Facial Redness Natural Treatment

Rosacea Free Forever Cure

Laura Taylor, the author of Rosacea Free Forever is an Alternative Medical Practicioner and Researcher and was also a long term sufferer of chronic Rosacea. After a 12 year battle with Rosacea, she became frustrated at the lack of straightforward, simple and honest information available and so took the decision to write this book. Laura Taylor teaches you how to intake proper amounts of lysine that is an amino acid that servers as an anti-inflammatory agent, and how to adjust your diet with certain foods and supplements in order that you can get rid of rosacea permanently and in the fastest way possible. You will also learn how to take hydrochloric acid properly and where to find hydrochloric acid. I have spent such a long time researching and experimenting with Rosacea treatments. The techniques in Rosacea Free Forever DO work and if you spent a little time trying to implement everything then you will find relief from your Rosacea. Read more...

Rosacea Free Forever Overview


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Photosensitivity in Lupus Erythematosus

Lupus erythematosus (LE) represents an autoimmune disease with great clinical variability in which photosensitivity is a common feature for all forms and subsets. Cutaneous LE lesions often arise in sun-exposed areas and it is well reported and recognized that sun exposure may also exacerbate or induce systemic manifestations of this disease (Dubois and Tuffanelli, 1964 Nived et al., 1993 White and Rosen, 2003). The original concept of photosensitivity in LE dates back to the first description by Cazenave (1851) and early observations since the beginning of the 19th century, where the role of environmental factors were related to disease activity and even induction of the disease. Of the different external factors that have detrimental effects on disease activity, the sun's radiation has been best studied. Hutchinson (1888) reported in his Harveian Lectures on Lupus, that patients with LE did not tolerate the sun. The term ''Lupus erythematosus subacutus'' was first described by Fuhs...

Choice of CLE measures 721 Erythema

The CLASI, the PASI, the DSSI and many other clinical instruments depend heavily on the assessment of erythema when activity of the diseases is measured. This is quite reasonable since erythema is a prominent symptom that is easily recognized by patients and physicians alike other symptoms like minor scaling and non-scarring diffuse alopecia may escape notice more easily. Physiologically, erythema is one of the most clear-cut symptoms of disease activity because it is a direct reflection of the hyperemia, which accompanies inflammation, and it can be assessed on black skin. Lahti et al. (1993) correlated the clinical assessment of erythema by the trained eye to assessment determined by a laser Doppler flowmeter, an erythema meter and a chromameter. Their findings indicate that visual assessments correspond well with those determined by these objective techniques. Other studies using laser Doppler techniques and visual assessments of erythema have yielded similar results (Quinn et al.,...

Common Bioengineering Techniques Erythema Quantification Skin Color Reflectance

The color of the skin, and of any object, depends on the wavelength of the light and the optical characteristics of the surface. Different chromophores, mainly hemoglobin and melanin in healthy skin, absorb different wavelengths of light. Detailed insight into the complex optical principles of the skin and chromophores is provided by Pierard and by Kollias (11,12). Measurement of skin color reflectance is a suitable method for erythema quantification in addition to clinical assessment. It has been applied frequently in the grading of contact dermatitis and irritant and allergic patch-test reactions (13). Its value has also been proven in studies on the vulvar skin with respect to erythema quantification in irritant contact dermatitis (7). Skin color reflectance is especially suitable for serial measurements and also can be used for ethnic skin (14,15). However, the sensitivity of an experienced dermatologist's eye may still be superior to instrumental erythema quantification (12).

Acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

Lesions Face Aids

Acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (ACLE) usually occurs in association with systemic manifestations preceding by weeks or months the onset of a multisystem disease (Watanabe and Tsuchida, There are localized and generalized manifestations of ACLE (Costner et al., 2003 Fabbri et al., 2003). The localized form commonly presents as the classic malar rash'' or ''butterfly rash'' on the central portion of the face and may only affect the skin transiently. Therefore, at the onset of disease, the patient may mistake this rash for sunburn. It usually begins with small, discrete erythematous macules and papules, occasionally associated with fine scales and gradually becomes confluent and hyperkeratotic. Facial swelling may be severe in some patients with ACLE however, it mostly disappears without scarring and pigmentation (Norden et al., 1993 Yell et al., 1996). Similar lesions have also been found to occur on the forehead, the V-area of the neck, the upper limbs, and the trunk. In addition,...

Lupus Erythematosus

A premenstrual exacerbation of the cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythema-tosus (LE) was described in 25 of patients with systemic LE (34) and in 13 to 16 of patients with discoid LE (34,35). There are several indications that estrogen is an important cofactor for the development or exacerbation of LE. This is corroborated by the facts that the disorder affects females predominantly, that it is well known that estrogen-containing oral contraceptives may cause an exacerbation, as well as by the described association of LE with Klinefelter syndrome. In an in vitro study, the administration of estrogen was shown to lead to an upregulation of the binding capacity of antiRo SSA antibodies to keratinocytes (34).

Differential diagnosis

As far as pSS cutaneous involvement is concerned, cutaneous xerosis is an extraordinarily common problem, especially in the elderly, affecting at least 75 of the population aged 64 and older. Moreover, besides from elderly xerosis, pSS xerosis has also to be differentiated from dry skin secondary to underlying malignancy, renal insufficiency, obstructive biliary disease, hypothyroid-ism and idiopathic conditions (Vivino, 2001). Cutaneous vasculitis differential diagnosis includes both secondary vasculitis, due to infective agents, drugs or malignancies, and primary systemic vasculitis (mainly Mixed Crioglobulinaemia) (Gonzalez-Gay et al., 2003). Finally, annular erythema has to be differentiated from sub acute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (Katayama et al., 1991).

Churg Strauss syndrome

Skin lesions have been reported maculopapules resembling erythema multiforme, ulcerations, live-do reticularis, patchy and migratory urticarial rashes, nail-fold infarctions with splinter hemorrhages, deep pannicular vasculitis and facial edema (Davis et al., 1997 Schwartz and Churg, 1992).

Wegeners granulomatosis

Skin lesions occur in 10-50 of the patients (see Table 4), at some time during the course of the disease (Anderson et al., 1992 Brandwein et al., 1983 Daoud et al., 1994 de Groot et al., 2001a Fauci et al., 1983 Guillevin et al., 1997 Hoffman et al., 1992 Koldingsnes and Nossent, 2003 Lie, 1997 Reinhold-Keller et al., 2000 Stone, 2003 Walton, 1958). They may be present at disease onset in about 10 of the patients and, exceptionally as the presenting symptom (Frances et al., 1994 Hoffman et al., 1992). Palpable purpura of the lower extremities is undoubtedly the most frequent cutaneous manifestation. Necrotic papules on the extensor surfaces of the limbs are less frequent but more suggestive of WG. Occasionally, they can resemble erythema elevatum diutinum and may be associated with IgA paraproteinemia. Nodules are frequent, mainly on the limbs. Extensive and painful cutaneous ulcerations may precede by several weeks to several years other systemic manifestations. Ulcers are sometimes...

Calcineurin inhibitors

Agent in many kinds of organ transplantations (Starzl et al., 1989 Wong et al., 2005). However, the experience with the systemic use of tacrolimus in autoimmune diseases is limited to some severe cases in which 'all other medications' have been tried unsuccessfully. In the 1990s, tacrolimus was also introduced as a topical agent producing favourable results in various skin disorders (Ruzicka et al., 1999). Meanwhile, safety and efficacy data of the topical formulation are available for more than 10 years from at least 20,000 cases worldwide (Assmann et al., 2001 Gupta et al., 2002). Tacro-limus ointment is generally well tolerated and all studies have shown a very good safety profile. The most common side effects are the sensation of skin burning and pruritus at the site of application, which are mostly of short duration and of mild or moderate severity. Sometimes, its application also leads to local erythema, skin infections, and, in rare cases, to flu-like symptoms and headache. In...

Differential diagnosis of papulosquamous SCLE

Sarcoid Lupus Pernio

Psoriasis vs papulosquamous SCLE Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by the presence of erythematous scaling plaques that in some cases can resemble SCLE. Differential features are a thicker scaling, with a silvery, micaceous appearance (Fig. 9) and a different distribution of psoriasis plaques that predominantly affect the elbows, knees, and the scalp, with no tendency to photodistribution. 3.3.2. Polymorphic light eruption vs papulosquamous SCLE Polymorphic light eruption represents the most common form of idiopathic photosensitivity disorder. It presents with a pruritic eruption with a variety of dermatologic expressions (erythematous papules, vescicles, or plaques) appearing on sun-exposed areas, mainly the extensor surfaces of the forearms and chest, less frequently also on the legs Figure 9. Psoriasis typical erythematous plaque with silvery white scaling. Figure 9. Psoriasis typical erythematous plaque with silvery white scaling. When appearing as...

Differential diagnosis of localized ACLE

Pictures Target Lesions

The diseases, which we may consider in the differential diagnosis with localized ACLE, are acne rosacea, contact dermatitis and photodermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, dermatomyositis, erysipelas, and delusion of lupus. 2.3.1. Acne rosacea vs ACLE In its early stages, rosacea may present with a purely erythematous rash on the malar areas that can be very similar to ACLE. The rash may be triggered or aggravated by heat, cold, emotions, and by the ingestion of hot drinks, alcohol, and spicy foods. Differentiating early rosacea from ACLE only on the basis of the dermatologic evaluation may be very difficult, and therefore the clinical background has to be evaluated because ACLE patients almost always have an active systemic disease. Over time, a diffuse network of telangiectases may present on the erythematous background, which is characteristic of acne rosacea nonetheless in patients with SLE who have long been treated with systemic steroids, the atrophy of the skin overlying the malar...

Dermatologie aspects of Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

Palmar or plantar erythema was evaluated systematically by the attending physicians and confirmed by a senior dermatologist. Dermatologie manifestations were present in 49 of our patients, and a dermatologic manifestation was the presenting symptom in 30.5 of cases (Frances et al., 2005). Prevalence was similar in both the primary APS (45 ) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS (53 ).

Local corticosteroids

Initial treatment usually includes daily application of a formulation containing a medium strength topical corticosteroid (e.g., triamcinolone ace-tonide 0.1 ). If this does not provide adequate relief, a more potent topical corticosteroid such as clobetasol propionate 0.05 , betamethasone dipropionate 0.05 , diflorasone diacetate 0.05 , or amcinonide 0.1 can be tried. Daily application of these products to lesional skin for 2 weeks followed by a 2-week rest period of treatment can lessen the risk of local complications such as steroid-atrophy and telangiectasia. Cutaneous LE represents one the very few clinical situations where such potent topical fluorinated corticosteroids can be recommended for use on atrophy-prone areas such as the face, since the alternatives are disfiguring skin disease or risk of side effects from systemic therapy. Unfortunately, topical cortico-steroids alone do not provide adequate improvement for the large majority of SCLE patients. Most SCLE patients'...

Main clinical cutaneous manifestations

Polyarteritis Nodosa

The spectrum of clinical vasculitis-related lesions is wide and includes erythema, purpura, papules, pustules, nodules, livedo, necrosis, ulcerations and or bullae. These different lesions are often associated, giving rise to a pleomorphic clinical picture, that is not specific to any of the systemic vasculitides, granulomatous or otherwise. Urticarial vasculitis is characterized by the presence of wheals, which persist for 2-3 days, unlike ordinary urticaria that disappear within 24 h. Pruritus is less intense. Urticaria may evolve into purpuric lesions. They are mainly localized on the trunk and the limbs. Some of them may have a chronic evolution, resembling erythema elevatum diutinum. Pustular vasculitis is another possibility but less frequent, non-follicular, with underlying erythema and usually results from secondary infection of necrotic lesions.

Microscopic polyangiitis

Skin manifestations occur in 30-60 of patients (Lhote et al., 1998 Penas et al., 1996). Maculo-papular purpuric lesions of the lower limbs are the most frequent skin manifestations. However, other lesions have been described, such as mouth ulcers, vesicles, necrosis, ulcerations, nodules, splinter hemorrhages, livedo, hand and or finger erythema, and facial edema (Homas et al., 1992 Seishima et al., 2004). Leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the small vessels of the dermis is usually observed. Sometimes, arterioles or smaller vessels of the deep dermis and subcutis are also involved, thereby explaining the nodular appearance of some skin lesions. In one patient, vasculitis was associated with eosinophilic panniculitis (Penas et al., 1996). Usually, all these cutaneous lesions disappear rapidly under treatment, but relapses are frequent.

Clinical manifestations

Tissue, by modulating the adherence of microorganisms (Soto-Rojas and Kraus, 2002). The main consequence of hyposalivation is the constant feeling of dry mouth (xerostomia), with a wide spectrum of subjective symptoms, varying from burning mouth to difficulties while swallowing and chewing dry foods, sensitivity to spicy foods, altered taste, speech difficulties and increased liquid intake. Dryness of the mouth is the most common complaint in pSS patients, reported by 98 and assessed as moderate to severe in 90 of the cases (Lundstrom and Lundstrom, 1995). Dental decay, in the border of teeth as well as in radicular sites, and oral infections are also commonly observed and oral mucosa may appear affected by recurrent mucositis, and ulcers (Soto-Rojas and Kraus, 2002). Mucosal changes may also include dry, cracked lips and alterations of the tongue surface, which may become furrowed and deep fissured (Soto-Rojas and Kraus, 2002). Chronic erythematous candidiasis has been described in...

Separate measurements of disease activity and damage

As described above, the CLASI has two scores. It is designed as a table where the rows denote anatomical areas, while the columns score major clinical symptoms (see Fig. 1). The left side of the instrument describes the activity of the disease, while the right side describes the damage done by the disease. Activity is scored as a summary score of erythema, scale hypertrophy, mucous-membrane involvement, acute hair loss and non-scarring alopecia. Damage is scored in terms of dyspigmentation and scarring, including scarring alopecia. Patients are asked whether dyspigmen-tation due to CLE lesions usually remains visible for more than 12 months, which is taken to be permanent. If so, the dyspigmentation score is doubled. The scores are calculated by simple addition based on the extent of the symptoms. The extent of involvement for each of the skin symptoms is documented according to specific anatomic areas that are scored according to the worst affected lesion within that area for each...


The etiology of SSc still remains obscure. Certain features like lymphocytic infiltration in the skin, antinuclear antibodies, and the occurrence of overlap syndromes with lupus erythematodes, der-matomyositis or Sjogren's syndrome point toward an autoimmune pathogenesis. Several disease models hypothesize, that genetically predisposed Swelling of fingers and hands appearing early during the disease usually begins distally in the extremities and advances proximally extending to the forearms, feet, lower legs, and face usually not affecting the lower extremities. The edematous stage can last for months or even years. The edema may be accompanied by erythema. After these initial changes, the skin thickens and will show more induration. The speed of disease progression varies greatly between patients.

Other laboratory features

Annular SCLE lesions in Caucasians have a tendency to become depigmented in their inactive centeral areas resulting from damage to the pigment cell compartment that occurs as a result of the interface dermatitis that is seen in this setting. However, other types of cutaneous annular erythema reactions show either postinflammatory hyperpigmentation at the inactive center of lesions or no pigmentary disturbance at all. Annular SCLE Tinea incognito Granuloma annulare Erythema multiforme Rowell's syndrome Erythema annular centrifugum Erythema gyratum repans SCLE only rarely affects the upper eyelids and periorbital areas that are especially targeted by dermatomyositis (i.e., heliotrope erythema). Gottron's papules and grossly visible finger nailfold telangiectasias do not occur in SCLE to the extent and prominence that they are seen in cutaneous dermatomyositis.

Cutaneous vasculitis

Cutaneous vasculitis (CV), a complication seen in approximately 5-15 of patients with RA, is associated with positive, often high-titer, RF, anti-endothelial antibodies of IgA class, anti-Ro and anti-cardiolipin antibodies, advanced erosive disease, and increased patient morbidity and mortality (Quismorio et al., 1983 Ziff, 1990 Coremans et al., 1992). CV should be suspected in advanced disease associated with fever, weight loss, and fatigue (Fig. 4). CV can be present without active joint disease. Frequently, other extra-articular features are present like episcleritis, pleural, and peri-cardial effusions, a raised ESR, a low serum albumin, and sometimes liver enzymes disturbances (Harris Jr., 1994). The most frequently observed features are chronic deep-skin ulcers and nailfold lesions. The latter occur in about 5 of patients and are not associated with a worse prognosis. The clinical implication is that the primary joint inflammatory process is poorly controlled. Manifestations are...

Diagnostic criteria

Mucous membrane changes (i.e. injected or fissured lips, diffuse erythema of oropharyn-geal mucosa) 5. extremity changes (e.g. erythema of palms and soles, edema of the hands and feet, and per-iungueal digital peeling). changes of the extremities peripheral edema and erythema, periungueal desquamation An erythematous rash usually appears within 5 days from the onset of fever. It may take various forms the most common is a non-specific, diffuse maculopapular eruption. Occasionally are urtic-arial exanthema, scarlet-like rash, and even ery-throderma. The rash usually is extensive, with involvement of the trunk and extremities and accentuation in the perineal region, where early desquamation may occur (Fig. 4). Figure 4. Erythematous rash of the abdomen with accentuation in the perineal region. Figure 4. Erythematous rash of the abdomen with accentuation in the perineal region. Peripheral Extremity changes include reddish erythema of the palms and soles that is often accompanied by...

Richard D Sontheimer

Gilliam initially hypothesized that patients who present with a widespread, non-scarring, pho-tosensitive photo-inducible SCLE skin lesions might share common clinical, pathological, laboratory, and immunogenetic features and thereby represent a distinctive subset of LE (Gilliam, 1977). It was not that Dr. Gilliam was the first to observe and describe SCLE skin lesions. Patients exhibiting such lesions appear to have previously been discussed under various designations in the historical literature including lupus marginatus'' (Hutchinson-1880), ''symmetrical erythema cent-rifigum (Brocq-1925), and disseminated discoid LE (O'Leary-1934). Other designations that have been used for annular SCLE include ''autoimmune annular erythema'' and ''lupus erythematosus gyratus repens''. Papulosquamous SCLE has also been referred to alternatively as ''psoriasiform LE and pityriasiform LE. The designation ''maculopapular photosensitive LE'' has been used by some rheumatologists to describe what...


Reactions at the injection site (Bendele et al., 1999) (Fig. 7). Such reactions were the most frequent adverse events, and their frequency and severity increased with increasing doses of anakinra. Following adjustment for drug exposure time, the frequency of injection site reactions (ISRs) was 0.82 per patient-year of exposure in the placebo group (first 24 weeks) and 1.01, 2.43, and 3.73 for the 30 mg, 75 mg, and 150 mg doses of anakinra, respectively (long-term rates) (Riente, 2004). The most common symptoms and signs at the injection site were erythema, pruritus, and rash. The most relevant histopathological findings include dermal oedema and a lichenoid, perivascular predominantly lymphomononuclear infiltrate, with many eosinophils and the presence of enlarged CD68 + macrophages (Vila et al., 2005).

Polyarteritis Nodosa

Skin lesions have been reported in approximately 25-60 of patients with systemic PAN as reported in Table 2, but less frequently in those older than 65 years (Cohen et al., 1995 Fortin et al., 1995 Guillevin et al., 1985, 1995b Leib et al., 1979 Puisieux et al., 1997). Indeed, a common cutaneous finding is palpable purpura corresponding to subcutaneous small vessel vasculitis, in association with medium-sized vessel involvement. Nodules (8-27 ), ulcerations and livedo are less frequent (Leib et al., 1979). Although the Chapel Hill Nomenclature distinguishes large, medium-sized and small vessel vasculitides, it also recognizes some overlap forms, e.g., PAN with some, but not predominant, involvement of small vessels, especially in skin biopsies (ANCA Workshop, Birmingham, UK, 1998, unpublished revised version of the Nomenclature). Convenient threshold defining small vessel vasculitis has been set for nerve biopsies, around 50-70 mm in diameter for affected epineurial arteries and vasa...

DNA repair and repair fidelity in metastatic variants

The recognition and repair of DNA damage occurs before the cells enter the S-phase of the cell cycle and cells are held in the G phase until the repair process is completed. This checkpoint control is exercised by the nuclear phosphoprotein p53 whose levels increase when any damage to the DNA is sustained (see page 28). Defects in DNA damage repair are often encountered, e.g. as seen in the human autosomal recessive disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), which are defective in their ability to repair u.v.-induced DNA damage (Lehmann and Norris, 1989). Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is another example of an autosomal recessive syndrome comprising progressive cerebellar degeneration, oculocutaneous telangiectasias and immune deficiencies. AT patients show high cancer incidence (Swift et al., 1991). Cell lines isolated from AT patients show hypersensitivity to ionising radiation and to radiomimetic agents this is believed to be due to defective DNA repair (Painter and Young, 1980). All the...

GADD genes and their regulation by p53

Zhan et al. (1995) compared the response of GADD45, wafl cipl and mdm2 to ionising radiation (IR) in a panel of human cell lines. All three genes showed similar levels of transcriptional response to IR and the response was p53-dependent radiosensitisers enhanced and caffeine inhibited GADD45 and wafl cipl induction by IR. GADD45 and wafl cipl also showed similar growth suppressive effects. In ataxia telangiectasia cells, where p53 induction by exposure to radiation is delayed, the transcription of GADD45 and wafl cipl is also delayed (Artuso et al., 1995). Wild-type p53 may also modify the expression of other negative growth regulators. The mitogenic signal provided by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is inhibited by IGF-binding protein 3 0GF-BP3) and it would appear that wild-type, but not mutant, p53 can induce the expression of IGF-BP3 (Buckbinder et al., 1995).

Neuropathy Secondary to Inflammation

Several lines of investigation support a neuropathic etiology for VVS. Consistent with other neuropathic pain syndromes, thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimuli are lowered in VVS patients (4,5,22). The affected tissue is hyperalgesic to thermal, tactile, and pressure stimuli, sometimes involving a hyperpathic after pain that lasts for minutes after removal of the stimulus (5). Neuronal hyperplasia is observed in the most afflicted areas of the vestibular tissue (20,23,24). Neurochemical characterization of these free nerve endings indicates that they are nociceptors responsible for transmitting noxious stimuli to the brain (25). Doppler perfusion imaging has revealed heightened erythema and increased superficial blood flow in the posterior vestibule of VVS patients, which suggests either the presence of classic inflammation or neurogenically induced vasodilation (26).

Injection Of Sclerosants

Concentrations of sclerosants used for telangiectasias are less than those used for reticular veins. Typically the solutions are not foamed. We now prefer to use 72 glycerine for the telangiectasias of a telangiectatic web-reticular vein complex (see Table 14.1). When sclerosing solutions are injected into telangiectasia, blood usually is flushed out of the vessel ahead of the solution, thus the sclerosant usually is not diluted at all. For this reason, the initial treatment of telangiectatic webs begins with the minimal effective concentration of sclerosant.8 At the next visit, the same concentration is used if sclerosis was effective, and a higher concentration is used if sclerosis was ineffective. The injection of telangiectasias is performed very slowly, with minimal pressure on the syringe. A few drops of sclerosant are sufficient to fill the vein and maintain contact with the vessel wall for 10 to 15 seconds. The amount infused is approximately 0.1 cc to 0.2 cc per site, and...

Laser Treatment Systems

A new yellow light laser employing a copper bromide medium has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment or red lower extremity telangiectasia that are less than 2 mm in size. An average of 1.7 patient sessions produced significant clearing of 75 to 100 in 71.8 of patients. The positive results have been confined to the treatment of red vessels (1 mm).10

Administering Laser Therapy

When using the 532 nm KTP laser in the treatment of smaller telangiectasias, a spot size of 3-5 mm, fluence of 12-20 J cm2, and a pulse duration of 10-15 is recommended. Skin cooling, as discussed earlier in the chapter, should be used before, during, and after treatment to prevent thermal damage to surrounding tissues and decrease patient discomfort. Laser pulses should then be applied individually, separated by at least 1-2 mm. Each laser pulse should be traced along the length of the vein with no overlap or double pulse. A minimal amount of pressure with the application device should be applied to avoid compression of the selected target vessel. The goal of treatment should be either vessel spasm with immediate clearance or thrombosis with darkening of the vessel. Typically patients require two to three treatment sessions with 6- to 12-week nontreatment intervals because of the intense cytokine release generated by the laser endothelial interaction for maximal results. However,...

Carcinoid Syndrome and Carcinoid Tumors

Carcinoid syndrome is a rare complication of carcinoid tumors found in < 10 of patients.6 The syndrome is most commonly characterized by hot red flushing of the face and diarrhea, but additional symptoms may include abdominal pain (longstanding), sweating, wheezing, pellagra, telangiectasia, right-sided heart failure, and hypotension.1 Flushing has been attributed to tumor production of kallikreins, proteins that cleave plasma kininogens and activate the strong vasodilator bradykinin.7 Diarrhea is likely due to increased 5-HT, which stimulates intestinal motility and inhibits intestinal absorption.7 EC cells in the midgut normally convert small amounts of the amino acid tryptophan into 5-HT (< 1 of bioavailable) however, in the case of a patient with carcinoid syndome, as much of 60 of the total bioavailable tryptophan may be converted to 5-HT.8 This overproduction of 5-HT causes diarrhea when released locally by tumors in the midgut, but can also be responsible for other symptoms...

History And Physical Examination

Pathognomonic for this condition is heel pain that is worst with the first step out of bed in the morning. In severe cases, the pain is sharp and can radiate proximally with an electric-like sensation. During the course of the day, the pain typically decreases with activity only to be re-aggravated after prolonged sitting, standing, or walking long distances. Any sudden changes in weight, exercise, running terrain, or mileage should also be noted. On physical examination, some swelling about the heel in the absence of erythema or warmth may be noted. Other findings may include the following

Effect of Anatomical Site

The labia majora were less responsive than the upper arm to all applied materials (Figs. 4A and B). On the labia majora, menses and venous blood elicited no significant erythema at either time point SLS, the irritant control, elicited significant, mild erythema (0.6 + 0.08 and 1.2 + 0.15 at 24 and 48 hours, respectively). On the upper arm, menses and venous blood elicited mild erythema at the 48-hour time point only (Fig. 4B 0.7 + 0.14 and 1.1 + 0.14, respectively). SLS elicited moderate to severe erythema at both the 24- and 48-hour time points (Figs. 4A and B 2.3 + 0.09 and 3.4 + 0.14, respectively). Mean scores to SLS on the arm were three- to four-fold higher than those observed on the labia this is consistent with prior reports that the arm is more susceptible to SLS-induced skin irritation than the labia (27,30).

Thrombotic Complications

After a DVT, clinical symptoms of the post-thrombotic syndrome increase over time. At eight years follow-up, post-thrombotic symptoms are observed in approximately 70 of patients with or without IVC filter placement.15 Given the high rate of post-thrombotic complications in patients with VTE, recurrent symptoms of discomfort, erythema, edema, and increased warmth are not uncommon. If recurrent deep venous thrombosis is suspected, patients should undergo further evaluation. Imaging with venous duplex ultrasound or venogram may be used to determine whether the patient has had proximal or distal propagation of existing thrombus or recurrent DVT in a new venous segment. In some cases determining the age or chronicity of the thrombus is difficult. In this setting D-dimer measurement may assist in making this determination. Compression stockings are recommended following a DVT with or without IVC filter placement to decrease the risk of post-thrombotic syndrome symptoms.

Neurocutaneous syndromes

Neurocutaneous syndromes A group of genetic neurological skin disorders affecting the brain, spine, and peripheral nerves that can cause tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin, and skeletal bones. The most common syndromes involving children include neurofibromatosis, sturge-weber syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, ataxia-telangiectasia, and von hippel-lindau disease.

Blood Vessel Reactivity

Several studies have investigated racial blood vessel reactivity as an assessment of skin physiology, irritation, evaluation of dermatologie pathology treatments, effects and delivery of drugs, and wound healing. Earlier evaluation of cutaneous microcirculation depended on visual scoring to assess erythema or pallor (blanching), which has been proven to be unreliable. Two techniques, laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and photoplethysmography (PPG), can measure cutaneous blood flow. LDV has been utilized in skin physiology research, diagnostics, predictive testing of irritancy of substances (cosmetics, cleansing agents, topical medications, etc.), and cutaneous effects of drugs. PPG has been applied to skin physiology studies, dermatological disorders, and systemic diseases (16,17).

Clinical Observations

Qualitatively, it has been noted that vulvar appearance in dark-skinned blacks and Hispanics is somewhat different from fair-skinned patients with atopic dermatitis and neurodermatitis (7). The erythema is masked by the dark skin color, leading examiners to underestimate the severity of the inflammatory process. Lichenification is often exaggerated and postinflammatory hyper-pigmentation is always present (24). Wesley and Maibach (2) concluded that differences exist, but that much remains to be done to clarify extent, mechanisms, and clinical relevance.

Gaggtatatatatacgttc Ctccat Atatatgcaag

Why should a defect in DNA repair cause cancer If you have an error-prone system for replicating DNA, one that cannot repair the occasional errors made during replication or spontaneous damage to DNA, every round of replication is a potentially mutagenic event. Every round of replication gives you a chance to lose another tumor suppressor gene by mutation. Every round of replication makes the loss of control of cell division more inevitable. If DNA repair defects really make a cell susceptible to cancer, shouldn't defects in other repair systems also make cells more cancer prone Yes Indeed, there are a number of human diseases in which individuals who are demonstrably repair defective are highly cancer prone, including xeroderma pigmentosa, Bloom syndrome, ataxia telangiectasia, and Fanconi anemia. Each of these disorders results from homozygosity (or compound heterozygosity) for inherited recessive mutations in genes required for various aspects of DNA repair. For example, patients...

Bioengineering Methods Of Assessment

Visual inspection and scoring of vulvar irritation reactions may lack the sensitivity to recognize all cases of vulvar skin irritation, including low-grade dermatitis. The visual scoring system ranges from 0 to 4 normal skin, 0 slight redness, spotty or diffuse, 1 moderate, uniform redness, 2 intense redness, 3 and fiery erythema and edema, 4 (4,16). Various bioengineering instruments have enabled scientists to ascertain the vulva's unique skin characteristics objectively.

Smooth Muscle Cell Recruitment Growth and Differentiation

The multifunctional cytokine TGF-01 promotes vessel maturation by stimulating ECM production and by inducing differentiation of mesenchymal cells to mural cells (Pepper 1997 Chambers et al. 2003). It is expressed in a number of different cell types, including endothelial and peri-endothelial cells and, depending on the context and concentration, both pro- and anti-angiogenic properties have been ascribed to TGF-01 (Gohongi et al. 1999). Gene targeting studies in mice underscore the importance of TGF-01, its receptors (RI, RII and endoglin) and the downstream signalling molecules activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-1 and ALK-5 in the initial phases of resolution and maturation of angiogenesis (Pepper 1997 Weinstein et al. 2000). Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), which is characterised by telangiectasia and arterio-venous malformations, has been associated with loss-of-function mutations of endoglin (HHT-1) and ALK-1 (HHT-2, Begbie et al. 2003). However, the precise...

Symptoms of Alcoholic Liver Disease

Ascites Ascites in alcoholic cirrhotics is due both to obstruction of hepatic lymphatic flow and to avid renal retention of sodium. Sodium retention arises because of marked peripheral vasodilation with a hyperdynamic circulation, high cardiac output, and low peripheral vascular resistance this situation leads to contraction of the central plasma volume.10 Spider angiomata and palmar erythema are probably manifestations of the peripheral arterial vasodilation. Reduced renal blood flow stimulates renin and aldosterone production, and despite total body sodium overload, very little sodium is excreted. Because renal cortical blood flow is maintained by prostaglandins, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen), which inhibit cyclo-oxygenase, can lead to functional renal failure (the so-called hepatorenal syndrome) and exacerbation of sodium retention, and thus cause or worsen ascites.

Effects Of Menses And Venous Blood On The Skin

Patch test of menses and venous blood on the labia majora and on the upper arm in 20 women volunteers (24). Compositional differences between blood and menses (e.g., proteinase content) (25) and anatomical differences in irritant susceptibility (26,27) could affect the erythema response. In brief, physiologic saline (non-irritant control), aqueous sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS, 0.6 weight volume, irritant control), and each volunteer's own venous blood and menses (collected overnight with an intravaginal cup) (0.3 mL each) were applied for two, consecutive 24-hour periods to the lateral labia majora (randomized across two clipped sites on each labium) and to the upper arm (randomized across five sites per arm). Occlusive patches were applied to the labia and to one upper arm semi-occlusive patches were applied to the alternate arm. The fifth site on each arm was pretreated with a proprietary, petrolatum-based emollient prior to menses application. A standard five-point erythema scale...

Perineal Hygiene Among Older Women

Intertrigo and vulvar folliculitis Intertrigo is an inflammation of the genitocrural folds, the labia, and the perineum sometimes seen in older or morbidly obese women (176). It manifests with erythema and excessive moisture. Vulvar folliculitis presents as red, tender papules surrounding the hair follicles and may be associated with staphylococcal and streptococcal infection. Both conditions result from impaired ability to maintain adequate hygiene. Hygienic interventions and maintaining skin dryness are indicated treatments. Incontinence dermatitis in older people begins with mild erythema of the skin, then progresses to an intense red appearance, often accompanied by blistering, erosion, and serous exudates. In darker skin, the initial inflammation reaction may be more difficult to detect. With urinary incontinence, dermatitis begins between the labial folds dermatitis associated with fecal incontinence originates in the perianal area and progresses to the posterior aspect of the...

Contact Dermatitis of the Vulva

Swollen Vaginal Labia

On examination, the vulvar vaginal area has uniform, symmetrical, and well-demarcated erythema, with or without edema (Figs. 2-4). Treatment for contact dermatitis of the vulva requires that the patient follow strict vulvar hygiene guidelines. This includes removing all contact irritants and exposure to chemicals such as laundry products and personal hygiene products. It is also important to decrease friction to the vulvar skin by avoiding Figure 2 Contact dermatitis uniform, well-demarcated erythema of the labia majora and labia minora. (See color insert pp. 4 and 5.) Figure 2 Contact dermatitis uniform, well-demarcated erythema of the labia majora and labia minora. (See color insert pp. 4 and 5.) Figure 3 Contact dermatitis uniform erythema and edema of the labia minora and intro-itus (same patient as in Fig. 2). (See color insert pp. 4 and 5.) Figure 3 Contact dermatitis uniform erythema and edema of the labia minora and intro-itus (same patient as in Fig. 2). (See color insert pp....

Glycerine Telangietacsia

Telangiectasias 0.2-1 mm Telangiectasias 0.2-1 mm TABLE 14.1 Sclerosant Concentrations for Telangiectasia and Reticular Veins For glycerine injection, the telangiectasia are filled with solution and the injection is stopped. Glycerine has the least risk of causing subsequent matting or pigmentation.11 When detergent sclerosants are used, small volumes and small areas of short duration blanching are still important to minimize side effects such as telangiectatic matting. Sometimes there is no blanching at the site of injection, but the scleros-ing solution flows easily through the telangiectasia or can even be seen flowing through adjacent telangiectasias or reticular veins several centimeters away from the injection site. In this case the injection is stopped after no more than 0.5 cc of sclerosant has been injected. Immediately after injection, the treated area is gently massaged in the desired direction of further spread of sclerosant. We strongly recommend against the use of...

Examples of iontophoretic delivery of therapeutic peptides

Vasopressin, a nonapeptide antidiuretic hormone, and its analogues have been investigated for its transdermal iontophoretic delivery across skin.105-109 Unlike some other drugs, such as insulin, the enhanced flux of vasopressin under iontophoresis was reversible. This may be explained by the high isoelectric point (pi 10.9) of vasopressin, which ensures that the molecule will stay highly charged at the pH environment of the skin. A decapeptide, LHRH, and its analogues have also been successfully delivered by iontophoresis.110 Meyer et al.111 delivered therapeutic doses of leuprolide, an LHRH analogue, in 13 normal men using a double-blind, randomized, crossover study conducted under an Investigational New Drug (IND) process granted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Data analysis by analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences between the active and passive patches. The magnitude of elevation of luteinizing hormone (LH) produced by the active patches was in...

Candida Torulopsis glabrata


On vulvar examination, the genitalia can appear normal or there can be generalized erythema. Microscopic evaluation of the vaginal discharge may be normal or numerous budding yeasts may be present. A yeast culture is necessary to identify that C. (T.) glabrata is present. Treatment can be challenging, as it is resistant to all azoles used typically for Candidal infections (8-11). Boric acid

Telangiectatic Matting

The new appearance of previously unnoticed, fine red telangiectasia occurs in a number of patients. The reported incidence varies from 5 to 75 . Although most authors do not comment on a sexual predisposition, we have seen the development of TM in only one male patient with leg telangiectasia. Because fewer men seek treatment for leg telangiectasia than women, an accurate appraisal of the sexual incidence of TM cannot be stated. Probable risk factors for the development of TM in patients with leg telangiectasia include obesity, use of estrogen-containing hormones, pregnancy, and a family history of telangiectatic veins. Excessive postsclerotherapy inflammation also may predispose toward development of TM. A study comparing different times of postsclerotherapy compression in treating leg telangiectasia also demonstrated a decrease in TM when compression was maintained for one to three weeks (5 ) versus three days (30 ) or no compression (40 ).21 This is most likely a reflection of a...

Regulation of mdm2 by p53

The oncogenic properties of mdm2 have also been attributed to p53 inactivation (Momand et al., 1992 Oliner et al., 1992 Barak et al., 1993 Finlay, 1993). mdm2 expression is itself up-regulated by p53 (Barak et al., 1993 Otto and Deppert 1993 Wu et al., 1993). The mouse mdm2 contains two promoters one of these, P,, is located upstream of the gene and the second promoter P2 occurs within the first intron. Transcription from P2 has been shown to be strongly p53-dependent, but the up-stream promoter Pi is only mildly responsive (Barak et al., 1994). The human mdm2 also contains the highly p53-responsive intronic promoter (Zauber-man et al., 1995). This activation pattern results in two distinct transcripts which translate into mdm2 proteins with different p53 binding ability (Barak et al, 1994). When there is a suboptimal induction of p53, as in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cells, there is also a suboptimal induction of mdm2 and other proteins such as Gadd45 and p21 (wafl cipl) (Canman et...

Description Of The Diseases

Acute cutaneous candidiasis may present as intertrigo, producing intense erythema, edema, creamy exudate, and satellite pustules within folds of the skin. Other infections may be more chronic, as in the feet where there can be a thick white layer of infected stratum corneum overlaying the epidermis of the interdigital spaces. Candida paronychia is marked by infection of the periungual skin and the nail itself, infections. A number of genera can be involved, but Fonsecaea, Phialophora, Cladophialophora, and Rhinocladiella are most common. The dark pigment of these organisms is dihydroxynaphthalene melanin, which is different from the dihydroxyphenylanine melanin associated with Cryptococcus neoformans. Dematiaceous fungi can also cause mycetoma. Chromoblastomycosis is characterized by the presence of sclerotic (muriform) bodies in the tissues. When yeastlike cells, pseudohyphae, or hyphae of the dematiaceous fungi are present in the tissues, the term phaeohyphomycosis is used....

Postsclerotherapy Hyperpigmentation

Haemosiderin After Scelerotherapy

Optimal technique consists of limiting pressure into damaged (sclerosed) veins to prevent extravasation of RBCs. To limit the degree of intravascular pressure, larger feeding varices, incompetent varices, and points of high pressure reflux should be treated first. A greater incidence of pigmentation occurs if vessels distal to points of reflux such as reticular veins feeding into telangiectasia or vessels distal to the saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) are treated before successful closure of the junction or feeding veins.13 The degree of injection pressure is also important. Because telangiectasia and small venules are composed essentially of endothelial cells with a thin (if any) muscular coat and basement membrane, excessive intravascular pressure from injection may cause vessel rupture. In addition, endothelial pores and spaces between cells in the vascular wall dilate in response to pressure, leading to extravasation of RBCs. It is therefore important to inject intravascularly It...

Obese Woman with Persistently Abnormal Liver Enzymes

On physical examination the patient's vital signs were normal and her height was 5 ft 6 in., with weight 228 lb for a calculated body mass index (BMI) of 37. She was an obese white female. Her skin was warm and dry without rash, jaundice, or palmar erythema but there were a few spider angiomata present on the neck and anterior chest wall. There was no lymphadenopathy, thyroid enlargement, or jugular venous distention. The lungs and heart were normal on auscultation. The abdomen was obese, soft, and nontender. The liver was palpable about 2-3 cm below the right costal margin and was smooth and nontender to palpation. There was no shifting dullness, and bowel sounds were normal. Lower extremities showed mild, 1 (+) pitting pedal edema. The patient

Diseases That Cause Vulvar Pain Vulvar Vestibulitis

Physical findings confined to vestibule erythema of various degrees. Vestibulitis is often undiagnosed and these patients may see multiple physicians prior to receiving an accurate diagnosis. It is imperative to identify the Bartholin's duct ostia on every examination and to evaluate for inflammation of the lesser vestibular glands (Figs. 15-17). Erythema is limited to the vulvar vestibule and there is a disproportionate pain-to-touch ratio when a cotton-tipped swab is pressed into the erythematous area. Figure 16 Vestibulitis localized erythema in the right vestibule. (See color insert p. 5.) Figure 16 Vestibulitis localized erythema in the right vestibule. (See color insert p. 5.) Figure 17 Vestibulitis localized erythema in the right periurethral area. (See color insert p. 5.) Figure 17 Vestibulitis localized erythema in the right periurethral area. (See color insert p. 5.)

Approaches to enhance transdermal peptide delivery 831 Skin microporation

Several groups are trying to develop the mechanical microneedles for transdermal delivery, including Alza, Becton Dickinson, Georgia Tech, 3M, Norwood Abbey, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The microelectronics industry is making available the microfabrication tools27 needed to make these small microneedles. Microfabrication uses tools employed to make integrated circuits, such as micromachining or microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs), and consists of technologies supporting the core technology of microlithographic pattern transfer.28 It has been reported that insertion of these microneedles in humans is not painful, and no erythema, edema, or other reaction to microneedles was observed.29 These microneedles will typically enter through the stratum corneum and into the epidermis. The stratum corneum barrier has no nerves, which may partly explain the lack of any pain sensation. Nerves are present in the epidermis, but the lack of pain may be attributed to the small size...

Symptoms Limited Scleroderma

Skin Virtually all patients with limited sclero-derma have Raynaud's phenomenon, and this is often present for many years before skin changes develop. Severe Raynaud's leading to painful, poorly healing ulcers on the tips of the fingers, called digital ulcers, is more common in patients with limited scleroderma than in those with diffuse scleroderma. Digital ulcers are very painful and heal over several months. The skin changes of limited scleroderma often affect only the hands and face but can be severe, leading to tight, shiny, poorly mobile fingers, or very subtle with just a little skin thickening. Tightness of the skin on the fingers is called sclerodactyly. Many patients also have telangiectasia. These are small red spots, about the size of a freckle, that consist of a network of blood vessels. Calcinosis (deposits of calcium in the skin and soft tissues) is less common.

Contact Urticaria Nonimmunologic Contact Urticaria

The contact urticaria syndrome, or immediate contact reactions, comprises a heterogeneous group of inflammatory reactions that appear, usually within minutes, after contact with the eliciting substance. They include wheal and flare, along with transient erythema, and may lead to eczema. Nonimmunologic contact urticaria (NICU) occurs without previous sensitization and is the most common type of immediate contact reaction. This reaction remains localized it does not spread to become generalized urticaria and it does not cause systemic symptoms. The strength of the reaction usually varies from erythema to an urticarial response, depending on the concentration, the exposed skin area, mode of exposure, and inciting substance (32,33). Animal models allow for identification of substances capable of immediate contact reactions. A substance can be applied to guinea pig ear lobe, with resulting erythema and edema if the substance indeed is capable of causing a contact urticarial response....

Terminology And New Definitions

The CEAP classification deals with all forms of chronic venous disorders. The term chronic venous disorder (CVD) includes the full spectrum of morphological and functional abnormalities of the venous system from telangiectasias to venous ulcers. Some of these, like telangiectasias, are highly prevalent in the normal adult population, and in many cases the use of the term disease is not appropriate. The term chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) implies a functional abnormality of the venous system and usually is reserved for patients with more advanced disease including those with edema (C3), skin changes (C4), or venous ulcers (C5-6). Telangiectasia A confluence of dilated intradermal venules of less than 1 mm in caliber. Synonyms include spider veins, hyphen webs, and thread veins. Reticular veins Dilated bluish subdermal veins usually from 1 mm in diameter to less than 3 mm in diameter. They usually are tortuous. This excludes normal visible veins in people with thin, transparent...

Symptoms Of Primary Venous Insufficiency

TABLE 12.2 Symptoms of Varicose Veins and Telangiectasias The recent development of an extremely painful area on the lower leg at the ankle associated with an overlying area of erythema and warmth may be indicative of lipodermato-sclerosis, which may be associated with insufficiency of an underlying perforator vein, and examination for this lesion should be performed. Lipodermatosclerosis may precede ulceration and has been shown to be improved by stiff compression and certain pharmacologic interventions.

The Future Of Laser Therapy

The laser treatment of leg veins continues to gain momentum with advances in laser, pulsed light, and combined radiofrequency pulse light technologies. Other advances include enhancement of longer wavelength treatment systems, improved cooling technologies, varied spot size, pulse durations, and fluence-related monomodal approaches and combined lasers radiofrequency systems. The continued development of laser technologies not only enhances the phlebologist's armamentarium in the treatment and management of telangiectasias and reticular veins, but also provides the patient with an array of safe, noninvasive treatment options with minimal side effects or complications. 2. Lupton J, Alster T, Romero P. Clinical comparison of sclerotherapy versus long-pulsed Nd YAG laser treatment for lower extremity telangiectasias, Dermatol Surg. 2002. 28 694-697. 3. Fournier N, Brisot P, Murdon S. Treatment of leg telangiectasias with a 532 nm KTP laser in multi-pulse model, Dermatol Surg. 2002. 28...

Infectious Diseases Bacterial

The presence of cellulitis, deteriorating vital signs, and a deep, spreading, painful erythema, especially in the postpartum or postoperative patient, should raise concern for necrotizing fasciitis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive infection commonly caused by mixed aerobic-anaerobic bacteria. Unfortunately, antibiotic treatment usually proves ineffective. Necrotizing fasciitis is a surgical emergency requiring immediate and extensive surgical debridement of the necrotic fascia to prevent septic shock and fatal complications. Patients may require several debridements and skin grafts are often needed to repair large defects. Due to the emergent nature of this condition, women presenting with vulvar cellulitis, with risk factors for necrotizing fasciitis (obesity, diabetes mellitus, corticosteroid use, or immunosuppressed states) should be hospitalized for treatment with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics, including a penicillin and surgical treatment (46).

Adult Male with New Onset Ascites

On physical examination the patient was well developed, looked tanned even though it was winter, weighed 196 lb (89 kg), and had normal vital signs. The patient had several prominent stigmata of chronic liver disease, including spider angiomata on his chest, palmar erythema, Dupuytren's contractures, testicular atrophy, and female escutcheon however, he was anicteric. He had normal chest and normal cardiac findings, and his abdomen was protuberant, but not tense. There was no palpable or ballotable liver edge, but his spleen was felt just under the left costal border. On digital rectal examination he had prominent hemorrhoids and a normal prostate. A stool sample was brown and negative for occult blood. He had 2+ pitting ankle edema.


Amprenavir is a sulfa drug, a type of drug to which many people are allergic. A well-known sulfa drug is Bactrim (see tmp smx). A person who has had allergic reactions to Bactrim is likely to have a reaction to amprenavir. In about 25 percent of the people taking amprenavir some allergic reaction to the drug has developed initially. sometimes it can be overcome by continued exposure to the medication other times it develops into a bright red rash on the skin, which has caused some people to stop taking this drug. About 1 percent of people taking amprenavir experience a reaction called Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). StevensJohnson syndrome is a type of allergic reaction called an erythema, a redness of the skin due to congestion of the capillaries, causing flulike symptoms and severe lesions under the skin. it can be fatal. Major side effects of the drug are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, stomach pains gas, skin rash, and numbing sensations on the skin, particularly...

Objective Criteria

For patients presenting with oral lichen planus (OLP) to the trial conducted by the Asian Lichen Planus Study Group (2004) if only a single lesion was present then this was assessed. If there were multiple lesions, then the protocol defined a 'marker' lesion that was to be assessed. This was defined as the most severe and extensive OLP lesion. The assessment, with respect to the areas of erythema, reticulation and ulceration were made using the 0.5 by 0.5 cm grids of Figure 2.1 printed onto flexible transparent material placed over the affected area then traced. Figure 2.1 Flexible transparent grid used for marking and quantifying areas of recticulation, erythema and ulceration in patients with oral lichen planus (adapted from Harpenau, Plemons and Rees, 1995. Effectiveness of low dose cyclosporine in the management of patients with oral erosive lichen planus. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiological Endod, 80, Figure 2.1 Flexible transparent grid used for...

Physical Examination

Plaques, nodules, pustules, vesicles, bullae, or hives, as well as any secondary lesions, such as scaling, crusting, erosions, ulcerations, fissures, atrophy tissue, and scars. Frequent changes of the vulva include erythema, edema, atrophy, hyperkeratosis, and or hypo- and hyper-pigmented areas lesions.

Cytomegalovirus 131

Symptoms and physical findings of cytomegalo-virus vary from disease to disease. Symptoms of chorioRETiNiTis include unilateral visual field loss, blurring of vision, or scotomata. Examination generally reveals whitish areas with perivascular exu-dates and hemorrhages. A careful search of the entire fundus (base) of the eye is required. Generally, in gastrointestinal disease, colitis is associated with abdominal pain and diarrhea. Fever may also be present. esophagitis and gastritis most commonly present with pain from the involved structures. Endoscopy reveals erythema, submucosal hemorrhage, and diffuse mucosal ulceration. While CMV may be isolated from pulmonary secretions, it is generally believed that it rarely has a true pathologic role in HIV-infected patients. Diagnosis must be confirmed by lung biopsy demonstrating histologic evidence consistent with invasive disease. Finally, encephalitis, cranial nerve dysfunction, and neuropathies may occur. CMV polyradiculopathy is rare,...

Treatment Plan

With increasing experience and recognition of common patterns, injection sites are based on known patterns of reflux. For example, reticular veins usually feed a group of telangiectasias on the lateral thigh from a varicose lateral subdermic venous system. During the treatment session, treatment would begin with reticular veins from which reflux is suspected to arise and would proceed along the course of Our typical treatment regimen is to foam or agitate STS at 0.1 to 0.2 using a ratio of one part sclerosant to four parts air. This foam mixture is injected into reticular veins that are directly connected to visible telangiectasias (see Figure 14.2). It is not advisable to treat every reticular vein of the thigh only those reticular veins visibly connected to a telangiectatic web should be targeted. When injecting a reticular vein, the sclerosing foam is sometimes seen flowing into the telangiectasia. When this is observed, the telangiectasias do not need to be injected directly....

Mitchel P Goldman

As with any therapeutic technique, sclerotherapy is associated with a number of potential adverse sequelae and complications. Fairly common, and often self-limiting, side effects include cutaneous pigmentation and a flare of new telangiectasia. Relatively rare complications include localized cutaneous necrosis and systemic allergic reactions. This chapter addresses the pathophysiology of these reactions, methods for decreasing their incidence, and treatment of their occurrence.

Intense Pulsed Light

Other investigators, in contrast, have found lesser success utilizing this technology for management of lower extremity spider veins. Results from a study done by Green showed no improvement in 56 of patients, partial clearing in 25 of patients, and no improvement in 56 of telangiectasias. It is worth mentioning that this particular study was done at the incipient stages of the IPL system's development.19 Associated side effects include blistering, crusting, and discoloration, especially in darker skinned patients. With growing sophistication and use, however, IPL stands at the very forefront of laser vein technology, being the most effective for treating telangiectatic matting associated with diffuse erythema.

Complete Sample

Bennet and Berglund (2002) studied all patients diagnosed with erythema migrans (EM) following vector-borne infection by Lyme borreliosis (LB) some 10 years earlier. They contacted all these patients and asked if they had had any new tick bites over the period May 1993 to May 1998. From the 976 infected and eligible for the study, 708 participants replied and from these a reinfection rate of 4 was computed.

Herpes simplex 219

Herpes genitalis Infection of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa with herpes simplex virus type 2. It is usually spread by sexual contact and is classed as a sexually transmitted disease. Itching and soreness are usually present before a small patch of erythema develops. Then a vesicle that erodes appears. These are usually painful and heal in about 10 days. They may occur in any part of the genitalia. Although genital herpes lesions usually occur in limited areas (such as the cervix), as HIV infection progresses, the herpes may involve more widespread anatomical areas and be resistant to topical therapy. acyclovir has been of considerable benefit in treating the initial infection.


Not all patients are readily forthcoming with history or permit contact with other informants. Thus, the physician should remember that certain signs on the physical examination can indicate psychoactive substance use. Multiple tattoos or body piercings may reflect a disregard for societal norms, including those that limit drug taking. Facial or digital edema, cigarette-stained fingers, palmar erythema, and spider nevi suggest alcohol dependence, and any odor of beverage alcohol is more than a little suggestive of the same. Tremor, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, and dilated pupils may indicate repeated ingestion of alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, or other sedatives. Nasal septal necrosis suggests repeated cocaine use, while dilated pupils and multiple scars and keloids on the extremities suggest intravenous drug use, usually heroin or cocaine. Miosis, decreased bowel sounds, flaccid muscles, and urinary retention can be due to opioids.

Risks And Hazards

Minor sequelae that can occur secondary to BONT-A injection at any site include pain, edema, erythema, ecchymosis, and short-term hypoesthesia. Ice applied immediately after injection reduces pain, edema, and erythema associated with an intramuscular injection. Ecchymosis can be minimized by having the patient avoid aspirin, NSAIDs (41), and vitamin E for 7 days before injection. Careful attention to small subcutaneous vessels or palpation of larger vessels can help avoid ecchymosis and intravascular injection. Pain associated with injections can be minimized by infusing slowly with a 30- or 32-gage needle directly into the muscle belly avoiding the periosteum.

Adverse Events

Adverse events with the cosmetic use of BTX-A are usually not serious and include transient pain, erythema, swelling at the injection site, headaches, nausea, and flu-like symptoms. Weakness of non-targeted muscles can occur within the first week and is generally transient but can persist for several months. Possible adverse events associated with each individual application are discussed in the Clinical Applications section. Serious adverse events associated with cosmetic use of BTX-A are quite low medically therapeutic use is associated with a 33-fold increase in adverse events. This difference is likely a result of the higher doses used for these indications (10).

Papillary tumor

Papule A red elevated area on the skin, solid and circumscribed. Papules often precede vesicular or pustular formation and may appear in erythema multiforme, eczema papulosum, prurigo, syphilis, measles, and smallpox. They may develop after use of bromides, iodides, or coal tar preparation.

Spina bifida 291

In spina bifida occulta, there is a small, incomplete closure but no obvious damage to the spinal cord. Found in 20 percent or more of the population, the damage is so minor that many people do not know they have it (hence the name occulta, or hidden). The site may be marked by a dimple, hair tuft, or telangiectasia (red skin caused by expanded blood vessels). It may be associated with urinary or bowel

Clinical Findings

VIPomas are associated with a syndrome of watery diarrhea, hypokale-mia, and achlorhydria (WDHA). Glucagonomas may present with diabetes, depression, deep-vein thrombosis, and dermatitis (necrolytic migratory erythema). Presenting symptoms of the rare somatostatinomas include cholelithiasis, diabetes, steatorrhea, diarrhea, weight loss, and abdominal pain.

Angiogenic Disorders

In other diseases, such as ischaemic heart disease or pre-eclampsia, the angiogenic switch is insufficient, thereby causing EC dysfunction, vessel malformation and regression, or preventing revascularisation, healing and regeneration (Table 2). In the skin, age-dependent reductions in vessel density and maturation cause vessel fragility, leading to hair loss and the development of purpura, telangiectasia, angioma and venous lake formation (Chang et al. 2002). A progressive loss of the microvasculature in elderly people has been implicated in nephropathy (Kang et al. 2001), bone loss (Martinez et al. DiGeorge syndrome (low VEGF Nrp-1 expression, (St*lmans et al 2 3)) hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (mutation of endoglin or ALK

Vaccine adjuvants

Adjuvants are substances that nonspecifically enhance the immune response to antigens. Antibody responses to antigens in adjuvants are greater and more prolonged and frequently consist of different classes to the response obtained without adjuvants. Conventional killed or attenuated vaccines or recombinant subunit vaccines typically used today are generally administered with adjuvants to elicit effective immune responses. Many of these adjuvants can cause tissue reactions currently, only Alum is licensed in the United States for human use. When Alum is used, the antigen binds to the aluminum hydroxide or aluminum sulfate and forms a macroscopic suspension. Alum is somewhat effective in potentiating humoral immunity but does not generally elicit CD8+ T-cell-mediated responses. The amount of aluminum in biological products, including vaccines, is limited to 0.85 mg dose. Aluminum adjuvants have been used for decades and are generally safe nevertheless, they can cause local reactions...

Sterilizing immunity

Stevens-Johnson syndrome A form of erythema multiforme (eruption of dark red papules or tubercles) that is sometimes fatal. It is characterized by systemic exfoliative mucocutaneous lesions, some of which may be severe, on or in the ears, nose, lips, eyes, anus, genitals, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, heart, and kidneys. In HIV it can be caused on rare occasions by reactions to certain drugs such as Bactrim or nevirapine. This condition must be treated and use of the drug discontinued immediately.

Irritation Tests

In the intracutaneous test, extracts of the test material and blanks are injected intradermally. The injection sites are scored for erythema and edema (redness and swelling). This procedure is recommended for devices that will have externally communicating or internal contact with the body or body fluids. It reliably detects the potential for local irritation due to chemicals that may be extracted from a biomaterial. The primary skin irritation test should be considered for topical devices that have external contact with intact or breached skin. In this procedure, the test material or an extract is applied directly to intact and abraded sites on the skin of a rabbit. After a 24-hour exposure, the material is removed and the sites are scored for erythema and edema.

Cutaneous Necrosis

Posterolateral Thigh Varicosities

Clinically, bright erythema is present in the skin overlying the extravasated solution. With certain extravasation injuries, the formation of epidermal blistering may occur but does not predict a partial-thickness injury, although it may precede eventual full-thickness necrosis. During injection of an abnormal vein or telangiectasia, even the most adept physician may inadvertently inject a small quantity of sclerosing solution into the perivascular tissue. A tiny amount of sclerosing solution may be left in the tissue when the needle is withdrawn, and sclerosing solution may leak out of the injected vessel, which has been traumatized by multiple or through-and-through needle punctures. Rarely the injection of a strong sclerosing solution into a fragile vessel may lead to endothelial necrosis and rupture, producing a blow-out of the vessel and perivascular extravasation of sclerosing solution. Therefore injection technique is an important but not foolproof factor in avoiding this...

Infectious Diseases

In a typical clinical scenario, a performer with mild upper respiratory symptoms has to carry on performing but complains of reduced vocal pitch and increased effort on singing high notes. Mild vocal fold edema and erythema may occur but can be normal for this patient group. Thickened, erythematous tracheal mucosa visible between the vocal folds supports the diagnosis.

Effect of Occlusion

Semi-occlusive conditions attenuated the erythematous response to all materials (Fig. 5, upper arm, 48 hours). Notably, SLS-induced erythema was reduced almost six-fold (mean scores of 0.6 + 0.1 vs. 3.4 + 0.14, semi- and full-occlusion, respectively). Pretreatment of the upper arm with emollient prevented menses-induced skin irritation, regardless of the degree of occlusion. Figure 4 Skin erythema of the labia majora and upper arm, following the application of test materials under occlusive patch for 24 and 48 hours. (A) 24-hour exposure. (B) 48hour exposure. Note *, significantly different from other test materials applied to that anatomical site. , significantly different from the nonirritant control (saline) applied to that anatomical site. Test materials, Saline (nonirritant control) Abbreviations MF, menses fluid VB, venous blood SLS, 0.6 aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate (irritant control). Source Adapted from Ref. 24. Figure 4 Skin erythema of the labia majora and upper arm,...

Candida albicans

Prepubescent Girls Vulvovaginitis

Figure 10 Lichen sclerosus classic changes of lichen sclerosus of the vulva and perianal area in a postmenopausal woman, with areas of thin erythematous skin, white parchment paper-like skin in the perianal area, and thickened white skin. (See color insert pp. 4 and 5.) Figure 12 Lichen sclerosus vulvar examination of the same patient as in Figure 10, with thin, erythematous skin and white hyperkeratotic skin. (See color insert pp. 4 and 5.) Figure 12 Lichen sclerosus vulvar examination of the same patient as in Figure 10, with thin, erythematous skin and white hyperkeratotic skin. (See color insert pp. 4 and 5.) C. albicans is the most common strain of Candida to cause infection in the vulvovaginal area (8). Women complain of vulvar itching and or vaginal discharge. On examination, the vulvar skin and associated affected skin have an irregular or asymmetrical pattern, mild to intense erythema, edema of the Figure 14 Yeast vulvovaginitis irregular border of erythema, edema of the...


Mucositis is a common, debilitating, and often dose-limiting complication of cancer therapy (1-4). The condition results from the inhibitory effects of chemotherapy and or radiotherapy on rapidly dividing cells, leading to reduction in the renewal capabilities of the basal epithelium. The disease is characterized by sequential mucosal changes, including erythema resulting from inflammation, atrophy, collagen breakdown, and, ultimately, painful ulcerative lesions affecting the alimentary tract, including the mouth (oral mucositis) and the gastrointestine (GI mucositis). In the United States alone, approx 400,000 patients per year develop acute or chronic oral complications during chemoradiotherapy, with about 40 developing oral mucositis (2,3). More than 75 of patients who receive conditioning regimens in preparation for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation (PBPCT) and more than 90 of patients receiving head and neck irradiation develop...

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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