Extrachromosomal Genetic Elements

Extrachromosomal genetic elements described for members of the order Sulfolobales include about a dozen of viruses and about two dozen of plasmids, conjugative and cryptic. The unusual features of viruses of Sulfolobales warranted the establishment of novel virus fam ilies spindle-shaped enveloped Fuselloviridae, enveloped lipid-containing filamentous Lipo-thrixviridae, and unenveloped, stiff-rod-shaped Rudiviridae (Prangishvili, 1999b reviewed by Prangishvili et al., 2001). The fourth family,...

Ralph S Wolfe

a new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it. Max Planck The year 2002 marks the 25th anniversary of the discovery of the Archaea. Data to support this discovery were presented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of October 1977 (Fox et al., 1977). However, most people learned about methanogens, a third form of life,...

Discovery of the Archaea

The simple method of growing methanogenic cells in an anaerobic pressurized atmosphere of hydrogen and carbon dioxide was pivotal to the discovery of the Archaea, for hydrogen and carbon dioxide could be replenished with safe containment of high levels of 32P and without exposure of cells to oxygen or contamination. After analysis of the 2-D chromatographic pattern of the T1 endonuclease digestion fragments from the 16S RNA of the first methanogen, I asked about the results. Woese was puzzled,...

Identification

Members of the Thermoproteales are rod-shaped cells about 0.15-0.7 m in diameter and 1 100 im in length (Table 1). They do not divide by septa formation, but snapping division has been observed (Horn et al., 1999). Spores are not formed. The cell envelope S-layer is composed of protein or glycoprotein subunits in hexagonal dense packing no muramic acid is present. The DNA-dependent RNA polymerase is resistant to rifampicin and streptolydigin. Lipids contain glycerol ethers of polyisoprenoid C40...

Firmicutes Gram Positive Bacteria 12 Firmicutes with Low GC Content of DNA

1.2.1 The Genera Staphylococcus and Macrococcus 5 Friedrich g tz, tammy bannerman and karl-heinz Schleifer 1.2.2 The Genus Streptococcus Oral 76 jeremy m. hardie and robert a. whiley 1.2.3 Medically Important Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci 108 p. patrick cleary and qi cheng 1.2.4 Streptococcus pneumoniae 149 elaine tuomanen 1.2.5 The Genus Enterococcus Taxonomy 163 luc devriese, margo baele and patrick butaye 1.2.6 Enterococcus 175 donald j. leblanc 1.2.7 The Genus Lactococcus 205 michael teuber...

Symbiotic Associations

2.1 Cyanobacterial-Plant Symbioses 331 david g. adams, birgitta bergman, s. a. nierzwicki-bauer, 2.2 Symbiotic Associations Between Ciliates and Prokaryotes 364 hans-dieter gortz 2.3 Bacteriocyte-Associated Endosymbionts of Insects 403 paul baumann, nancy a. moran and linda baumann 2.4 Symbiotic Associations Between Termites and Prokaryotes 439 andreas brune 2.5 Marine Chemosynthetic Symbioses 475 colleen m. cavanaugh, zoe p. mckiness, irene l.g. newton and

Acidianus Infernus

Electron micrograph of platinum-shadowed cells of A Sulfolobus acidocaldarius B Sulfolobus metallicus C Acidianus infernus bars for A-C are each 1 m D electron micrograph of a freeze-etched cell of Metallosphaera sedula bar is 1 m E Metallosphaera sedula cell with flagellum platinum-shadowed bar is 1 m F Metallosphaera prunae cells with flagella platinum-shadowed bar is 1 m and G electron micrograph of freeze-etched cells of Acidianus infernus bar is 1 m. Fig. 2. Electron micrograph of...