scaly, healing center. However, any pruritic, scaly eruption of the vulva is suspect it should be scraped for microscopic examination and treated with antifungal therapy, if appropriate. Maintaining dry skin helps prevent this condition. Although no systematic trials exist on the impact of perineal hygiene on skin health, general guidelines have been developed for preventive care (184,185). The focus is on keeping the skin dry, maintaining a healthy skin pH, avoiding mechanical forces, and minimizing contact with urine and feces. The use of specially formulated perineal skin cleansers or disposable wipes is preferred over bar soap and a washcloth. The former avoid the high pH of most soap bars...

Meat and micronutrients 9111 Iron in meat

Thiamin and riboflavin are found in useful amounts in meats. Pork and its products including bacon and ham are one of the richest sources of thiamin. Pork contains approximately 5-10 times as much thiamin as do either beef or lamb. Thiamin aids the supply of energy to the body by working as part of a coenzyme that converts fat and carbohydrates into fuel. It also helps to promote a normal appetite and contributes to normal nervous system function. Typical servings of pork provide all the daily requirement of thiamin. Offal meats are good sources of riboflavin, for example, a single portion (100 g) of kidney or liver provides more than the daily requirement. Riboflavin, like thiamin, aids in supplying energy and also promotes healthy skin, eyes and vision.

Diagnostic investigations

Among the first and most effective measures to be taken are skin care as dryness of the skin should be reduced by avoiding detergent soaps and by application of bath oils. Fingertip ulcerations may heal faster with the use of hydrocolloid membranes. They should be kept clean, which may require intermittent debridement.

Differential Diagnosis of Hyponatremia

Clinically, hyponatremia is often classified into three basic types depending on the ECF status of the patient (Table 11.1). Thus, a careful physical exam to assess the patient's volume status is critical. The exam should note signs of either excess volume (recent weight gain, edema, swelling) or decreased ECF (dry skin and mucous membranes, lack of skin targor, and flat jugular veins). Appropriate laboratory tests to help differentiate the hyponatremia include serum and urine electrolytes, serum and urine osmolality, and thyroid and adrenal hormones.

Eczematous And Papulosquamous Vulvar Dermatoses Contact Dermatitis Irritant andor Allergic

It is essential to restore the normal skin barrier and protect the skin from additional injury. Treatment begins with identification and withdrawal of the offending substance. To prevent recurrence, careful documentation of possible irritants or allergens is necessary. Women with vulvar dermatoses should be patch tested to define or rule out disease-causing agents (11).

The Skin as an Immunologic Organ

Are enclosed within an insoluble amalgam of proteins, crosslinked by transglutaminases and surrounded by a lipid envelope (Candi et al., 2005). Multiple sheets of ceramides and sphingolipids are generated by keratinocytes and discharged into the extracellular space. For this reason, molecules larger than 500 Da cannot easily penetrate into the normal skin, penetration of larger molecules can occur if they are lipophylic or if the skin is damaged (e.g., chronic or acute eczema) (Bos and Meinardi, 2000). The stratum corneum acts also as a biosensor, and can transfer information to the underlying living epidermal cells.

Description Of The Diseases

FIGURE 41.1 Anatomy of the normal skin (reprinted with permission from Wagner and Sohnle, 1995, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8, 317-335, American Society for Microbiology). FIGURE 41.1 Anatomy of the normal skin (reprinted with permission from Wagner and Sohnle, 1995, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8, 317-335, American Society for Microbiology).

Allergic Contact Dermatitis

In order to take into account the vulvar skin's increased permeability to potential allergens, a modified human repeat insult patch test (HRIPT) was developed. Standard patch testing, not repeat insult patch testing, involves the application of possible allergens to the normal skin of the back for two days under occlusion with readings taken at days 2 and 4 (24). The original HRIPT involved nine 24-hour applications of patches with 24-hour rest periods in between during the induction phase. The modified HRIPT increased the cumulative exposure duration by 67 , by increasing the number of applications to fifteen 24-hour patch applications (24 hours daily for five days, for three weeks). This increases the sensitivity of the HRIPT to evaluate sensitization in specialized skin, such as the vulva. It is important to maintain the rest periods in the induction phase to increase the effectiveness of the test. Also, the five-day repeated steps parallel use of some products that contact vulvar...

The Role of Leukocytes

The involvement of leukocytes in CVI pathology requires leukocyte endothelial signaling for the cells to extravasate and enter the dermal tissue. A study evaluating changes in adhesion molecules in patients with severe lipodermatoscle-rosis and active ulceration by immunohistochemistry of biopsies adjacent to ulcerated skin demonstrated that increased expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 was present. In addition, the expression of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 and very late activated antigen-4 was increased dramatically on perivascular leukocytes compared to healthy skin indicating that the upregulation of adhesion molecules in CVI patients are important mediators toward facilitating leukocyte endothelial adhesion, activation, and transendothelial migration.26

Preulcerative Cutaneous Changes

When skin at the border of chronic venous insufficiency is compared to normal skin in the same individual, the strong expression of ICAM-1 is seen in addition to a dense infiltration by T lymphocytes and macrophages. In some instances, the tissue also is infiltrated by an increased number of mast cells.14 This is the typical picture of a chronic inflammatory reaction with an upregulation of endothelial adhesion molecules and dermal infiltration by T lymphocytes and macrophages in the skin of patients with CVI.

Dermal Fibroblast Function

Several studies have reported aberrant phenotypic behavior of fibroblasts isolated from venous ulcer edges when compared to fibroblasts obtained from ipsilateral thigh biopsies of normal skin in the same patients. Hasan et al. compared the ability of venous ulcer fibroblasts to produce I procollagen mRNA and collagen after stimulation with TGF-Pj.63 These authors were not able to demonstrate differences in I procollagen mRNA levels after stimulation with TGF-Pj between venous ulcer fibroblasts and normal fibroblasts (control) from ipsilateral thigh biopsies. However, collagen production was increased by 60 in a dose-dependent manner in controls whereas venous ulcer fibro-blasts were unresponsive. This unresponsiveness was associated with a four-fold decrease in TGF-Pt type II receptors. In a follow-up report, Kim et al. indicated that the decrease in TGF-Pt type II receptors was associated with a decrease in phosphorylation of the TGF-Pt receptor substrates SMAD 2 and 3 as well as p42...

Pseudomonas aeruginosa P pyocyanea A

The cause of psoriasis is unknown, although researchers believe that some type of biochemical stimulus triggers the abnormal cell growth in the skin. While normal skin cells take a month to mature, patients with psoriasis have skin cells that over-multiply, forcing the cells to move up to the

Diseases That Cause Vulvar Pain Vulvar Vestibulitis

Treatment strategies include applying a low-to-moderate-potency topical steroid ointment to decrease the inflammatory response. In addition, following strict vulvar skin care hygiene practices and using lukewarm water soaks of either baking soda or colloidal oatmeal help decrease inflammation and provide symptom relief. For some patients, the addition of oral calcium citrate daily in conjunction with a low-oxalate diet has proven helpful (26). Other non-steroidal options to help decrease the inflammatory response and T-cell function include an immune suppressor such as tacrolimus ointment, but the efficacy has not been documented. Numerous other topical medications have been used, such as estrogen cream and lidocaine gel, and other treatment modalities such as surgery and laser ablation have been employed for treatment as well (27). It is the authors' experience that vulvar vestibulitis disease is self-limiting and, thus, conservative management best serves the patient.

Alterations in Extracellular Remodeling and the Wound Fluid Environment

The abnormalities in structure and healing process seen in lipodermatosclerotic skin have also been attributed to MMP pathophysiology. A study where dermal biopsies were obtained from liposclerotic skin and compared to healthy skin and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, reverse tran-scriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, and zymography found that lipodermatosclerotic skin had increased expression of mRNA and protein for MMP-1, MMP-2, and TIMP-1, and increased levels of active MMP-

Atrophic Vaginitis

Treatment for atrophic vaginitis is estrogen replacement. Intravaginal topical estrogen, either prescribed as vaginal cream or vaginal tablet, is effective. Systemic estrogen replacement, prescribed as either an oral tablet or a topical patch, can also be used. If systemic estrogen replacement is used and the patient still has her uterus, a progestin is also needed. Adhering to strict vulvar skin care hygiene guidelines, as well as using an occlusive, bland dressing to eliminate potential insult to the delicate skin as it heals, are important. Also, lukewarm water soaks can be quite soothing to these women.

Growth Factors

In lipodermatosclerosis, the skin capillaries become elongated and tortuous,73 and may take on a glomerular appearance in more advanced skin changes,74 with proliferation of the capillary endothelium. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an obvious candidate for involvement in these changes, and has been shown to increase microvascular permeability.75 Plasma levels of VEGF increase during the venous hypertension-induced short-term standing in both normal subjects and CVD patients, but are higher in patients than in normal controls.76 Furthermore, plasma VEGF levels are higher in CVD patients with skin changes than in CVD patients with normal skin.77 VEGF also is known to induce the expression of adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-Selectin.78 Both VEGF expression and its receptor expression (Flk-1 KDR) are upregulated under variations of blood shear stress and with the inflammatory reaction.79,80 The level of VEGF increases with the severity of the disease and...


The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism), in iodine-sufficient countries, is approximately one in 4000 births and may be associated with the most severe neuropsychological abnormalities.1 This high incidence has resulted in the institution of neonatal screening programs in many developed countries. Clinical features include feeding problems, hypotonia, umbilical hernia, constipation, enlarged tongue, dry skin, characteristic facies, and open posterior fontanelle. On radiological examination, poor skeletal maturation can be seen as retardation in the appearance of ossification centers. Failure to institute early treatment with thyroid hormone leads to significant brain damage. Even with early therapy, there may still be a residual effect to lower the intelligence quotient.

Diaper rash 147

While babies vary in their susceptibility to diaper rash, skin inflammation in some infants can be severe. In general, breast-fed babies have a lower incidence of diaper rash than bottle-fed babies, and the resistance continues long after the baby has been weaned. In some infants, diaper rash is the first indication of sensitive skin heralding a long series of later skin problems, such as eczema.

Skin Symptoms

In many cases the skin exhibits evidence of exposure to toxic substances. The two main skin characteristics observed as evidence of poisoning are skin color and degree of skin moisture. Excessively dry skin tends to accompany poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants, antihistamines, and belladonna alkaloids. Among the toxic substances for which moist skin is a symptom of poisoning are mercury, arsenic, thallium, carbamates, and organophosphates. The skin appears flushed when the subject has been exposed to toxic doses of carbon monoxide, nitrites, amphetamines, monsodium glutamate, and tricyclic antidepressants. Higher doses of cyanide, carbon monoxide, and nitrites give the skin a cyanotic appearance (blue color due to oxygen deficiency in the blood). Skin may appear jaundiced (yellow because of the presence of bile pigments in the blood) when the subject is poisoned by a number of toxicants, including arsenic, arsine gas (AsH3), iron, aniline dyes, and carbon tetrachloride.


As a child gets older, the location of symptoms tends to change. In infants and young children, the dry skin is usually located on the face, outside of the elbows, and on the knees. In older children and adults, eczema tends to be on the hands and feet, the front of the arms, and on the back of the knees.

Bad to the Bone

A 26-year-old woman with a history of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to Goodpasture's syndrome that was diagnosed 6 years ago, presented to her physician with a 6 week history of worsening skin problems. The patient had been receiving dialysis 3 times per week for 3 years. Additionally, she had been on vitamin D therapy for the past 6 months for suspected renal osteodystrophy. For the past 6 weeks the patient described induration and darkening of the skin on her inner thighs and abdomen, which had progressed. She now had necrotic tissue and decomposition of the eschar of both inner thighs and her abdomen, which were intensely painful. The patient denied any recent fever.


Loss of thermoregulatory control below the level of the lesion is expressed with a cool, dry skin with no evidence of sweating (Chap. 20). However, reflex sweating can occur when a noxious stimulus is applied (e.g., response to the insertion of the needle during a spinal tap). There is loss of voluntary control of the urinary bladder. The urinary bladder can be evacuated by reflex activity such as by appropriate cutaneous stimulation.


Ichthyosis A family of at least 20 rare skin disorders characterized by dry, thickened rough, scaling, darkened skin triggered by too much keratin (the main protein component of skin). This group of genetic diseases ranges from mild generalized dry skin (ichthyosis vulgaris) to severe widespread thickened scaly dry skin (lamellar ichthyosis). The disorder's name is derived from the Greek word ichthus meaning fish because the appearance and condition of the skin resemble fish scales. It affects more than one million Americans.


Specific treatment of itching depends on the underlying cause, but in general cooling lotions such as calamine can ease the itch and irritation of the skin. Emollients can reduce skin drying and ease itching for those with dry skin. Soothing lukewarm baths in colloidal oatmeal or Aveeno bath can ease the itch caused by hives or skin rashes such as chicken pox or poison ivy.

Mast Cell Granules

Sueki et al. (23) used electron microscopy to study punch biopsies of normal skin from black and white men. The study revealed statistically significant structural differences between the mast cells of black versus white skin (Table 10) black skin had larger mast cell granules, increased parallel-linear striations, and increased tryptase localized to parallel-linear striation. Further research should focus on investigating pro-inflammatory mediators and involve a larger participant pool.

Skin Surface pH

In general, the pH value reflects the free hydrogen ion concentration of aqueous solutions. However, as the skin is not an aqueous solution, the surface pH, which is recorded in a semihydrophobic milieu, most likely represents the combined acidity of exposed corneocytes, lipids, and water-soluble compounds (33). The surface pH, which is related to the term acidic mantle of the skin, is influenced by many exogenous and endogenous factors, such as free fatty acid presence on the surface, desiccation, sweating, water content, bacterial count (1), and environmental factors such as temperature and air humidity. Its role has been more understood in recent years. Surface pH has been shown to be regulated by the generation of free fatty acids (34) and itself contributes to the regulation of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis, stratum corneum integrity (35), and antimicrobial defense (34). In healthy skin, pH values range between 4.5 and 6.0, and turns alkaline in the presence of...

Sunscreen Allergies

Some people are allergic to the chemicals contained in sunscreens and can develop a skin rash (especially when using those products containing PABA). But people may also be allergic to other ingredients, such as benzophenone and cinnamate. Children who break out when wearing a sunscreen should consult a dermatologist, who will do a patch test to determine what ingredient is to blame for the rash. Children, in particular, are extremely sensitive to PABA and should use special sunscreens designed for their sensitive skin.

Skin rash

But this defense depends on a functional immune system. when the immune system is suppressed, disorders of the skin may appear. organ transplantation and cancer patients who undergo immunosuppressive therapies may experience skin disorders such as Kaposi's sarcoma or herpes outbreaks. In HIV, lesions, dry skin, and blisters are common early in the course of the infection and may recur or become chronic. Skin diseases in HIV infection include molluscum contagiosum, herpes SIMPLEX VIRUS (HIV), HERPES ZOSTER (shingles), HAIRY leukoplakia, and folliculitis. Viral skin disorders common in HIV-infected people are not ordinarily life-threatening, but they can cause significant pain, illness, and cosmetic frustration. In some cases, viral skin diseases can spread to infect other parts of the body, possibly resulting in life-threatening conditions such as HIV encephalitis. Early detection, prophylaxis, and treatment of skin diseases are recommended. See sallowness skin rash. skin rash...


Histological studies have been used to investigate the biological processes at work in the skin in chronic venous disease. A quantitative histological study has been reported in which three groups of patients were studied.30 The first was a group of patients with no evidence of skin changes as a consequence of their venous disease. The next group exhibited lipodermatosclerosis without a history of ulceration. The third group had healed ulcers with residual lipo-dermatosclerosis. Patients with normal skin had a low number of white blood cells visible (4 per mm2) in the upper 0.5 mm of the skin. There were eight times as many in patients with liposclerotic skin, and 40 times as many in patients with healed venous ulcers. Subsequently an immu-nohistological study was undertaken to determine the types of white cell present in this infiltrate.31 The majority of cells

Anti-Aging Report

Anti-Aging Report

When people generally think about anti-aging, they tend to think about the visible signs of wear and tear, those tell-tale wrinkles, age spots and their developing jowls. No-one wants to get old, let alone feel and look older than their years and anti-aging treatments are becoming so sought after by both men and women that the skincare market is colossal, but what really works?

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