Rhabdoviri Family

In this chapter, we will present an overview of the current information on plant rhabdovirus structure and taxonomy, genome structure, protein function, and insect and plant infection. Rather than being comprehensive, we will focus on research that is either recent or that emphasizes unique aspects of rhabdovirus biology. Many rhabdovirus species have two natural hosts either insects and plants, or insects and vertebrates (Hogenhout et al. 2003). Plant-infecting rhabdoviruses include a number...

Attenuation of Rhabdoviruses

Both VSV and RV are long-known pathogens. The rhabdovirus reverse genetic systems now allow study of virus pathogenicity and virulence in more detail, which is expected to lead to the generation of viruses and virus vectors that are acceptable for live applications. The approaches taken include transfer of attenuating mutations identified by classical means to recombinant viruses and their combination in a single virus backbone. In addition, empirical and hypothesis-driven approaches may reveal...

References

Anderson EC, Rowe LW (1998) Prevalence of antibody to bovine virus diarrhoea, bovine herpes virus 1, rift valley fever, ephemeral fever and bluetongue and to Leptospira sp. in free ranging wildlife in Zimbabwe. Epidemiol Infect 121 441-449 Bai W (1993) Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever in China. In St. George TD, Uren MF, Young PL, Hoffman D (eds) Bovine ephemeral fever and related rhabdoviruses. ACIAR, Canberra, pp 20-22 Bai W, Tian F, Wang C, Jiang C, Zhang Z (1987)...

Bovine Ephemeral Fever in Australia and the World

CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL), 5 Portarlington Road, 3220 Geelong, Victoria, Australia Peter. Walker csiro.au 2 Origins of the 3 History and Epizootiology of BEF in 4 Distribution and Epizootiology of BEF in the 5 Pathogenesis of BEFV 7 BEFV Genome Organization and Expression 8 BEF-Related 9 Antigenic Structure of 10 BEFV Strain 11 Disease Diagnosis 12 BEF Abstract Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is a disabling viral disease of cattle and water buffaloes....

Cell Targeting

The G protein of rhabdoviruses mediates both attachment to cell receptors and membrane fusion. Retargeting of rhabdoviruses is most easily achieved by replacing the G protein with analogous viral proteins combining these two activities as well, such as HIV-1 Env, as described above (Mebatsion and Conzelmann 1996 Schnell et al. 1996a). In most cases the rather broad host cell range of the parental rhabdoviruses is thereby restricted to cells that express the respective receptor. HIV-1 Env...

Envelope Switching Flexibility of Rhabdovirus Envelopes

The propensity of rhabdoviruses to accept changes in the composition of the envelope is of great potential for manifold vector applications. Rhabdoviruses carrying novel proteins in their envelopes may have a role to play as particulate vaccines, and as targetable gene delivery vectors (Table 2). Early experiments with ts mutants of VSV (Schnitzer et al. 1979) initially challenged the importance of the rhabdovirus G protein for virus particle formation. The generation of recombinant RV lacking...

BEF Vaccines

Natural BEFV infection induces a strong neutralizing antibody response and, although some exceptions have been recorded, infection appears to induce a durable immunity (Mackerras et al. 1940). It is also known that colostral antibody will protect calves against experimental challenge (St George 1986) but there are conflicting reports of the role of neutralizing antibody in protection (Della-Porta and Snowdon 1979b Uren et al. 1994). Although a T-cell response to BEFV antigens has been observed...

Minigenome Constructs for Salmonid Rhabdoviruses

Increase Amount Plasmid

For negative-stranded RNA viruses, a first approach towards the recovery of recombinant infectious virus has been to engineer a model genome called a minigenome, which is the viral RNA genome in which all the coding regions have been deleted and replaced by a reporter gene such as the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT), luciferase (LUC), or the green fluorescent protein (GFP). This minigenome is a unique tool that makes it possible to establish all the parameters required to overcome all...