Cognitive Processes

Theoretical developments in psychology generally and in personality in particular have often emphasized cognitive processes. Mischel and Bandura exemplify this tendency They argue that cognitive concepts (e.g., person variables) are the most useful concepts for understanding personality. Realistic cognition is described as a criterion of mental health by many theorists (e.g., Freud, Allport, Rogers, Maslow, and Bandura). Many warn of unconscious forces that make such realism difficult (e.g.,...

Inking about Adler

Does Adler's emphasis on social aspects of personality problems have any particular relevance for today's problems 2. How would Adler's concept of inferiority apply to people with physical disabilities 3. Do you think Adler's use of the term masculine protest would be relevant to today's society 4. Imagine that you are writing open-ended questions for a research project. What would you ask to assess people's fictional finalisms 5. Do you have a first memory or an early memory that can be...

Performance in Cognitive Social Learning Theory Bandura

Self-Regulation of Behavior The Self-System Processes Influencing Learning Observational Learning and Modeling Therapy The Person in the Social Environment Thinking about Mischel's and Bandura's Theories Glossary 13 Kelly Personal Construct Theory Preview Overview of Kelly's Theory Illustrative Biographies Applying Kelly's Theory Richard Nixon Frida Kahlo Constructive Alternativism The Process of Construing The Structure of Construct Systems The Social Embeddedness of Construing Efforts The...

Preview Overview of Freuds Theory

Freud's theory has implications for major theoretical questions, as presented in Table 2.1. From a scientific point of view, this theory has been long criticized as deficient, because of excessive vagueness in operational definitions that makes it difficult to verify. However, there has been increasing research, in nonclinical as well as therapeutic settings, designed to test some psychoanalytic propositions, as studies described in this chapter illustrate. While the theory is in some ways...

Individuation

People develop the various aspects of their psyche unevenly. Along the way, we may identify disproportionately with our ego or with some aspect or another of our unconscious this excessive identification is often referred to as inflation (Edinger, 1972). Modern humans, according to Jung, are particularly vulnerable to ego inflation, and unlike our ancestors who lived more unconsciously, we suppress the unconscious to an unhealthy extent (Drob, 1999)- Individuation is the process of restoring...

Parental Behavior and Personality Development

Neurotic problems begin early in life, within the family, where the basic evil is invariably a lack of genuine warmth and affection (Horney, 1937, p. 80). Parental behavior that undermines a feeling of safety will lead to neurotic development. This includes parental neglect, indifference, and even active rejection of the child. If the environment is loving, the sorts of traumas identified by Freud, such as premature weaning or toilet training or witnessing the primal scene, could be tolerated....

Rigte 73 Religious Orientation as a Predictor of Religious Fundamentalism Wand Prejudice against Racial Minorities Gays

Nonreligious Extrinsic Intrinsic Indiscriminate Religious Orientation Nonreligious Extrinsic Intrinsic Indiscriminate Religious Orientation Nonreligious Extrinsic Intrinsic Indiscriminate Religious Orientation Nonreligious Extrinsic Intrinsic Indiscriminate Religious Orientation Note Higher scores indicate more prejudice against racial minorities, higher religious fundamentalist ideology, and more prejudice against gay men and lesbian women. Prepared from data re ported by Herek (1 987)....

Biography of Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 into a Jewish family in predominantly Catholic Freiberg, Moravia (then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire but now part of the Czech republic). By the time he was 4 years old, his family moved to Vienna, which remained his home until near his death. Freud was one of eight children, including two older half-brothers by his father's first marriage. Freud's father remarried at age 40, and his young wife bore six children. Sigmund was the oldest and by all accounts...

Rminants of Personality Heredity and Environment

Where do traits, so useful for prediction, originate Cattell distinguishes between constitutional traits, which originate in biological causes (especially genetics), and environmental-mold traits, which are the result of learning and social experience. Cattell (I960) developed a statistical technique, the Multiple Abstract Variance Analysis (MAVA), to analyze the effects of heredity and environment based on data from relatives and nonrelatives. It examines the similarity of relatives (identical...

Al and Ethnic Identity

Erikson remarked that identity first became noticeable to him in his psychiatric practice when he immigrated to the United States. People here, coming from diverse backgrounds (especially in large urban centers), must define themselves anew, as did Erikson himself when he changed his name. This issue is particularly salient during adolescence. A study of Chinese immigrants to the United States, for example, found that those who came alone (without family) during adolescence emphasized their...

Harneys Model of Neurotic Conflict

The child, needing to be loved, wants to move towards the parents, but fears rejection. The child also feels hostility and wants to retaliate by moving against the parents, but fears punishment. The child may give up and move away from the parents. The child, needing to be loved, wants to move towards the parents, but fears rejection. The child also feels hostility and wants to retaliate by moving against the parents, but fears punishment. The child may give up and move away from the parents....

Genetics and the Collective Unconscious

One of Jung's controversial ideas is that the collective unconscious follows the laws of genetic inheritance. It is different in humans than in other animal species, of course. Jung suggested that various races and families inherit somewhat different variations of the collective unconscious, just as they inherit different physical characteristics. This notion of a racial unconscious was exploited in the Nazi era as a scientific rationalization for the racially motivated extermination of...

The Choice Corollary

How do we decide which of our constructs to apply to an event Kelly's (1955) Choice Corollary states A person chooses for himself that alternative in a dichotomized construct through which he anticipates the greater possibility for extension and definition of his system, (p. 64) (The term dichotomized will be explained later, when we consider the Dichotomy Corollary.) Like a scientist whose theory has worked so far, the individual seeks to extend his or her predictions. A person, in Kelly's...

The Third Stage Ideal Prototypes

The third stage of psychosocial development leaves the child with the basic virtue of purpose. The corresponding element of the social order for this stage consists of the ideal prototypes of society. Erikson said that primitive cultures provide a small number of unchanging prototypes that are close to the economy of the tribe for example, the buffalo hunter of the Sioux. These provide straightforward models for children to channel their initiative in play (e.g., playing at buffalo hunting with...

Ab ert Einstein

Some of the descriptive questions posed by these biological factor theories are similar to the factor theories covered in the preceding chapter, which is not surprising. Einstein seems to have been low on Anxiety (or Neuroticism). He is described as someone who could be quite relaxed and uninhibited (Clark, 1971 1984, p. 397), enjoying the pleasures of a pipe, wine, music, and sailing. His biographer gives no indication that he was embarrassed by his unkempt appearance and relates that a...

Id P e I z e r

Lack of love is the major problem impeding growth, according to Rogers. Rogers urges parents to love their children unconditionally, instead of placing conditions that the child must meet in order to be lovable. Such conditional positive regard, in his theory, creates a self that is less creative and less healthy than would develop given unconditional positive regard, because the child abandons his or her true potential in order to become the more limited but lovable self. Dave Pelzer's life...

Personality Psychetypes

Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Sensation Introverted Intuition Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Sensation Extraverted Intuition interested in ideas (rather than facts) interested in inner reality pays little attention to other people superficially reserved, but sympathetic and understanding of close friends or of others in need loving, but not demonstrative emphasizes the experience that events trigger, rather than the events themselves (e.g., musicians...

Subjective Experience Values and Science

Rogers experienced a conflict between the model of science, in which the therapy client would be viewed objectively, and his experience as a therapist, in which a subjective stance worked better (Barresi, 1999 Rogers, 1955). In his later writing, Rogers went further in his emphasis on subjectivity. Participants in his workshops sometimes described the experience in terms of spirituality. This suggests a transpersonal dimension to human experience. Experiences of altered states of consciousness...

Unconscious Cognition

Freud explored the unconscious from an assumption that consciousness was the usual mode of experience, and unconscious phenomena were the oddities to be explained. He proposed that repression provides the energy to move material from consciousness to the unconscious. Both of these assumptions, the primacy of consciousness and the energy model, have been replaced by more modern explanations. Freud proposed the unconscious and repression to explain why emotional reactions in his patients, obvious...

Anor Roosevelt

Throughout her life, Eleanor Roosevelt experienced the punishing embarrassment of family scandal. Biographer Blanche Wiesen Cook tells us, The 'Victorian' world of her father, and subsequently her young uncles and aunts, involved alcoholism, adultery, child molestation, rape, abandonment. ER grew up with scandal, understood its nuances, and hated it (1993, p. 15). Dollard and Miller theorize that the symptoms described by psychoanalysts as neurosis occur when a person does not know the...

Figure 81 Scatterplots Illustrating Positive and Negative Correlations

If low numbers in one set go with high numbers in the other, there is a negative correlation (see Figure 8.1). A correlation coefficient may range from 1 to +1, indicating the direction and strength of the association between two variables. Several correlation coefficients are computed during the course of a factor analysis. The correlations among all pairs of variables are computed to form a correlation matrix. Patterns of correlations often disclose...

Psychoanalytic Therapy Techniques

The psychoanalyst uses the principle of psychic determinism to discover the unconscious ideas and conflicts of the patient that originated in the past, thus helping the patient to become free of the neurotic compulsion to repeat the past, and instead to be able to live in the present (Covington, 2001). The basic technique of psychoanalysis is free association, which requires the patient to say whatever came into his head, while ceasing to give any conscious direction to his thoughts (Freud,...

Efficient Perception of Reality

Self-actualized people have an unusual ability to detect the spurious, the fake, and the dishonest in personality, and in general to judge people correctly and efficiently (Maslow, 1954 1987, p. 128). They are less likely than others to be misled by their own defense mechanisms, wishes, expectations, or stereotypes. Rather, like the boy in the faiiy tale, they are likely to see that the emperor has no clothes if, in fact, he has none. This accuracy perhaps develops because they are not...

Outcomes of Psychotherapy

Rogers proposed that when a therapeutic climate is created that has the three crucial characteristics described above (unconditional positive regard, congruence, and em-pathic understanding), a positive therapeutic outcome will result. In such a case, the client will develop more of the healthy characteristics of self-actualizing people, including openness to experience, self-acceptance, and trust of organismic experience (Rogers, 1961a). Rogers reported empirical studies demonstrating the...

Dy Questions

Explain what Rogers meant by the actualizing tendency. 2. Discuss Rogers's idea that people are basically good, and the criticism this optimism has elicited. 3. Describe the organismic valuing process. Give an example. 4. List and explain the characteristics of a fully functioning person. 5. Discuss Rogers's attitude toward subjective experience. 6. Explain how Rogers used the concept of self to understand personal growth. 7. Explain Rogers's concept of congruence and incongruence. Include the...

Indicting Behavior

Recall that Cattell defined personality as that which permits the prediction of behavior. Let us examine his model for making predictions about how individuals will behave in particular situations. Various traits are combined in a predictive mathematical equation, called the specification equation. In principle, all behavior can be predicted from such equations. The specific terms, of course, would vary depending on the application. To predict which university football players would play the...

Moving away from People The Resignation Solution

A third strategy for resolving childhood conflicts is epitomized by the fox in Aesop's fable who could not reach the grapes hanging over his head. After all attempts to reach them failed, the fox finally gave up, avoiding disappointment by telling himself that the grapes were probably sour anyway. In Horney's theory, some people try to do without other people, having given up on solving the problem of basic anxiety through love or power. Horney (1945) refers to these as detached personality...

The Language Cognitive Repertoire

Language is essential to human personality, enabling us to communicate with others and to think. Normal social interaction requires us to understand and respond to what others say. A person's own thoughts and self-directed speech can also direct behavior, permitting foresight and judgments. Consider the phrases sex is dirty and sinful, and abortion is murder (Staats, 1996, p. 83). These statements elicit emotions and influence behavior. Language has important emotional functions. Language is...

Biography of Erik Erikson

Erik Homberger Erikson (as we now call him) was born near Frankfurt, Germany, in 1902. He was raised by his mother, who was Jewish and of Danish ancestiy, and his stepfather, a Jewish pediatrician whom his mother met when she sought care for 3-year-old Erik. Erikson did not know that he was conceived illegitimately, and he believed that his stepfather was his biological father and was given his last name, Homberger (Hopkins, 1995). His biological father, a Danish Protestant, had left his mother...

Mh nking about Mischels and Banduras Theories

Do you think that cognitive social learning theory is capable of describing the most important human personality characteristics, or is it too focused on cognition 4. Compare delay of gratification to what psychoanalysts meant by the ego compare modeling with identification. 2. Do you believe that people are consistent or not consistent Explain. 5. Do you believe that media violence contributes to aggression in society If so, what should be done about it 3. How would you determine whether...

Horneys Three Neurotic Solutions

Self Effacing Solution The Appeal of Love (The Compliant Personality) Morbid dependency the need for a partner (friend, lover, or spouse) Poor little me feeling of being weak and helpless Self-subordination assumption that others are superior Martyrdom sacrifice and suffering for others Need for love desire to find self-worth in a relationship 2. Expansive Solution The Appeal of Mastery (The Aggressive Personality) Narcissistic in love with idealized self-image Arrogant-vindictive pride and...

The Healthy Style of Life The Socially Useful Type

If the lifestyle is adaptive, Adler referred to it as a socially useful type. To be so characterized, a person must act in ways beneficial to others. This does not necessarily imply economic productivity or acts generally considered altruistic. Adler included artists and poets as people who serve a social function more than anyone else. They have taught us how to see, how to think, and how to feel (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956, p. 153). These people have a well-developed sense of social...

Apter Overview

Illustrative Biographies Applying Kelly's Theory Richard Nixon Frida Kahlo Preview Overview of Kelly's Theory Biography of George Kelly Constructive Alternativism The Fundamental Postulate The Process of Construing The Construction Corollary The Experience Corollary The Choice Corollary The Modulation Corollary The Structure of Construct Systems The Dichotomy Corollary The Organization Corollary The Fragmentation Corollary The Range Corollary The Social Embeddedness of Construing Efforts The...

Fictional Finalism

As described in Chapter 2, Freud was committed to the scientific assumption of determinism in even the psychological realm. This assumption led to a theory that treated humans as passive products of various forces, primarily biological. In contrast, Adler viewed individuals as causes rather than effects. He argued that personality is creative. People make choices and determine their own outcomes in life. External factors present challenges and choices but do not wholly determine the outcomes....

Gradients of Approach and Avoidance Responses

The concept of gradients, reflecting the strength of the tendency to make a response depending on the distance from the goal, provided Dollard and Miller with a powerful conceptual tool for understanding conflicts, including the intrapsychic conflicts central to psychoanalytic theory. By considering the gradients for two or more possible responses to the same cue, it was possible to illustrate how people could face difficult conflicts. Dollard and Miller (1950) postulated four basic assumptions...

Cattells 16 Personality Factors 16PF

A AFFECTIA (high score) SIZIA (low score) B INTELLIGENCE (high score) INTELLIGENCE (low score) C EGO STRENGTH (high score) EGO STRENGTH (low score) SUBMISSIVENESS (low score) F SURGENCY (high score) G SUPEREGO STRENGTH (high score) SUPEREGO STRENGTH (low score) H PARMIA (high score) THRECTIA (low score) HARRIA (low score) L PROTENSION (high score) ALAXIA (low score) PRAXERNIA (low score) N SHREWDNESS (high score) ARTLESS (low score) UNTROUBLED ADEQUACY (low score) Qx RADICALISM (high score)...

Fundamental Concepts about Learning

Dollard and Miller drew on various theories of learning, including those of Pavlov, Thorndike, Hull, and Skinner. From these theorists, they borrowed the basic principles of conditioning stimulus, response, reward, generalization, discrimination, and extinction. Miller and Dollard (1941) summed up the primary concepts of learning theory by suggesting that in order to learn one must want something, notice something, do something, and get something (p. 2). These conditions correspond to the...

FeSense of Self in Relationships

Our sense of self is rooted in relationships. Early disturbances, coming from relationships with inadequate parents, leave a person with a weakened or enfeebled sense of self (Kohut, 1984). Children who have not been adequately nurtured or loved, develop a belief (which may be unconscious) that they are not worthy, and this impaired self is at the heart of much pathology. Patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder report what Westen and his colleagues call malevolent early...

PNature Nurture Question from the Perspective of Psychological Behaviorism

Five Biological Factors Personality

Staats has also considered the impact of biological factors on learning as it affects individuals. His analysis is consistent with common sense, and it provides a framework within which physiological approaches to personality may be integrated with behavioral approaches. Learning is stored in biological representations, and so biological factors can influence learning either by having an impact on the process of new learning, or by influencing the biological storage of past learning. A stroke...

Cal Behaviorism and Personality Theory Some Concerns

He argued that the fundamental principles of behavior are the same in rats and humans, but does his model adequately address the issues that personality theory should consider Critics claim that Skinner's theory neglects the unique capacities of the human organism, such as language and intelligent thought. Skinner (1938, 1971) always intended his theory to apply to humans, and behaviorists have undertaken to explain even creative behavior by the operant...

Drive Wanting Something

Freudian theory regarded libido as the driving force behind all action, but Dollard and Miller preferred the concept of drive, from Hullian learning theory, to refer to the motivating force. In common language, a drive is a need, such as hunger, thirst, sleep, money, or recognition, and so on. More formally, Miller and Dollard (1941, p. 18) defined a drive as a strong stimulus which impels action. (This behavioral language avoids the logical problems of whether we truly need something or simply...

Hard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon, born in 1913, was the second child of five boys. His older brother, Arthur, died of meningitis in 1925, and a younger brother, Harold, died of tuberculosis in 1933. Nixon was raised (after age 9) in Whit-tier, California, where he worked in the family store. His mother's family was Quaker, and this background influenced his upbringing by emphasizing emotional control, modesty, and hard work. His father (not a Quaker) was more emotional and punitive, and Nixon became...

The Situational Context of Behavior

Consider the following research that Mischel and colleagues conducted with college students. You are asked to vividly imagine yourself having gotten a poor grade on an important paper. Next, you fill in the blanks on a questionnaire, with items like I am _when_. This procedure, the researchers assume, will put you in the frame of mind of imagining that your characteristics vaiy from one situation to another. Compared to other subjects, who go through the same imaginaiy exercise but have...

TftFour Critical Training Periods of Childhood

The development of personality in childhood can be understood in terms of these learning principles. Dollard and Miller credited Freud with pointing out the importance of childhood and its conflicts. They described the three psychosexual conflicts that Freud enunciated, translated into the language of learning theory. They also added a fourth important childhood conflict, focusing on anger. In considering these four stages, keep in mind that the learning analysis has not been systematically...

Stages of Development

The proprium develops gradually through a lifetime. According to Allport (1937b), The newborn infant lacks personality, for he has not yet encountered the world in which he must live, and has not developed the distinctive modes of adjustment and mastery that will later comprise his personality. He is almost altogether a creature of heredity (p. 107). The most important hereditary bases of personality, observable in infancy, are activity level (motility) and emotionality (temperament) (p. 129)....

Examples of Evolved Psychological Mechanisms

Sexual attraction based on physical appearance Sexual attraction based on male's ability to provide resources functions to help ensure males that they are the genetic fathers of their mate's child functions to ensure a healthy mate and one with effects of hormones (estrogen or testosterone) that indicate fertility functions to ensure females that their mates will be able to provide resources needed for the survival of their children functions to optimize the number of remaining years of...

S s a r y

Amygdala brain area involved in fear, theorized (by Kagan) to contribute to inhibited temperament Behavioral Activation System (BAS) in Gray's model, tendency of personality related to the approaching of rewarding experiences Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) in Gray's model, tendency of personality related to reactions to aversive stimuli cultural evolution evolution through transmitted learning from one generation to another dopamine neurotransmitter involved in many brain functions,...

Attentional Processes Observing the Behavior

Nothing will be learned that is not observed. People who have difficulty remembering names, for example, often simply don't pay attention to them in the first place. Several characteristics of the model and of the observer influence modeling. Models catch our attention more when they look distinctive because of their clothes or other aspects of their physical appearance, when they are liked or disliked, and when they are seen repeatedly, as advertisers well know. All these are examples of...

The Superego

The third structure of personality, the superego, is the internal representative of the rules and restrictions of family and society, originating based on the authority of the father. Freud regarded it as the civilizing force that tames our savage nature (Frank, 1999)- It generates guilt when we act contrary to its rules. In addition, the superego presents us with an ego ideal, which is an image of what we would like to be, our internal stan dards. Because the superego develops at a young age,...

M ther Teresa

Mother Teresa, born in Skopje, Serbia, on August 26, 1910 (Spink, 1997), was a world-renowned Roman Catholic nun, mourned worldwide when she died in 1 997 (only a few days after the death of Diana, Princess of Wales). She was widely admired by people of many faiths for her charitable work among those she called the poorest of the poor in India and elsewhere. As a girl, Agnes Bojaxhiu (Mother Teresa's birth name) was the youngest of three children. She witnessed political upheavals in Albania...

Biography of George Kelly

Kelly was born in 1905 on a farm in Perth, Kansas, the only child in a family headed by a Presbyterian minister. In college, Kelly first studied engineering but then changed to education, completing his degree at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1930. In graduate school, he turned his attention to learn ing something about sociology and labor relations (Kelly, 1963a, p. 47). While a graduate student, he taught in many nonpsychological fields, including oratory, public...

Second Born Child

The second-born child, seeing the head start that the older sibling has on life, may feel envious, experiencing a dominant note of being slighted, neglected (Adler, 1921 1927, p. 127). This often makes him or her rebellious, even revolutionary. This experience presents a challenge that can usually be successfully overcome. The older sibling serves as a pacemaker, Adler's analogy with a racer. Thus, the second-born child is stimulated to higher achievement. Observing the pace set by the older...

Unconditional Positive Regard

Rogers found that clients are most likely to make progress when they feel accepted by the therapist. Obviously, a therapist cannot approve of maladaptive behaviors. Yet it is possible to convey a feeling of warmth and acceptance, of unconditional positive regard, offering the client acceptance that is not contingent on particular behaviors. (This is the same quality that Rogers advocated for effective parenting, described above.) Unconditional positive regard means that the therapist accepts...

Rumor Transmission

Motivated by concerns about controlling the spread of rumors during World War II, All-port and Postman (1947) studied rumors in the laboratory and offered advice to the government. Their book, The Psychology of Rumor, illustrates the interplay between history and psychological work, beginning with classifying the rumors that circulated following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. It is an early example of applied social psychological research, and it interweaves experimental...

Eysencks Extraversin and Neuroticism Factors and the Ancient Greek Temperaments

Greek humors Greek temperament Description Eysenck factors excess of yellow bile choleric irritable unstable (high Neuroticism) excess of black bile (high Neuroticism) introvert (low Extraversi n) excess of blood sanguine energetic, optimistic stable (low Neuroticism) extravert (high Extraversi n) excess of (low Neuroticism) Note Correspondences are based on Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975, and Clark & Watson, 1999. arousal. We generally define introverts and extraverts in terms of their...

Inking about Maslows Theory

Maslow found only 1 out of 3,000 undergraduates to be self-actualized. Do you think there would be fewer, more, or the same number today, considering changes in the student population (such as more students returning to school at later ages and a greater ethnic and racial diversity) Discuss the implications of Maslow's hierarchy of needs for current society. Are there factors (e.g., poverty or crime) that can be interpreted in terms of deficiency motivation Maslow suggested that sexuality was...

Table 71 Preview of Allports Theory

Adaptation and Adjustment Cognitive Processes Society Biological Influences Child Development Adult Development Individuals differ in the traits that predominate in their personalities. Some traits are common (shared by various people) others are unique (belonging only to one person). Psychology errs if it looks too much for illness. Allport listed several characteristics of a healthy personality. People's self-statements can generally be taken at face value. Adaptation to society is of central...

Adaptation and Adjustment

Personality can be evaluated along a dimension of health or adjustment. In fact, some personality approaches consider the adaptive function of personality to be central to its definition (e.g., Allport). Many of these theories were developed in a clinical context, including those of Freud, Jung, Adler, Horney, Erikson, Rogers, and Kelly. Others, developed outside the clinical setting, have suggested new forms of therapy. These include the theories proposed by Skinner and Bandura, which suggest...

Healthy versus Neurotic Use of Interpersonal Orientations

Harmonious interpersonal relationships are an important source of life satisfaction cross-culturally, although to a greater extent in some cultures than others (Kwan, Bond, & Sin-gelis, 1997). How do we achieve this The healthy person adopts, when appropriate, any of the three orientations toward people, since each is adaptive in certain situations. The neurotic individual is limited in using these orientations. Consider aggression. While it is pathological to be aggressive toward everyone,...

Table 31 Preview of Jungs Theory

Individuals differ in their tendency to be introverts or ex-traverts, which is stable throughout life. They also differ in the extent to which they make use of four psychological functions (thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition). The unconscious has an important role in healthy maturity and should be explored through symbolism. Health requires a balance between conscious and unconscious functioning. Rational thinking, intuition, and emphasis on concrete details all provide useful...

Important Persons in the History of the Relational Approach

Young children are very needy they relate to part objects (such as the breast) instead of the whole parent their ambivalent feelings cause guilt about their negative feelings about their parents. People have a fundamental need for relatedness. Maternal indifference and lack of love for the child contribute to the development of child pathology. The child defensively splits the rejecting mother (which is internalized) from the hoped-for loving mother, which impedes development from immature to...

Dreams

Freud praised dreams as the royal road to the unconscious. In waking life, conscious forces powerfully restrain the unacceptable forces of the unconscious. During sleep, the restraining forces of consciousness are relaxed, and the unconscious threatens to break into awareness. This triggers anxiety, which threatens to waken the dreamer. Sleep is protected by disguising the unconscious into less threatening symbolic form in a dream. LTsually, a dream disguises the fulfillment of a repressed wish...

The Recovered Memory Controversy

One controversial technique that was used by a small minority of therapists has now been discredited recovered memory therapy. The idea behind this therapy, consistent with psychoanalytic ideas, was that traumatic sexual experiences in childhood had led patients to develop a variety of symptoms (depression, promiscuity, eating disorders, and others) and also to repress the memory of the abuse. If memory for the traumatic event could be restored, it was thought, a therapeutic benefit would be...

Loosening and Tightening Constructs The Creativity Cycle

Although the C-P-C Cycle enables us to select constructs for action, it does not change those constructs. The Creativity Cycle, in contrast, involves the development of constructs. It occurs in therapy, which Kelly (1955, p. 529) calls a creative process. Tight construing means that a large number of situations are construed in the same way, so the individual is insensitive to differences among them. Psychotherapy patients who use defense mechanisms (denial, rationalization, and turning against...

Review Overview of Skinners and Staatss Theories

Skinner's theory and Staats's theory, both offering behavioral interpretations of personality have implications for major theoretical questions, as presented in Table 10.1. One of the greatest strengths of these, and other, behavioral perspectives is its clear statement of scientifically verifiable hypotheses. Because the causes of behavior can be manipulated, Preview of Skinner's and Staats's Theories Individuals differ in their behaviors owing to differences in reinforcement histories. In...

My a Angelou

In Carl Rogers's theory, the most important and often inadequate childhood experience is that of being loved, wholly and unconditionally. As a young child, only 3 years old, when she and her brother were sent from their mother's home to live with their grandmother, Maya could not have understood that this abandonment was not her fault. Experientially, it was rejection. Once in Arkansas, she experienced a loving and stable environment from a protective grandmother who loved her granddaughter...

Business and Education Applications

The MBTI has been used extensively in research, guidance, and especially in business (Bubenzer, Zimpfer, & Mahrle, 1990). It is reported that over 3 million people a year take the MBTI test, and nearly 40 percent of these are taken in corporations for personnel training (Gardner & Martinko, 1996). By teaching people about their psychological type and its implications, trainers hope to make people aware that others may see the world quite differently than they do and to make allowances for...

Iu dy Questions

Contrast Horney's understanding of the unconscious with that of Freud. 2. Describe the emotional conflicts of early life. Include an explanation of basic anxiety and basic hostility. 3. List and describe the three interpersonal orientations. Give an example of each. 4. Explain the terms self-effacing solution, expansive solution, and resignation solution in relation to the three interpersonal orientations. 5. Explain the difference between healthy and neurotic use of the interpersonal...

Sulloways Analysis of Scientific Revolutions

Extending Adlerian ideas about birth order, a modern historian of science, Frank Sul-loway (1996) theorizes that different children in the same family develop divergent personalities because each child strives to compete for parents' attention and must find a unique way to do so. The oldest child may adopt parental standards and achieve within the established values of the parents' generation, but the next child needs to find a different strategy. Sulloway (1996) hypothesizes that scientists...

The Experience Corollary

The Experience Corollary is Kelly's (1955, p. 72) statement of a developmental principle. It says A person's construction system varies as he successively construes the replications of events. Briefly, people change with experience. The directions of this change vaiy individually and can be understood from the other corollaries, to be explained below (including elaboration of constructs, constriction, and slot movement). Perhaps Kelly's theory is as interesting for what...

Ervational Learning and Modeling

We are so aware today of the importance of good models that it is easy to overlook the theoretical advance that occurred when modeling was introduced to the learning-theory paradigm within personality. Radical learning theory, in the Skinnerian tradition, required that responses must occur and be reinforced in order to be strengthened. Even Neal Miller and John Dollard (1941), for all their theoretical innovation, assumed that responses must be reinforced to be learned. Laboratory rats and...

Hological Adjustment

Some of the traits that Cattell measured contribute to a person's psychological adjustment. The terms neurosis and psychosis are already familiar from psychoanalytic theory. Both refer to adjustment difficulties, which are more serious in psychosis. Neurotics differ from the general population on several traits low Ego Strength, low Emotional Stability, high Autia and Premsia, low Surgency, and low Dominance. Of particular interest are the controlling triumvirate of personality, three factors...

Clinical Populations

Researchers have found that various clinical populations have disturbed personal constructs. Different kinds of faulty constructs are characteristic of schizophrenia and paranoia (Lorenzini, Sassaroli, & Rocchi, 1989)- Schizophrenics show impaired perceptions of themselves, as well as of others (Gara, Rosenberg, & Mueller, 1989)- Their constructs about people and psychological phenomena are particularly disturbed, compared to constructs about objects and the physical world (Bannister &...

Preview of Biological Theories

Biological Influences Child Development Individuals differ in their hereditary predispositions and in the traits that develop from the interaction of these predispositions with experience. Several factor theories describe individual differences. Some biological factors, such as Neuroticism, are differences in emotional instability that predispose some people to anxiety and other adjustment problems. Differences in responses to rewards and punishments, based on biological differences, can...

The Construction Corollary

According to the Construction Corollary A person anticipates events by construing their replications. (Kelly, 1955, p. 50) Like a scientist who anticipates that obsetvations will confirm a stated research hypothesis, we anticipate confirmation of our constructs (cf. Mancuso, 1998). We base our expectations of the next football game on our experiences of previous ones, of the next concert by previous ones, and so on. Events, more or less similar, occur repeatedly, and our plans for the future...

R Adjustments to Basic Anxiety

To solve conflicts over basic anxiety, an individual adopts defense mechanisms, including many of the defense mechanisms that previous analysts had described, such as repression, and Horney's expanded list of defensive maneuvers. All neurotics use some mixture of four major strategies for resolving the basic conflict between helplessness and hostility. These strategies do not solve the conflict or lead to growth, but they may allow a person to adapt sufficiently to cope with daily life.

Characteristics of Instincts

Because Freud understood all personality functioning as derived from instinctive energy, knowing the fundamental principles regulating instincts provides a basic framework for understanding personality. These can be summarized as four basic aspects of instincts source, pressure, aim, and object. 1. Source. All psychic energy is derived from biological processes in some part or organ of the body. There is no separate, exclusively mental energy. The amount of energy a person has does not change...

Prview Overview of Dollard and Millers Theory

Dollard and Miller's theory has implications for major theoretical questions, as presented in Table 11.1. It offered a major scientific advance over psychoanalysis by translating the clinical insights of that theory into verifiable theoretical language, offering hypotheses to be tested in laboratory studies using animals. Dollard and Miller described aggression as a behavior produced by clearly defined stimulus situations (frustration or blockage in goal-seeking), an idea that stimulated...

Can We All Be Described by the Same Traits

Does eveiyone have different traits Or do we have the same traits, only in different amounts Most researchers base their work on the second alternative, but Allport didn't rule out either possibility. Based on the work of the German philosophers Windelband and Stem (Hermans, 1988), Allport distinguished individual traits, which are possessed by only one person, from common traits, which are possessed by many people, each to a varying extent. He intended to distinguish the study of persons on...

Inking about Factor Analytic rait Theories

Gordon Allport had an office near Raymond Cattell's office, and he reported that students were often confused by the differences between their approaches to personality. Why might this be so Do you view factor analysis as an esteemed scientific tool or (like Allport) as methodolatry 2. What is your opinion about the causes of intelligence, especially the extent to which heredity and experience influence intelligence 3. Discuss why people may have a difficult time being objective and unemotional...

Experience in Childhood and Adulthood

Experience, especially in childhood, influences the way each person develops toward his or her unique personality. Many of the major personality theories described in this text make statements about the development of personality. Theorists in the psychoanalytic tradition, for example, emphasize the experience of the preschool years in forming personality. Theories in the learning tradition focus primarily on change, but even some of them (e.g., Staats, 1996)...

Biography of Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung was born in Switzerland in 1875, the son of a Protestant minister and grandson of a physician who was alleged to be the illegitimate son of the renowned German poet Goethe. Jung had one sister, who was nine years his junior. His father and several uncles were Protestant clergymen. Jung suspected, even as a child, that his father did not genuinely believe the church's teachings but was afraid to face his doubts honestly. Jung's mother was, like many in her family (Noll, 1994),...

It Was A Pattern He Would Play Out His Entire Life Cobain

Throughout his life, Cobain suffered difficult interpersonal relationships. Fear of abandonment, stemming undoubtedly from his parents' emotional and sometimes physical abandonment of him, left him vulnerable. He suffered nightmares of people trying to kill him (Cross, 2001). Though he craved love, he feared losing it, a pattern we call insecure (or anxious-ambivalent) attachment. Biographer Charles Cross puts it this way It was a pattern he would play out his entire life Rather than lose...

Correlates of Stage Measures

Higher scores on measures of the psychosocial stages are associated with better functioning in several studies. Howard Protinsky (1988) reported that problem adolescents scored lower on three of the first five psychosocial stages (trust, initiative, and identity) compared with other adolescents. Identity is the most frequently studied of Erikson's stages. Many studies report that subjects who score high on various measures of ego identity function better. Among college students, those with more...

Biography of Abraham Maslow

Abraham Maslow was born on April 1, 1908, in Brooklyn, New York. His parents were Russian immigrants, poor and uneducated, but hoping for something better for their son. His father was a cooper (a barrelmaker). Abraham grew up, the oldest of seven children, in the only Jewish family in the neighborhood, and he was not always sure where his next meal was coming from (Maddi & Costa, 1972, p. 159)- He described the experience as lonely I grew up in libraries and among books, without friends...

Personality Of Mother Teresa In Adler Personality Development Theory

1 Introduction to Personality Theory 1 Personality The Study of Individuals 2 Methods in Personality Research 13 One Theory or Many Eclecticism and the Future of Personality Theory 18 Thinking about Personality Theory 20 p RT I The Psychoanalytic Perspective 23 2 Freud Classical Psychoanalysis 28 Illustrative Biographies Applying Classical Psychoanalytic Theory 29 Preview Overview of Freud's Theory 31 Structures of the Personality 40 Psychoanalysis as a Scientific Theory 58 Thinking about...

FtRole of Theory in Cattells Empirical Approach

Mccrae And Costa

Cattell has been accused of being atheoretical, that is, of doing empirical work blindly and predicting without a guiding theory. He disputed this charge, claiming that his mathematical models are theory (Cattell, 1979). Cattell (1979) aimed to be not simply a methodologist but also a psychologist who used statistical methodology to address substantive questions. He acknowledged the groundwork laid down by earlier, less systematic personality theories, and he used their ideas to interpret his...

The Unconscious

The third level of consciousness is different. Its contents do not readily move into consciousness. The unconscious refers to mental processes of which a person is not aware. Such material remains in the unconscious because making it conscious would produce too much anxiety. This material is said to be repressed that is, it resists becoming conscious. Among the contents of the unconscious are forgotten traumatic memories and denied wishes. A child who has been sexually abused, for example, will...

Biography of Alfred Adler

Alfred Adler was born in a suburb of Vienna (Penzing), Austria, in 1870, the second son in a family of four boys and two girls. His father was a grain merchant. His family was financially comfortable and was one of the few Jewish families in his village. In protest against the isolation of orthodox Judaism, Alfred later converted to Christianity. As a young child, Alfred was unhealthy and suffered from rickets. His earliest reported memory is as a 2-year-old, bandaged so that he could barely...

Moving toward People The Self Effacing Solution

Some people turn to others for the love and protection lacking in their early life. Because of this dependency, they must be careful to do nothing to alienate others. Horney (1945) referred to these as compliant types. Some are dominated by a need for affection, living as though their motto were If you love me, you will not hurt me (Horney, 1937, p. 96). Others are characterized by their submissive attitude, as though they felt, If I give in, I shall not be hurt (p. 97).

Rilyn Monroe

Although she has been dead since 1962, the movie actress Marilyn Monroe is a timeless embodiment of the image of femininity. She epitomizes sexual beauty her picture on a nude calendar was admired by many men and envied by many women. She also had a tragic side, arousing sympathy for the helpless victim. Born in Los Angeles, California, in 1926, Norma Jeane Mortenson (her birth name) was not told the truth about her paternity, the product of an extramarital affair. She grew up without a father...

Psychic Determinism

Assumption called psychic determinism. The term determinism refers to the fundamental scientific assumption of lawful cause and effect. The concept of psychic determinism allows psychological factors to be causes. At first, Freud (1895 1966b) tried to understand how psychic factors, such as traumatic events, produced physical changes in the nervous system. For example, he postulated that the anxiety of a traumatic sexual encounter could, by modifying connections in the nervous system, produce...

Reward Getting Something

Dollard and Miller's concept of reward makes sense, given their interest in psychoanalytic theory. LTnlike Skinner's theory, which did not make any a priori assumptions about what would be reinforcing, Miller and Dollard (1941) preferred the alternative assumption of Hull's learning theory that drive reduction is reinforcing. They asserted that reward is impossible in the absence of drive (p. 29). This assumption provided a ready link with libido in psychoanalysis. As did other learning...

Stages of Adlerian Psychotherapy

Empathy and Relationship Stage Offer empathy to the client and establish a working relationship. 2. Information Stage Gather information about the problem and the client's past history, early memories, and current functioning. 3- Clarification Stage Clarify the client's core beliefs about self, others, and life. 4. Encouragement Stage Encourage the client for progress. 5. Interpretation and Recognition Stage Interpret the client's behavior and help the client recognize, and reconsider his or...

Other Symbolic Therapy Techniques

Besides dreams, other techniques are available to encourage a dialogue with the unconscious. Play therapy is used with children by Jungians and therapists from some other theoretical traditions (Allan & Brown, 1993)- Among both children and adults, artistic creations provide a way of expressing images from the unconscious, especially as they may have appeared in dreams. Sometimes these visual images can be interpreted in a way that links the dreamer's experience to larger myths (Johnson,...

Physical Symptoms

Many of Freud's patients had physical symptoms for which no organic cause could be found. Influenced by his study of hypnosis under Charcot, Freud argued that cases of conversion hysteria represent the impact of unconscious forces on the body to produce physical symptoms of paralysis, mutism, deafness, blindness, tics, or other maladies that resemble physical diseases but that occur in physically normal, undamaged bodies (Breuer & Freud, 1925 1955). The diagnosis is less often made today (M....

Psychophysical Systems

Personality is subject to biological as well as psychological influences. Mind and body are inextricably united. Temperament refers to biologically based differences in personality, often evidenced as emotional reactivity to new or potentially frightening stimuli. It is the basis, for example, of one person's shyness and another's bold adventurousness. Allport accepted the empirical research available in his day indicating that temperament constitutes an inherited biological foundation for...

Esteem Needs

The next need to emerge in the hierarchy is the need for self-respect and the esteem of others. Esteem should be stable and firmly based, by which Maslow meant that it should result from our actual abilities and achievements. Reputation based on false premises would not meet this need. We can interpret achievement strivings as manifestations of the esteem needs since society honors those who achieve. Many successful entrepreneurs, for example, whose physiological, safety, and love needs are...

Mary

Kelly proposed a theory of personal constructs based on the fundamental postulate of constructive alternativism, which says that people can interpret any event in a variety of ways. His metaphor for personality was man-the-scientist. He elaborated on this model in a formal theory, which consists of a Fundamental Postulate and eleven corollaries. The Fundamental Postulate states that a person's processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he anticipates events. The process of...

Table 95 Grays Model of the Biological Basis of Personality

N eu rotra nsm itter implica tions for lea rn ing impulsivity positive affect (in response to reward) norepinephrine sensitivity to punishment (or nonreward) Note The fight-flight system is less clearly described in Gray's model than the BAS and the BIS. strong approach orientation may, over time, build up cognitions that enhance this predisposition, and that conversely, avoidance-oriented people may become stronger in that direction through cognitions that emphasize the negative. Gray also...