Bacteroides and Cytophaga Group

6.1 The Medically Important Bacteroides spp. in Health and Disease 381 c. jeffrey smith, edson r. rocha and bruce j. paster 6.2 The Genus Porphyromonas 428 frank c. gibson and Caroline attardo genco 6.3 An Introduction to the Family Flavobacteriaceae 455 jean-fran ois bernardet and yasuyoshi nakagawa 6.4 The Genus Flavobacterium 481 jean-fran ois bernardet and john p. bowman 6.5 The Genera Bergeyella and Weeksella 532 celia j. hugo, brita bruun and piet j. jooste 6.6 The Genera Flavobacterium,...

Info

Abbreviations WTA, wall teichoic acid and LTA, lipote- Abbreviations WTA, wall teichoic acid and LTA, lipote- Apart from lethal toxicity and pyrogenicity, LTA appeared to share many of the biological properties exhibited by lipopolysaccharides (Wicken and Knox, 1980). Critical micelle concentrations of various LTAs has been determined to be 1-10 g liter, suggesting that acylated LTAs in their monomer forms may represent the major configuration of extracellular LTA s in bacterial culture fluids...

Kscn

Autoclave at 121 C for 15 min, cool down in water bath to 45 C and add 10 ml of a 0.45 sterile-filtered solution of sodium azide. Mix medium thoroughly and pour immediately into Petri dishes. The medium can be stored at 4 C for at least one week. Staph-ylococci can be detected in various foods at levels as low as 100 colony-forming-units (CFU) g of food. As in the case of KRANEP agar, the addition of egg yolk or pork plasma to the basal medium can provide a basis for...

Ecology

Members of the genus Staphylococcus are widespread in nature and occupy a variety of niches. As a result of their ubiquity and adaptability, staphylococci are a major group of bacteria inhabiting the skin, skin glands, and mucous membranes of humans, other mammals, and birds. A variety of habitats present in the human cutaneous ecosystem can be distinguished by differences in the density and structure of the microbial communities inhabiting them, as well as by their anatomical and physiological...

Isolation Techniques

Staphylococcus aureus has been confirmed to be the causative agent of many cases of severe food poisoning therefore, its presence in foods is of major concern. Staphylococcus aureus is very susceptible to heat treatment and most sanitiz- Table 1. List of species and subspecies in the genera Macro-coccus and Staphylococcus. Macrococcus bovicus M. carouselicus M. caseolyticus M. equipercicusT Staphylococcus arlettae S. auricularis S. aureus1 S. aureus subsp. anaerobius S. aureus subsp. aureus S....

Gapdh

Proposed gluconeogenesis pathway in S. aureus. PEP, phosphoenol pyruvate GAP-DH, D-glyceraldehyde-3-phos-phate dehydrogenase and TPI, triose phosphate isomerase. Table 11. Entrance into the TCA-cycle. 1. Pyruvate-DH (E1, E2 and E3 components) phdB Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component pdhC Dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase E2 componenta Acetyl-CoA + dihydrolipoamide CoA + S-acetyldihydrolipoamide pdhD Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase Pyruvate + HCO3- + ATP Oxalacetate + ADP + Pi...

The Prokaryotes

A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria Volume 4 Bacteria Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria Martin Dworkin (Editor-in-Chief), Stanley Falkow, Eugene Rosenberg, Karl-Heinz Schleifer, Erko Stackebrandt (Editors) Editor-in-Chief Professor Dr. Martin Dworkin Department of Microbiology University of Minnesota Box 196 University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55455-0312 USA Professor Dr. Stanley Falkow Department of Microbiology and Immunology Stanford University Medical School 299 Campus Drive, Fairchild D039...

How D-gln Form Peptide Bond With L-lysine In Peptidoglycan

Pathway of peptidoglycan biosynthesis in staphylococci. extracts from S. aureus (Strominger, 1965). It was partially purified from S. epidermidis (Wickus et al., 1973). The reaction is reversible and moreover specifically and irreversibly inhibited by fosfomycin. The UDP-GlcNAc-enolpyruvate reductase was also purified from S. aureus (Wickus et al., 1973). In all cases, NADPH is used as co-factor. The synthetases that catalyze the assembly of the peptide moiety of the pepti-doglycan unit...

Phylogeny

On the basis of comparative 16S rRNA sequence studies, the genera Staphylococcus and Macro-coccus belong to the Gram-positive bacteria with a low DNA G+C content. They are closely related to bacilli and other Gram-positive bacteria with low DNA G+C content such as entero-cocci, streptococci, lactobacilli and listeria (Fig. 1). Combining Staphylococcus, Gemella, Macro-coccus and Salinicoccus within the family Sta-phylococcaceae has been proposed (Garrity and Holt, 2001). The genera...

Identification

Members of the genus Staphylococcus are Grampositive cocci (0.5-1.5 im in diameter) that occur singly, in pairs, tetrads, short chains (three or four cells), and irregular grape-like clusters. They are nonmotile, nonsporeforming, and usually are unencapsulated or have limited capsule formation. Most species are facultative anaerobes and they are positive for the catalase and benzidine tests. With the exception of S. saccharolyticus and S. aureus subsp. anaerobius, growth is more rapid and...

Gluconeogenesis

In the absence of a fermentable sugar source, heterotrophic microorganisms normally have to synthesize glucose or glucose 6-P. Pyruvate usually serves as a starting substrate. The pathway is essentially a reversal of glycolysis. Most of the glycolytic enzymes can also catalyze the reverse reaction. In gluconeogenesis, however, three bypass steps are involved 1) pyruvate to phos-phoenolpyruvate, 2) fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-P, and 3) glucose 6-P to glucose. The latter bypass is...