Relaxation Techniques

Relaxation Audio Sounds Autumn In The Forest

Relaxation Audio Sounds Autumn In The Forest

This is an audio all about guiding you to relaxation. This is a Relaxation Audio Sounds with sounds from Autumn In The Forest.

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Brain Evolution System

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Brain Evolution System Overview


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Relaxation Techniques

Sion, reduce arousal, and relax more effectively. Relaxation techniques should be done outside the bed and bedroom, prior to going to bed, to avoid actively trying to relax, which can interfere with sleep. Methods include progressive muscle relaxation, deep breathing, meditation, visualization, and biofeedback. Use these techniques to reduce your level of arousal at bedtime. Progressive Muscle Relaxation. This technique allows you to relax your entire body by tensing and relaxing a series of muscles. Follow these steps Deep Breathing. Also known as diaphragmatic breathing, this technique slows respiration, leading to relaxation and then sleep. The idea is to replicate the type of breathing you do when you're asleep (slow and predominantly from the diaphragm the muscle between the abdomen and the chest), instead of the type you do The success of the five relaxation methods presented here depends on whether you continue to practice them. It's common for people to begin with enthusiasm,...

How paracetamol and aspirin work

Both these drugs, used to treat minor aches and pains and to reduce fever, have a similar mode of action. They inhibit an enzyme called cyclo-oxygenase, or COX. This produces substances called prostaglandins, which are mediators produced in response to damage to cells and which tell the body that there is damage, which we feel as pain. Blocking the production of the prostaglandins therefore reduces the sensation of pain. They also cause relaxation of blood vessels in the brain which causes headache drugs such as aspirin reduce this by reducing the amount of prostaglandin present. The prostaglandins can also increase the temperature by acting on a particular area in the brain. If there are fewer of these mediators, the temperature will remain more or less normal and fever will be reduced. The prostaglandins, along with other mediators such as kinins and histamine, are also involved with the inflammation that occurs when tissue is damaged and infected by bacteria. Therefore aspirin will...

RNA Localization in Plants

Other than RNA sorting in developing seeds, which will be the subject of the remaining sections of this article, there are relatively few reports on the localization of RNAs in plants. The interested reader is referred to two recent reviews (Okita and Choi 2002 Crofts et al. 2004) which describe published examples of this phenomenon in higher plants and algae. One study that deserves mention is the localization of expansin RNAs. Expansins are extracellular proteins that are involved in cell enlargement, pollen tube growth, and abscission as a result of their ability to induce cell wall relaxation and extension (Cosgrove 2000). Im et al. (2000) showed that the different ex-pansin mRNAs were evident as distinct patches located at either the apical or basipetal end of xylem precursor cells. More specifically, ZeEXP1 and ZeExp3

Box 61 Discovery Of The Double Helix

FIGURE 6.9 Ball-and-stick model of the DNA helix shows the base pairing that forms the steps of the spiral staircase and the backbones of the parallel coils of the two strands of the double helix. (This colorized image was generated by D. M. Reed with the use of Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) developed by the Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. ( research vmd ) based on information from Schweitzer, B. I., Mikita, T., Kellogg, G. W., Gardner, K. H., Beardsley, G. P. Solution structure of a DNA dodecamer containing the anti-neoplastic agent arabinosylcytosine combined use of NMR, restrained molecular dynamics, and full relaxation matrix refinement. Biochemistry 33 (11460), 1994.) FIGURE 6.9 Ball-and-stick model of the DNA helix shows the base pairing that forms the steps of the spiral staircase and the backbones of the parallel coils of the two strands of the double helix. (This colorized image was generated...

Synapse at Motor End Plate Neuromuscular Junction Figs 38 and

The ACh molecules activate an estimated 20-40 million ACh receptor sites on the sarco-lemma of a motor end plate. This results in EPPs (end-plate potentials) in the membrane that depolarizes the sarcolemma adjacent to the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This activates its voltage-sensitive Na+ and K+ channels of the sarcolemma to generate APs. The AP is conducted rapidly along the muscle surface and to the interior of the muscle fiber via the membrane of the many transverse tubules (T-tubules) (Fig. 3.9). The AP stimulates the release of Ca2+ ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of the muscle to initiate contraction of the muscle fiber as a unit (known as excitation-contraction or EC coupling). The relaxation of the muscle fiber is associated with the return of the Ca2+ ions to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The basal lamina of the muscle in the end plate is filled with the enzyme cholinesterase, which inactivates the excess ACh. This enzyme serves two purposes, namely it (1) permits...

Surgical Intervention in Heart Failure Observing Obedience to the Nature

Recent studies of LV activation and contraction have demonstrated that the apical subendo-cardium is the first to be activated followed by basal subendocardium, and then apical and basal epicardium 2 . Consequently, contraction from the apical to basal subendocardium in isovolumic contraction phase sets the direction of blood flow toward outflow tract. This isovolumic contraction sequence also results in a minor clockwise twist of the apex. Subsequent contraction of the apical epicardium gradually extends to the basal epicar-dium and forces the vertical epicardial mantle of myocardium into a more horizontal orientation, which reduces longitudinal axial dimensions, pulls the base toward the apex, and results in systolic ejection. The apex twists substantially in counterclockwise direction during the ejection phase. Relaxation then begins at the apical endocardium electromechanically before the base. The longer contraction of the basal endocardium ensures evacuation of the subvalvular...

Referral to Mental Health Professionals

Psychotherapy incorporating cognitive-behavioral techniques is usually performed by psychologists. Among such techniques are cognitive restructuring (e.g., formulating alternatives to anxious thoughts), relaxation training and biofeedback, and systematic desensitization to anxiety-provoking stimuli. Social workers and nurse therapists are more likely to specialize in psychotherapy focusing on issues such as conflicts in the patients life, difficulties in relationships, and feelings of loss and demoralization.

Definition of the Disease

The cause of hypothyroidism may be primary (thyroid dysfunction), secondary (pituitary dysfunction), or tertiary (hypothalamic dysfunction). Primary hypothyroidism is 1000-fold more common than secondary or tertiary causes.1 Hypothyroidism is associated with cold intolerance, weight gain, constipation, dry skin, bradycardia, hoarseness, and slow mental processing.1 In adults, the characteristic signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism may have an insidious onset. Chronic cutaneous changes include dry, puffy skin with a yellowish complexion as well as a thickening of the subcutaneous tissues due to accumulation of mucopolysaccharides. The hair becomes dry and brittle and is often sparse. The voice may deepen in pitch, and hypoventilation has been observed. Hypothyroid patients can show decreased pulse rate, decreased cardiac stroke volume, and decreased myocar-dial contractility that causes decreased cardiac output. Since peripheral metabolism is slowed, arteriovenous oxygen may not show a...

Stimulusinduced And Stressinduced Analgesia

Severely wounded soldiers, athletes injured in sports, and professional boxers state that they do not feel pain during and even just after the stressful events of combat. During a race, marathon runners undergo the feeling of running through pain. Electric stimulation of the periaquaductal gray in humans produces a drastic reduction in clinical pain, called stimulus-induced analgesia. Patients describe a pain that fades away over a few minutes, and even a feeling of warmth and relaxation. The stimulation presumably activates the pain-modulating networks, including the biogenic amine analgesic system and the opioid-mediated modulating system.

Grammatical Relations

It may have two or more, and interpretation will depend on the make-up of the rest of the clause thus, kennast may also be passive as in ikki eitt livandi kendist 'not a bite (from a fish) was felt' (lit. 'not anything living '), or combine with a preposition and become transitive, e.g. kennast vid (+ object) '(to) recognize, (to) acknowledge'. Some -st forms on their own have a transitive reading, e.g. minnast '(to) remember', ottast '(to) fear', but the majority of those which are not passive, reflexive, or reciprocal tend towards an ergative sense, e.g. opnast '(to) open', kvalast '(to) suffocate' (both intransitive), gerast '(to) become' (cf. gera ein rikan 'make someone rich'), and even - with a dative object - nxrkast '(to) approach' (cf. the transitive neerka '(to) move closer'). With a number of verbs the finite -st form can have a generic passive reading indicating possibility, e.g. tad fiest 'it can be obtained, it is obtainable', tad sdst 'it could be seen, it was evident'...

Proprioceptive Pathways To The Cerebellum

The cerebellum plays an essential role in body movement and maintenance of equilibrium. Thanks to the cerebellum, voluntary muscles are coordinated in their contraction and relaxation so as to permit smooth movement. For this, the cerebellum requires a continuous supply of unconscious information from muscles, tendons, and joints to which receptors throughout the body and limbs contribute. The pathways for this input are outlined here (see Fig. 10.7) the main discussion of the cerebellum is in Chapter 17.

The Endothelium Derived Hyperpolarising Factor

The term EDHF does not describe a single factor but rather a variety of mechanisms that regulate endothelial cell membrane potential. Initially, an EDHF was supposed to be a factor generated in the endothelium that diffuses out of the cells to stimulate Ca2+-dependent K+ channels (K+Ca) on the underlying smooth muscle cells, thus eliciting hyperpolarisation and inducing relaxation in an NO- and PGI2-independent manner. It is now generally accepted that the initial event in all of the EDHF-mediated responses characterised to date is not the hyperpolarisation of smooth muscle cells but the hyperpolarisation of endothelial cells mediated by the opening of small and intermediate conductance K+Ca channels (for review see Busse et al. 2002). Four main mechanisms have been proposed to account for EDHF-mediated responses

Guardianship See surrogacy

Guided imagery one of many visualization therapies that uses a variety of visual techniques to treat disease. Visualization therapies are based on inducing relaxation in patients and having them visualize their medical problems, literally willing them away. Positive results have been documented with patients suffering loss due to disease, altered body image, or the threat of death. Positive results have also been documented when a total cure may be out of the question. Guided imagery exercises also are used to help patients cope with stress. In these therapies, people imagine themselves in an environment they associate with relaxing a peaceful beach, a lake, or a favorite mountain. Closing their eyes and taking a few deep, easy breaths, they remember the details of the setting the sights, smells, and sounds and focus on feeling peaceful and relaxed.

EDHFDependent Dilatation

Several mechanisms can account for the NO- and PGI2-independent dilatation of different vascular beds. The CYP-derived arachidonic acid metabolite(s) implicated in the EDHF response are the EETs, in particular 5,6-, 11,12- and 14,15-EET. When applied exogenously, 11,12-EET and 5,6-EET induce K+Ca channel inhibitor-sensitive relaxations of endothelium-denuded arteries and activate iberiotoxin-sensitive, large conductance K+Ca (BKCa) channels in native and cultured smooth muscle cells. The fact that EETs activate iberiotoxin-sensitive BKCa channels has frequently been used as an argument against the involvement of an EET in the EDHF-mediated response, since EDHF-dependent relaxation is more universally sensitive to the combination of charybdotoxin and apamin than to iberi-otoxin (Zygmunt and Hogestatt 1996) and the smooth muscle cells from many freshly isolated arteries do not express the BKCa channel (Gauthier et al. 2002). However, the EDHF-mediated relaxation of porcine coronary...

Vocabulary Builder

Dystrophin A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as spectrin and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa. nih

Acts That Recruit Social Attention

Researchers still do not have a full understanding of why infants smile, but the account that seems to be most acceptable is the tension release hypothesis, first proposed by Sroufe and Waters (1976). This hypothesis is an attempt to pull together the different developmental phases of smiling and laughing into a single process. In essence, smiling is believed to accompany an increase of tension or physiological arousal above a certain threshold and then a relaxation of that arousal. As perceptual learning and cognitive development proceed, the complexity of the stimulus re-

Trigeminal Nerve nV see Fig 145

Interruption of all trigeminal nerve fibers unilaterally results in (1) anesthesia and loss of general senses in the regions innervated by n.V and (2) a lower motoneuron paralysis (loss of jaw reflex and fibrillations, weakness and atrophy of jaw muscles). The sensory changes include loss in the ipsilateral nostril of the sensitivity of the nasal mucosa to ammonia and other volatile chemicals (smarting effect) and a loss of corneal sensation on the same side. The interruption of sensory fibers from the cornea (ophthalmic division) produces a loss of the ipsilateral and contralateral (consensual) corneal reflex (Chap. 19). Fibers forming the afferent limb of the corneal reflex terminate in the spinal trigeminal nucleus, pars oralis (see Fig. 9.5), which projects bilaterally to the facial nucleus (n.VII). The latter innervate the orbic-ularis oculi muscles that close the eyes (both eyes blink). The loss of proprioceptive input can result in the relaxation...

Changes in biomarkers

The process of deterioration of patients who have heart failure is correlated with a trend toward increasing remodeling of the heart. Different components of the myocardium are involved, including the myocytes, the matrix, the fibroblasts, and the endothelial cells 35,76,77,83-92 . The myocytes change their size with a distinct enlargement of the long axis, which is associated with deterioration in contractile and relaxation function, with the effect of insensitivity to cate-cholamines and with the induction of a specific gene program involving several groups of genes 35,93-96 .

Gamma Amino Butyric Acid

Distributed throughout the brain, the GABA receptors mediate the sedative effects of benzo-diazepines, and the actions of barbiturates. In addition, they appear to be a major site for anesthetic action. Benzodiazepines (e.g., Librium and Valium) are drugs used for alleviating such generalized anxiety disorders as restlessness, difficulty in concentration, and feeling on edge. The effect on specific neurons produced by these drugs results from the enhancement by the action of GABA. The benzodiazepines bind to GABA receptors and, by so doing, enhance the inhibitory effects of GABA by increasing the affinity of the receptors for GABA. The resulting increase in chloride influx through chloride channels acts to reduce anxiety and provide for muscle relaxation.

Stress Reduction Techniques

The challenge is to find something you enjoy doing each day that can temporarily remove you from the world of cell phones, computers, carpools, and coworkers. In 1975 Dr. Herbert Benson of Harvard Medical School authored The Relaxation Response, which described a simple breathing exercise for mind-body relaxation. The book became a bestseller, and Benson's method continues to help stressed-out people today. Others find relaxation through different channels, such as yoga, tai chi, meditation, and biofeedback. Regular exercise (for example, jogging, working out at the gym, or swimming laps in a pool) is also an effective stress reliever. Whatever your source of relaxation, it must be something you enjoy doing, not a chore, so that you'll be able to stick with it for the long haul and reap the physical and mental health benefits.

Nitric Oxide Carbon Monoxide And Adenosine

Nitric oxide's role in dilating blood vessels (nitrovasodilator) is indicative of one mode of its activity. The parasympathetic neurotransmitter ACh binds to the endothelial cells lining blood vessels to activate the release of NO, which diffuses across membranes to the smooth muscles of a blood vessel (Chap. 20). Nitric oxide causes dilation of the blood vessel as a consequence of the relaxation of the smooth muscle cells. Thus, ACh acts through NO and not directly on the smooth muscles, which lack ACh receptors. Nitric oxide relaxes the muscles through the activation of a second-messenger system involving cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which is related to cAMP (Chap. 3). The dilation is counterbalanced by the sympathetic transmitter norepinephrine, which acts directly with receptor sites on the smooth muscle whose contraction results in constriction of the blood vessel. The NO formed following the absorption of nitroglycerine into the bloodstream relieves the pain symptoms of...

Maternofetal transmission See transmission

It's chemical name is 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. It is an illegal psychoactive drug that has both hallucinogenic and stimulant properties. It is known to interact with several protease inhibitors, causing an increase of MDMA in the body. This increase can quickly cause overdoses, which could lead to death. MDMA is taken orally, usually in tablet or capsule form, and its effects last approximately four to six hours. Users of the drug say that it produces profoundly positive feelings, empathy for others, elimination of anxiety, and extreme relaxation. MDMA is also said to suppress the need to eat, drink, or sleep, enabling users to endure two- to three-day parties. Consequently, MDMA use sometimes results in severe dehydration or exhaustion. MDMA users also report aftereffects of anxiety, paranoia, and depression. An MDMA overdose is characterized by high blood pressure, faintness, panic attacks, and, in more severe cases, loss of consciousness,...

Depolarizing muscle relaxant A drug that mimics

The action of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction to produce a relatively short period of paralysis and relaxation. Used to facilitate the passage of an endotracheal tube to maintain airway patency at the start of a surgical operation. Suxamethonium is the only common drug of this type.

Entering the field methods of access and data collection

Because I had developed a good rapport with day care's staff and patients, it actually proved to be comparatively easy to set up a second project within the hospice. The hospice staff had heard positive reports about my fieldwork in day care and, consequently, were willing to allow me to conduct an ethnographic study within their own institution. The general consensus of opinion was that, since I had already shown that I was capable of interacting with patients in a careful and sensitive manner, I would be extremely unlikely to upset their own patients. Yet, at a meeting set up to discuss my fieldwork arrangements, it also became evident that staff's willingness to allow me to conduct research in the hospice stemmed partly from the fact that, at the time, they were preoccupied with several practical and ethical issues relating to their own working practices. It was proposed, therefore, that I might be able to help them to address these matters through my own research. One of the...

Maximizing Survival Potential in Very High Risk Cardiac Surgery

The mechanisms of postischemic dysfunction are well defined 8 . After cardiac surgery myocar-dial stunning may impair contractile function for several days despite normal or near-normal coronary blood flow and oxygen supply 8,9 . Stunning causes transient systolic and diastolic dysfunction but with potential for full recovery. The underlying pathophysiology is less efficient oxygen use by the contractile apparatus. This inefficiency results from impaired calcium handling by the sarcoplasmic reticulum and reduced calcium sensitivity of the contractile proteins 10 . Myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) for excitation-contraction coupling is inappropriately high in stunned myocardium with a decrease in contractile efficiency (energetically inefficient) 11 . Potential mechanisms of persisting dysfunction include uncoupling between substrate metabolism and energy production, accelerated but useless energy consumption, or impaired energy transfer to the contractile proteins. Alterations in...

Types of Muscular Dystrophy

Myotonic This is the most common adult form of MD, although half of all cases are still diagnosed in patients younger than 20. Primary symptoms involve facial weakness, a very slow relaxation of muscles after contraction, and weak hand muscles. The disease may be mild or severe, but because the defective gene is dominant, even someone with mild symptoms can transmit a more serious case of it to offspring. A less common congenital form affects only a small number of infants born to mothers with myotonic dystrophy, but it has a worse prognosis.

Autonomic Nervous System

The contraction (or relaxation) of muscles and the secretion of glands is an overt expression of the functional activity of the nervous system. These actions are mediated through the somatic motor system and the autonomic (visceral) nervous system. The somatic motor system innervates the voluntary (skeletal, striated) muscles, whereas the autonomic nervous system influences the activities of involuntary (smooth) muscles, cardiac (heart) muscle, and glands. The autonomic nervous system is often called the general visceral efferent system or vegetative motor system because the effectors are associated with the visceral systems over which only minimal, if any, direct conscious control can be exerted.

Parasympathetic Craniosacral Division

With regard to the urinary bladder, the nor-epinephrinergic sympathetic innervation contributes to the relaxation of the detrusor muscle (muscle of the bladder) and increased tone of the internal sphincter. The cholinergic parasympathetic innervation stimulates contraction of the detrusor muscle and relaxation of the internal sphincter.

The Peristaltic Reflex

And attributed to a local nervous mechanism of the bowel consisting of oral contraction anal relaxation. Sensory neurons have long been known to elicit peristaltic reflex responses to alterations in the tension in the wall of the gut and in the chemical environment. The expression of the intrinsic neural circuitry within the gut is generally initiated by moderate distention. The reflex persists in vitro in isolation of the dorsal roots, cranial nerve ganglia, and the CNS, indicating that the wall of the bowel contains all of the essential neural elements (i.e., primary sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons to perform normal gut functions). The overall control and regulation of contractile activity of the gut is not focused at the pacemaker sites, but, rather, is directed to the smooth muscle fibers throughout the gut. The control system effecting this regulation involves (1) the enteric circuitry, (2) the feedback circuits of afferent fibers from the gut to the prevertebral...

Effector Organ Responses

The dual hypothesis of antagonism in the ANS is no longer tenable (Bannister and Mathias, 1999). (2) Organs, as effectors, react predominantly to either sympathetic or parasympathetic activation. (3) Excitatory reactions are the general rule, whereas inhibitory reactions such as relaxation are rare. The iris, heart, and urinary bladder are organs reacting to centrally and peripherally integrated inputs from both systems. Visceral afferents with cell bodies in dorsal root ganglia and vagal and glossopha-ryngeal sensory ganglia and characterized by unmyelinated or thinly myelinated axons are not associated with a specific system, but exert influences over both systems. The response of an individual receptor to a specific neurotransmitter is not solely determined by the neurotransmitter the nature of the receptive sites of the receptor is also a significant factor. The response of an effector is determined by the neurotransmitter-receptor linkages. For,...

Results For Other CrIii Supplements

One study has been reported in which the nitrate salt of the propionate oxotrimer did not cause DNA strand breaks in pUC19 plasmid DNA either by itself or in the presence of ascorbate however, in the presence of 210 M H2O2 a solution of 120 M oxotrimer did cause plasmid relaxation 95 . This observation was consistent with a study from the same laboratory that found plasmid DNA strand breaks with solutions of the acetate oxotrimer and H2O2 96 .

Neural Control Of The Urinary Bladder

The urinary bladder is predominately under parasympathetic control. The motor limb of the voiding reflexes comprises the parasympathetic contraction of the detrusor muscle (collective term for the bundles of smooth muscle forming the muscular wall of the bladder) stimulated by cholinergic and purinergic transmitters. This is coordinated with the parasympathetic relaxation of the musculature of the proximal urethra modulated by nitrergic messengers (Chap. 15). In addition, there is adrenergic sympathetic control over the proximal urethral musculature that results in its constriction during emission and ejaculation. This prevents retrograde ejaculation into the bladder. Thus, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems function both antagonistically and synergistically to complement their physiological activities. In addition, the somatosensory and motor pathways are involved in the volitional control of storage of urine in the bladder during urination. The CNS integrates...

Tourettes syndrome 311

Common simple tics include eye blinking, shoulder jerking, picking movements, grunting, sniffing, and barking. Complex tics include facial grimacing, arm flapping, coprolalia (use of obscene words), repeating words (either one's own or another's words or phrases). The type, location, frequency, and severity of tics may vary over time. In some cases, symptoms may disappear for a period of weeks or even months. Although there is an involuntary quality to the tics, most people have some control over their symptoms at least briefly, and even for hours at a time. However, suppressing tics tends simply to postpone more severe outbursts, since the impulse to express tics is ultimately irresistible. Tics often will increase in response to stress and become less frequent with relaxation or intense focus on a task.

Clinical Application Of Btx In The Treatment Of Lut Dysfunction

The first reported urological application of BTX injection was in the treatment of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD). Fundamental to the normal physiology of micturition is the coordinated relaxation of the external sphincter during bladder contraction and emptying. DSD is the contraction of the urinary sphincter simultaneously with voluntary or uninhibited involuntary contraction of the detrusor muscle. This phenomenon results in a functional bladder outflow obstruction, which can increase intravesical pressures and result in secondary bladder and renal damage. The inhibitory effect of BTX on the motor end plate with resultant muscle relaxation provided the rationale behind the first urological applications in the treatment of detrusor muscle and external sphincter spasticity. However, a large amount of in vitro data suggests gland atrophy (56). In addition, the localization of muscarinic receptors on prostatic epithelial cells and the parasympathetic actions of neurons associated...

Protocol For Btx Injection

Published investigation to date has generally used an injection volume of 0.1 mL to 0.5 mL per injection site. More recently, protocol modifications have been proposed using a larger injection volume (0.5-1.0 mL ref. 15). Kim et al. demonstrated that larger dilution volumes resulted in increased gastrocnemius muscle relaxation in an animal model (72). Theoretically, it is possible that larger dilution volumes will result in greater suburothelial diffusion, thereby allowing for toxin action on a larger surface area of muscle. However, no evidence has been presented to suggest that increased dilution volume used during intravesical injection BTX will result in superior clinical outcomes. In contrast, larger volumes may have the deleterious effect of increasing the potential for serosal extravasation. Further, as BTX administration is more frequently performed in the outpatient clinical setting, larger volumes may also result in increased patient discomfort and analgesic requirements.

Seven Stages of Process

Immediate experience of previously stuck feeling rich immediacy of experience, and acceptance of it self experienced as existentially living in the moment, not as an object physiological loosening (tears, sighs, muscle relaxation) subjective experience replaces defined problems new feelings experienced richly and immediately experience is new and present, not related to past structures self is the awareness of experiencing, not an object constructs are tentative and loosely held, to be tested feelings match ideation rich experience of choice

Ect Treating The Mind With Electricity

Today, psychiatrists turn to ECT as one of the most effective (and safest) treatments available for major depressive disorder. This therapy can also be extremely beneficial for patients suffering from mania, catatonia, schizophrenia, and other neuropsychiatric conditions. During the procedure, the psychiatrist activates the passage of controlled pulses of electrical current through the patient's brain. The stimulation produces a generalized seizure lasting 25 to 150 seconds. Contrary to popular belief, ECT is a brief, painless procedure. It is always administered under general anesthesia with muscle relaxation. Most patients requiring this course of therapy for depression will undergo roughly 6 to 12 treatments given three times per week.

Treatment Of Achalasia With Btxa

Achalasia is a motor disorder of the esophagus in which the hallmark symptom is dysphagia. Manometrically, it is characterized by aperistalsis in the distal esophagus and failure or incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) upon swallowing (14). The LES is a specialized region of smooth muscle that is tonically contracted. LES relaxation in response to swallowing is precisely regulated by a number of mediators. The excitatory pathway is mediated by cholinergic vagal efferents. Atropine decreases LES pressure significantly in normal subjects and patients with achalasia (14). The inhibitory (i.e., relaxation) pathway is mediated through nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide (15). Nitric oxide is generated by myenteric neurons utilizing nitric oxide synthase (16). The pathogenesis of achalasia is a degeneration of the inhibitory (nitric oxide) nerves innervating the LES. The loss of inhibitory input allows for failure of the LES to relax and unopposed...

Landuse and climatechange interactions

Although climate changes to date remain small, habitat availability is preventing some butterfly species from tracking shifting climatic conditions successfully Hill et al. (1999) Parmesan et al. (1999). Warren et al. (2001) also report that climate and land use changes are causing the distributions of habitat specialist butterflies to decline more than those of habitat generalists. Changes in climate and habitat act as opposing forces near these species' range margins the negative impacts of land use changes along range margines overwhelm the relaxation of climatic constraints along those margins (Warren et al. 2001). At the scale of entire species' ranges, climate change and habitat loss may interact to increase extinction risk (Travis 2003). For example, patch occupancy models demonstrate that extinction becomes very likely below a species-specific threshold of habitat

Hydroxytryptamine4 Receptors

Not surprisingly, many of the effects of 5-HT4 receptors are linked to the activation of PKA, which is activated by increases in cAMP. PKA-mediated effects of the 5-HT4 receptor include inhibition of K+ channels (320), relaxation of the colonic circular smooth muscle (321), positive lusitropy, chronotropy, and inotropy in the cardiac atria (322,323), facilitation of dopamine release in the striatum (324), regulation of a hippocampal Ca2+-activated potassium current (325), and activation of atrial L-type Ca2+ channels (326). In addition, exogenously expressed 5-HT4b receptors have been shown to stimulate ERK in HEK293 cells through a pathway that is PKA, Raf, and Ras dependent, but which is independent of Rap1 (327). However, not all effects of the 5-HT4 receptors are mediated by PKA. For example, the human 5-HT4g receptor, when transfected into CHO cells, regulates the metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein APP695 through a cAMP-dependent and PKA-independent signaling pathway...

Expectancies and Beliefs

From previous experience and by observing others, people learn to enact those behaviors that they expect will result in the most subjectively valued outcome. When people have no information about what they can expect from a behavior, they will enact those behaviors that received the greatest reinforcement hi past similar situations. For example, a college student who has never taken the GRE nevertheless lias had experience preparhig for other tests. What that student does hi getting ready for the GRE is partially influenced by what previous test preparation behaviors resulted in the most valuable outcome. A student who has previously been rewarded for using self-relaxation techniques to prepare for tests will expect that the same techniques will help hi dohig well on the GRE. Mischel (1990, 2004) referred to this type of expectancy as a behavior-outcome expectancy. People often construe behavior-outcome expectancies in an if. . . , then . . framework. If I use self-relaxation...

Hydroxytryptamine7 Receptors

The 5-HT7 receptors also are expressed in the periphery, where their best characterized function is to mediate relaxation of vascular smooth muscle (397). In particular, 5-HT7 receptors are expressed throughout the gut (398) and stomach (399), as well as in vasculature (400,401). 5-HT7 receptors are also expressed in adrenal glomerulosa cells (402,403) and corneal epithelial cells (404). In the adrenal gland, 5-HT7 receptors stimulate the release of aldos-terone from adrenal glomerulosa cells (402,403) by increasing cAMP levels.

The Developing Role Of

When cosmetic BTX injections were first used to diminish forehead wrinkles, practitioners observed that their patients also had fewer episodes of migraine headaches (10). This serendipitous observation instigated clinical trials examining the efficacy of neurotoxin use for the treatment of migraine headaches. Initially, the efficacy of Botox injections for migraine prophylaxis was thought to be related to muscle relaxation. However, the level of efficacy of pain relief from injections did not significantly correlate with the level of weakness or muscle relaxation. Traditionally, migraines were thought to be caused by vasoconstriction followed by vasodilatation. Although the exact pathophysiology of migraines remains elusive, many clinicians now believe that migraines arise from increased sensitivity of cerebral structures in the dorsal raphe area of the brainstem. These sensitized cerebral structures, when reacting to stimuli, can trigger a cascade of responses that activate the...

Stabilizing Excipients

Mechanism of protein stabilization during freeze-drying and storage The relative importance of thermodynamic stabilization and glassy state relaxation dynamics, in Freeze-drying Lyophilization of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products (Rey, L. and May, J. C., eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999, pp. 161-198.

What Contributes to Self Efficacy

Psychotherapists have long recognized that a reduction hi anxiety or an increase in physical relaxation can facilitate performance. Arousal information is related to several variables. First, of course, is the level of arousal ordinarily, the higher the arousal, the lower the self-efficacy. The second variable is the perceived realism of the arousal. If one knows that the fear is realistic, as when driving on an icy mountain road personal efficacy may be raised. However, when one is cognizant of the absurdity of the phobia for example, fear of the outdoors then the emotional arousal tends to lower efficacy. Finally, the nature of the task is an added

Fundamentals Of Laser Treatment Of Leg Veins

The advent of laser technology for treatment of leg veins began with the concept of selective photothermolysis developed in the late 1980s.5 The theory of selective photother-molysis states that selective damage to a tissue structure is achieved by means of a wavelength of light preferentially absorbed by a chromophore in light-absorbing molecules and laser exposure time less than or equal to the object's thermal relaxation time (i.e., the time required for the object to lose 50 of its thermal energy). The thermal relaxation times of leg veins vary depending upon vessel diameter (see Table 16.2).6

Measurement of lyophilizationinduced thermal changes

The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique can be used to measure molecular mobility of frozen systems through the spin-lattice T1 and spin-spin T2 relaxation times. Another powerful technique discussed in Chapter 2, infrared spectroscopy, can be used to monitor changes in secondary structure of a protein following lyophilization. Proteins undergo reversible rearrangement of their secondary structure on removal of water. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the a-helix content of recombinant human albumin was found to drop from 58 in solution to 25 to 30 in the dehydrated state. Also, the p-sheet content increased from 0 to 10-20 , and unordered structures increased from 40 to 50-60 .35

Inhaled nitric oxide gas and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance

Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a selective pulmonary vasodilator 71 . Once inhaled into the alveolus it diffuses across the alveolar-capillary membrane and into vascular smooth muscle cells. Here NO stimulates guanylate cyclase to generate cyclic guanosine 3, 5-monophosphate (cGMP). In turn cGMP activates protein kinase G, which lowers intracellular calcium causing vascular smooth muscle relaxation. As NO diffuses through the vascular smooth muscle cell and into blood, it is immediately bound to hemoglobin and inactivated. The affinity of hemoglobin for NO is 3000 times greater than for oxygen. By binding to hemoglobin the vasodilating actions of inhaled NO are limited to the pulmonary circulation so that unwanted systemic vasodilation is avoided. In addition the vasodilating action of NO rapidly ceases when the gas is turned off because the half-life of cGMP is less than one minute.

Aging and the corpus callosum

Callosal T1 relaxation times, which describe the tissue-dependent decay of signals in MRI experiments, have been analyzed in an adult and elderly population (Doraiswamy et al., 1991). Positive correlations between age and callosal T1 relaxation times were found. Furthermore, a negative relationship between age and cal-losal area was seen. T1 relaxation values are sensitive to the environment of water in most tissues, and therefore longer callosal T1 relaxation times are suggestive of an increase in callosal hydrogen content.

Four Categories Of Psychophysiological Relationships

Noted in discussions of the scientific method and is perhaps equally often violated in scientific practice (Platt, 1964). Skin conductance, for instance, has been a major dependent measure in psychological research because emotional arousal is thought to lead to increased skin conductance. Similarly, EMG activity over the forehead region has been a frequent target measure in relaxation biofeedback because tension has been found to increase EMG activity over this region. As noted in the previous section, however, simply knowing that that manipulating a particular element in the psychological domain leads to a particular response in the physiological domain does not logically enable one to infer anything about the former based on observations of the latter, because one does not know what other antecedents might have led to the observed physiological response. Procedures such as holding constant any variations in the elements in the psychological domain that are not of interest,...

DSC and isothermal calorimetry

Amylose Lipid Complex

The glass transition temperature, Tg, is another quantity that can be determined with a DSC investigation. This transition is actually spread over a relatively wide temperature range and corresponds to the relaxation of the translation degrees of freedom within the sample investigated. The process is therefore accompanied by an increase of the heat capacity which produces the endother-mic shift of the base line of the DSC trace. As a typical finding, the glass transition is followed by other phenomena (Fig. 3) that are sustained by the increased molecular mobility, like crystallization of ice (exothermic peak) or enthalpy relaxation (endo- or exothermic peak). A major information drawn from MTDSC is relevant to the heat capacity drop observed at Tg from the stress-relaxation endotherm (non-reversing signal) that is often observed on heating samples previously cooled at subzero temperatures, like frozen doughs 17 . The changes of the relaxation enthalpy are worth determining since they...

The Fatigued Attorney

Physical examination revealed a well-proportioned woman, 65 in. (1.65 m) in height, 125 lb (56.7 kg) in weight, and with sparse eyebrows (particularly at the lateral margins). Her facial features appeared slightly puffy in comparison to the photograph on her driver's license taken 3 years before. The pulse rate was 58 bpm and the blood pressure 138 88 mm Hg. Examination of her neck disclosed a small goiter of 25 g (normal, 15-20 g) with a palpable pyramidal lobe and a firm, bosselated texture. Her deep tendon reflexes were normally contractive but showed a delayed relaxation phase.

About the Multidimensional Anger Inventory

One important step in modifying your anger is to learn a more appropriate, healthier response to situations that make you angry. Most anger management programs use relaxation training to help people with this step. A good source of additional information about the benefits of relaxation and detailed instructions to help you learn this response is Harvard psychiatrist Herbert Benson's book, The Relaxation Response. Even if you do not spend the time to thoroughly master these techniques, you can accomplish a great deal with very simple breathing exercises. Suppose you are stuck in traffic and know you will be late to an important meeting. Rather than feel angry at all the idiots who are making life difficult for you, simply lean back in your seat, take several slow, deep breaths, and repeat the word relax to yourself. This will not work miracles the first time you try it, but if you consistently practice relaxing in situations that typically make you angry, you will be surprised by the...

The Masturbation Scare

The book is divided into three sections causes, consequences, and diseases caused by self-pollution. Masturbation was not only condemned as a sin, but by tracing its consequence upon both the body and the soul, the author inserted the moral consequences into the medical outcomes. For example, masturbation was linked to stunted growth, phimosis and paraphimosis, strangury, priapism, gonorrhea, ulcers, thin and waterish seed, fainting fits, epilepsy, consumption, loss of erection, premature ejaculation, and infertility. The book is notable for not only raising the specter of masturbation as a medical, moral issue but for describing the ill effects of masturbation on women. Hence, masturbation was believed to cause the relaxation of private parts and retentive faculty leading to infertility, because male semen could no longer be held within the woman. Moreover, according to the author of Onania, women who masturbated were prone to hysterical fits, barrenness, imbecility, fluor albis...

Symptoms and detection of strychnine poisoning

The body is arched as the muscles contract excessively, so much so that the head may touch the heels (as in the case of one of Palmer's victims). The muscles that control breathing are also affected and may stop, leading to temporary asphyxia. After each convulsion there is a relaxation period of about fifteen minutes during which the victim is not only exhausted but terrified, as strychnine causes heightened awareness. Stimulation of the senses can precipitate a convulsion and so treatment involves keeping the patient in a darkened room, sedated, and sometimes even under anaesthesia. This may not be available quickly enough, however, as death may occur after five or so convulsions. The effects can be reduced by removing some of the strychnine from the stomach by washing it out, if the patient is lightly anaesthetized.

Appendix B Researching Alternative Medicine

Complementary and alternative therapies are used in an effort to prevent illness, reduce stress, prevent or reduce side effects and symptoms, or control or cure disease. Some commonly used methods of complementary or alternative therapy include mind body control interventions such as visualization and relaxation, manual healing including acupressure and massage, homeopathy, vitamins or herbal products, and acupuncture.

Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists

Agonists are drugs that bind to a receptor site on a cell and cause an action to occur. Benzodiazepine receptor agonists work by increasing the efficiency of gamma-aminobutryric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that reduces how often neurons fire alertness-promoting messages to each other. The drugs attach themselves to receptor sites on nerve cell molecules, changing the shape of the site slightly, so it's more attractive to GABA molecules. The binding of GABA opens pores in the cell, allowing chloride ions to flow into the cell, which makes the cell less likely to react. Depending on the cell's location, GABA binding can lead to sedation, muscle relaxation, decreased anxiety, and antiseizure effects.


Alcohol and the brain This central nervous system depressant in higher concentrations is a neurotoxin it acts on the brain's reticular formation and spinal cord, depressing brain activity and thus reducing anxiety, tension, and inhibitions. In moderate amounts, alcohol can impart feelings of relaxation and confidence because the alcohol loosens the control exercised by higher brain centers. However, tests show that alcohol also interferes with the brain's activities, slowing reactions even a few drinks four times a week can affect the brain.

Sperm nucleases

While a nuclease could be detrimental to the integrity of the paternal genome, they are necessary for proper spermatogenesis. As discussed earlier, negative supercoils must be removed from the DNA when histones are replaced by protamines during spermiogenesis. To remove these supercoils, nicks must be introduced into the DNA by a nuclease, at specific stages of spermiogenesis, as discussed above (Marcon and Boissonneault, 2004). Topoisomerase has been implicated in this process as it allows for controlled nicking, increase in linking number and subsequent DNA relaxation, and religation of the DNA. The TUNEL assay does detect in situ DNA strand breaks in the early stages of spermatogenesis (Marcon and Boissonneault, 2004). However, the lack of proper elimination of errant cells during spermatoge-nesis could allow cells with DNA strand breaks to continue along the maturation pathway thus causing positive TUNEL assays in epididymal and ejaculated sperm.

Normal Breathing

Hixon (1975) provides a useful parameterization of breathing for speech that includes volume, pressure, flow, and body configuration or shape. For conversational speech in the upright body position, the following apply. Lung volume is the amount of air available for speaking or vocalizing. The volumes used for speech are usually within the midvolume range of vital capacity (VC), beginning at 60 VC and ending at around 40 VC (Hixon, 1973 Hixon, Mead, and Goldman, 1976 Hoit et al., 1989). This volume range is efficient and economical, in that extra effort is not required to overcome recoil forces (Hixon, Mead, and Goldman, 1976). Most lung volume exchange for speech is brought about by rib cage displacement and not by displacement of the abdomen (Hixon, 1973). The rib cage is efficient in displacing lung volume because it covers a greater surface area of the lungs, it consists of muscle fiber types that are able to generate fast and accurate pressure changes, and it is well endowed...

Effects of Posture

The changes that occur in speech breathing with a switch from the upright position are numerous and reflect the different effects of gravity (see Hoit, 1995, for a comprehensive tutorial). In supine speech breathing involves approximately 20 less of VC. The change of body configuration from the upright position to the supine position means that rib cage volume decreases and abdominal volume increases. This modification changes the mechanics of the breathing muscles and requires a different motor control strategy for speech production. For example, in the supine position there is little or no muscular activity of the abdomen during speaking, whereas in the upright body position the abdominal muscles are quite active (Hixon, Mead, and Goldman, 1976 Hoit et al., 1988). In light of the mechanical and neural control issues discussed earlier, it seems unwarranted to position an individual supine to teach natural'' breathing for speech and voice. With regard to breathing at rest, it should...


Peristalsis is intrinsic to the intestine, occurring even in surgically isolated segments, and is mediated by reflex enteric nerve activity. Nitric oxide (NO) is the main mediator of relaxation in the advancing front of a peristaltic wave, while acetylcholine (ACh) and other neurotransmit-ters mediate contraction.


You can control the harm that stress does to your memory by finding ways to modify your response to stressful life events. Vigorous physical activity helps some people overcome stress others use meditation or relaxation techniques. For some, it's a matter of learning their limits how much stress they can take on and developing assertiveness in politely but firmly declining a task or commitment. Everyone's different. What's important is that you find stress-management activities that are effective for you. I discuss scientifically proven stress-reduction techniques in Chapter 9.

Primary Insomnia

People who develop primary insomnia seem predisposed to the problem because they have overactive nervous systems. Studies of people with chronic insomnia show they have higher metabolic rates and produce higher levels of stress hormones than others. Some experience they've had triggers difficulty with sleep, though in most cases individuals can't recall a specific event. After experiencing a few sleepless nights, they learn to associate the bedroom with being awake. The usual cues to begin to relax, such as entering the bedroom, putting on pajamas or brushing their teeth, instead elicit anxiousness about whether or not sleep will come easily. This anxiety causes alertness rather than relaxation and can further interfere with sleep.


Several studies report results of successful interventions for PSD patients (Aronson, 1969 Marshall and Watts, 1975 Kalman and Granet, 1981 Carstens, 1982 Kallen, Marshall, and Casey, 1986 Andersson and Schalen, 1998). These usually begin with the clinician acknowledging the patient's distress and assuring the patient that there is no known organic reason for the problem. Potential factors that might contribute to the patient's distress are discussed in a nonthreatening manner. Here the focus of attention is on how the symptom or symptoms are disrupting communication. Individually designed intervention programs are then initiated and typically proceed in small steps or behavioral increments. For example, a sequence of intervention steps for a patient with psychogenic aphonia may include the following (1) eliciting a normal vocal tone with a cough, grunt, or hum (2) prolonging the normal vocalization into a vowel (3) turning the vowel into a VC word (4) linking two VC words together...

Caveolin and Hsp90

In endothelial cells, eNOS has been localised to caveolae, small invaginations of the plasma membrane rich in cholesterol. Membrane cholesterol depletion impairs agonist-induced relaxation due to alteration in caveolar structure and disruption of the eNOS signalling complex (Everson and Smart 2001), while hypercholesterolaemia is reported to attenuate NO output by enhancing the interaction of caveolin-1 and eNOS (Feron et al. 1999). The association of these two proteins is generally reported to attenuate enzymatic activity, and an increase in NO production is linked to their dissociation (Garci'a-Cardena et al. 1996 Michel et al. 1997). Indeed, the application of fluid shear stress is reported to elicit the rapid dissociation of eNOS and caveolin, thus permitting the binding of calmodulin (Rizzo et al. 1999). As mentioned already, the response to shear stress increased blood flow is biphasic, consisting of an initial Ca2+-dependent peak followed by a maintained Ca2+-independent...

How strychnine kills

This natural toxin acts on receptors in the nervous system, in the spinal cord, which respond to a substance called glycine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. When released from special nerve cells the glycine inhibits the action of nerves that control muscles. It is a control mechanism to stop the nerves sending messages too rapidly, thereby causing the muscles to react too violently Strychnine thus diminishes resistance to nerve impulses and so heightens sensitivity to stimuli. In the presence of strychnine, this control is lost the muscles contract excessively, and the patient suffers violent convulsions and contortions. All the muscles are contracted but the most powerful prevail, leading to extreme arching of the back. The victim dies from a combination of exhaustion and asphyxiation because the nerves controlling breathing are out of control. Breathing often stops during the violent convulsions and may or may not start again during the relaxation period.

Harm reduction

Healing touch Healing touch is believed by some to accelerate wound healing, relieve pain, promote relaxation, prevent illness, and ease the dying process. The practitioner uses light touch or works with his or her hands near the client's body in an effort to restore the client's energy system.

In the Workplace

Because nicotine's effects last only 40 minutes to a few hours, users must smoke or chew tobacco periodically throughout the day to get more nicotine. In addition, people can also become tolerant of nicotine's effects, so that they need to use more and more to reach the same degree of stimulation or relaxation. As smokers use nicotine-containing products, the body begins to compensate for the effects of the nicotine. Brain cells might increase or decrease the number of receptors or the amount of different neurotransmitters affected by the presence of nicotine. When a smoker quits smoking and there is no longer any nicotine in the body, these physiological adaptations for nicotine remain. As a result, the body cannot function the same way it did before. people trying to quit nicotine experience this process as irritability, anxiety, depression, and craving for nicotine. After about a month, these symptoms and the physiological changes subside, but for many smokers, even a day without...

Lm0 Rc

Since the two main coronary arteries that bring blood supply into the coronary circulation have their origin at the base of the ascending aorta just as it leaves the left ventricle (Figs. 1.3.1, 2), flow entering these arteries is subject to the full force of the cardiac pressure pulse. And it is well established that the main coronary arteries have a considerable degree of compliance, which can in fact be easily observed in the course of coronary cine-angiography. Thus, the ingredients for a windkessel scenario, namely a pulsating pressure and compliant vessels, are present in the coronary circulation as they are in the cardiovascular system as a whole. Indeed, compliance, or capacitance effects, within the coronary circulation are believed to be the result of not only the elasticity of the coronary vessels but also the enormous contraction and relaxation of the cardiac muscle tissue in which many of the coronary vessels are embedded. Thus, capacitance effects rank high in the...


Treatment is advisable in cases where people have injured themselves or seem likely to. Behavioral therapies aimed at promoting relaxation often reduce or eliminate episodes. In particular, self-hypnosis a technique that can be learned from a trained counselor in six sessions and then practiced at home before bedtime is often effective.

Cell physiology

Distinct neuronal process for contact with the extracellular world. This other fundamental process is the transmission of an impulse from the neuronal cell-body down the axonal cable to the synapse, i.e., neuronal conduction via the action potential. The mechanism of generation of the action potential is also well-understood when ionic concentrations within the intracellular fluid cross a threshold value - the intracellular fluid becoming slightly less alkaline than its normal resting state, the neuron initiates a process at the axon hillock whereby external, positively-charged sodium ions are briefly allowed to flow into the cell, followed immediately by the outflow of positive potassium ions. In essence, the action potential is an interval of a few milliseconds during which ions flow from regions of high to low concentrations. Thereafter, the ion channels are shut and the relatively slow process begins of re-establishing the resting potential by transporting ions one-by-one across...

How Is Pain Treated

The goal of pain management is to improve function, enabling individuals to work, attend school, or participate in other day-to-day activities. Patients and their physicians have a number of options for the treatment of pain some are more effective than others. Sometimes, relaxation and the use of imagery as a distraction provide relief. These methods can be powerful and effective, according to those who advocate their use. Whatever the treatment regime, it is important to remember that pain is treatable. The following treatments are among the most common. Biofeedback is used for the treatment of many common pain problems, most notably headache and back pain. Using a special electronic machine, the patient is trained to become aware of, to follow, and to gain control over certain bodily functions, including muscle tension, heart rate, and skin temperature. The individual can then learn to effect a change in his or her responses to pain, for example, by using relaxation techniques....

Pain threshold

Other interventions include general comfort measures, radiation or chemotherapy, nerve blocks, and complementary therapy believed by some to offer relief, such as aromatherapy, therapeutic touch, and relaxation and imagery techniques. Massage, acupuncture, physical therapy, heat, ice, music, and topical mentholated products may also provide additional comfort.


Sleep apnea Episodes of failure to breathe during sleep that may last for 10 seconds or longer may be caused either by a failure of the brain's regulation of breathing during sleep or by excessive muscular relaxation. obstructive sleep apnea, on the other hand, is more common and is caused by excessive relaxation during sleep of the muscles of the sort palate at the base of the throat and the uvula. These muscles block the airway, making breathing labored and causing loud snoring. A complete blockage will halt breathing, making the sleeper stop snoring. As the pressure to breathe makes muscles of the diaphragm and chest work harder, the blockage is opened and the patient gasps and briefly wakes. This type of sleep apnea may also be caused by enlarged tonsils and adenoids, a large tongue, or a small airway.

Hard Nixon

Nonetheless, Ambrose (1987, p. 614) points out that Nixon refused to use race, class, or religion as his issues. To understand a construct, it is necessary to consider how it is extended not all us versus them constructs are the same. Furthermore, once in office, Nixon sought the relaxation of tensions with foes of the United States, namely, the Soviet Union and Communist China.

Ptsd 407

Psychosocial intervention A therapeutic intervention that uses cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, behavioral, and supportive interventions to relieve pain. These include patient education, interventions aimed at aiding relaxation, psychotherapy, and structured or peer support.

Vascular tone

Vascular tone is regulated by adjustments to the balance of neuronal, humoral and mechanical factors. Endothelial NO production causes vasodilatation, whereas eicosanoids and the sympathetic nervous system represent constricting factors (Vallance and Chan, 2001). A further relaxation agent, endothelium-derived hyper-polarizing factor (EDHF), has been described but its role remains controversial (Triggle etal., 2004). Furchgott and Zawadzki (1980) demonstrated that the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle in response to acetylcholine is dependent on the integrity of the endothelium. Nitric oxide produced by the endothelium rapidly diffuses into the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) to causes relaxation and vasodilatation. Continuous generation of NO is now thought to be crucial in maintaining peripheral vasodilatation (Vallance, Collier and Moncada, 1989). Nitric oxide is also known to possess several other properties that are thought to be vasoprotective (Ross, 1999) vasodilator...

Figure 1017

The MR imaging parameters employed in the imaging sequence are of key importance for the accurate determination of T2 values of the examined gel. The number and temporal spacing of successive echoes influences the accuracy with which the T2 decay of the gel substance within each imaging voxel is sampled, and therefore, the uncertainty with which the T2 value corresponding to a particular voxel, is determined. A poor signal-to-noise ratio obtained in the images of individual echoes can also influence the accuracy of the resulting T2 map. Furthermore, the repetition time TR of the sequence needs to be long enough (four to five times greater than the T1 relaxation time of the unirradiated gel) so that the measured signal is not influenced by T1 relaxation. Within this context it is important that MR imaging parameters are optimized,164'165 since minimization of the uncertainties in the obtained values of the T2 map leads to lower uncertainties in the measured dose distributions and...

Vascular function

Epidemiological observations suggest that increased maternal constraint or utero-placental insufficiency causes conditions associated with endothelial cell dysfunction (see Figure 3.1). Changes in diet within the normal range have been used to produce consistent effects on offspring, such as raised blood pressure, in the absence of growth restriction (Hoet and Hanson, 1999). The low-protein isocalorie diet produces the consistent effect of raised systolic blood pressure in rodent offspring (Armitage etal., 2004). Rats exposed to this diet in utero were demonstrated to have endothelial dysfunction, as shown by a significant blunting of acetylcholine-induced relaxation in the mesenteric arteries (Brawley etal., 2003) Contractile responses were unaffected. This suggests a reduction in the bioavail-ability of NO that is thought to be the result of decreased eNOS expression (Torrens etal., 2003). When endothelial-independent vasodilatation was assessed in the same animals using...

Massage therapy

(treatment of a cavity by a medicated and nebulized vapor under interrupted pressure), or vibratory (massage by rapidly repeated tapping of the affected surface by means of a vibrating hammer or sound). Caressing and stroking of the body may also be done for sensual enjoyment or relaxation. Touching, massaging, hugging, and stroking are considered to be practices with probably no risk of HIV transmission.

Sperm apoptosis

As mentioned above, there exists a major topological problem in going from histone-bound to protamine-bound DNA. Histones coil DNA more than prota-mines, and thus when protamines replace histones, these supercoils must be removed. To remove these supercoils, nicks must be introduced into the DNA by a nuclease. Topoisomerase has been implicated in this process (McPherson and Longo, 1993) as it allows for controlled nicking, increase in linking number and subsequent DNA relaxation, and religation of the DNA. DNA nicks can be seen, in situ, using the TUNEL assay to detect DNA strand breaks in the early stages of spermatogenesis. DNA nicks are maximally seen during the transition from round to elongated spermatids in the testis and visualized in close to 100 of the cells (Marcon and Boissonneault, 2004). These nicks are nearly absent once packaging is complete. A positive correlation has been seen between topoisomerase presence and DNA strand breaks topoisomerases have been identified in...


Characteristics of gadolinium that make it favorable as a contrast agent include its high paramagnetism and its exceptionally long electronic relaxation time. However, gadolinium ions interact with calcium-dependent biological systems and calcium channels1 and also precipitate above pH 6, which can lead to gadolinium being trapped in the liver and other phagocytic tissues. These two characteristics of gadolinium make it necessary to chelate the ion with appropriate polyamino-polycarboxylic ligands for clinical use. These gadolinium chelates have favorable safety profiles they are associated with no clinical incidence of nephrotoxicity2 and with an extremely low incidence of allergic reactions.3


Treatment of phonation due to laryngeal spasticity is difficult, and behavioral intervention typically is not successful for this group of patients. Techniques to facilitate head and neck relaxation as well as laryngeal relaxation, strategies to maximize efficiency of the respiratory system, and the use of postural control may be helpful. Patients with phonatory deficits due to laryngeal dystonia pose similar problems. Medical management, such as botulinum toxin injection, is frequently used to improve the vocal quality of individuals with spasmodic dysphonia and laryngeal dystonias.

Anatomical Landmarks

Laryngeal motion is a highly coordinated and complex function involving multiple muscle groups. The extrinsic muscles of the larynx control laryngeal position in the neck and are divided into the suprahyoid (mylohyoid, geniohyoid, digastric, and stylohyoid) and infrahyoid (sternohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid, and omohyoid) muscles. The intrinsic laryngeal muscles are much smaller and control vocal fold position and or tension. Anteriorly, the paired cricothyroid muscles originate from the anterior cricoid arch and insert on the thyroid laminae. They lie just superficial to the cricothyroid membrane. By virtue of their action on the thyroid cartilage, they indirectly lengthen and tense the vocal folds, which is important for pitch modulation. They are the only intrinsic laryngeal muscles innervated by the external branch of the SLN. The remainder of the intrinsic muscles are innervated by the RLN. The TA muscles form the bulk of the vocal fold and run in an anterior to posterior...


With systematic desensitization, the therapist and patient work together to place fearsome situations on a hierarchy from least to most threatening (W lpe, 1973). Patients, while relaxed enact the least threatening behavior and then gradually move through the hierarchy until they can perform the most threatening activity, all the while remaining at a low state of emotional arousal.