About the Self Efficacy Scale

If you had a high score on this test, you probably feel confident about your ability to make changes in your life and to accomplish your goals. This sense of confidence is not an illusion, you are indeed more likely to achieve success in your personal life, and your educational and vocational endeavors than those who obtained low scores on this test. Stanford psychologist Albert Ban-dura, one of the most respected researchers in the country, has called self-efficacy one of the most powerful...

The Hardiness Scale

Below are statements about life that people often feel differently about. Indicate a number to show how you feel about each one. Read the items carefully, and indicate how much you think each one is true in general. There are no right or wrong answers. 3 Completely true 2 Quite true 1 A little true 0 Not at all true _ 1. Most of my life gets spent doing things that are worthwhile. _ 2. Planning ahead can help avoid most future problems. _ 3. Trying hard doesn't pay, since things still don't...

About the Self Esteem Rating Scale

Over the past decade or so, there has been an interesting turnabout regarding how people view self-esteem. Twenty years ago, the evidence seemed clear that high self-esteem was crucial if people were to have happy, productive lives. Nowhere was this belief more influential than in the school system. Research conducted in the 1960s appeared to prove that school achievement was influenced more by children's self-esteem than by their intellectual ability. These studies inspired educators to do...

About the Specific Interpersonal Trust Scale

The capacity to trust is crucial to our survival in human society. Without trust, we would not be willing to participate in even mundane interactions such as buying food at the grocery store, forming a car pool with neighbors, or visiting a physician. We have to believe that the food we buy at the store is safe, that our neighbors will pick us up on their day to drive, and that our physician will treat us in a way that will improve our health, not harm it. In even the most basic of social...

About the Multidimensional Anger Inventory

As is the case with all sciences, psychology has been guilty of its share of mistakes. One interesting example of this concerns the emotion of anger. For many years, the common wisdom was that people should express their anger, that it was unhealthy to suppress it. Freud, one of the first proponents of this view, argued that depression is anger turned inward, so clearly, it would be better to express one's anger outward to avoid the negative consequences of repressing it. This belief was...

About the Sense of Symbolic Immortality Scale

I admit to being a rather simple, concrete individual. During my college years, I enjoyed discussing the meaning of life into the wee hours of the morning, but once I finished school, began my career, and had children, there did not seem to be much time, or much point, to such discussions. I do believe I have a pretty clear idea of what it takes to make me happy, and it is rather simple. I want my family to be happy and healthy, I like to have an interesting project to work on, and I look...

About the Neophilia Scale

There are lots of people who have few psychological barriers to overcome. They are relatively free from anxiety and depression, and they have the interpersonal skills to connect with other people. Yet, some of these people are miserable. They have all the resources they need at their disposal and they do not know what to do with them. Any number of psychologists, to say nothing of philosophers, spiritual leaders, and artists, have suggested what is necessary to have a satisfying, fulfilling...

About the Personal Behavior Inventory

Philosophers, poets, novelists, and of course psychologists have engaged in a lively debate about the determinants of human behavior. On the one hand, there are those who argue that people are prisoners of social forces that they cannot resist. This view suggests that we all, to varying degrees, conform to the expectations that others have for us. On the other hand, there are those who believe that every person has a unique configuration that evolves from biological predispositions and early...

About the Negative Mood Regulation Scale

Everyone has days when they feel at least somewhat overwhelmed by stress or depression. It's just part of life. Since these bad days are inevitable, it is crucial to be able to get past them and move on to better times. If you received a high score on this test, you are probably one of those people who are quite good at putting bad times behind you and moving on to better things. If you received a low score, you could reduce the times you feel bad by learning more effective coping strategies....

About the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale

Psychologist Ernest Barratt, of the University of Texas Medical Branch, has devoted much of his career to the study of impulsiveness. Barratt became interested in this trait when he noticed that many of his clients' problems seemed to be related to their inability to resist their impulses and to plan for the future. To support his informal observations, he collected evidence that did indicate that psychiatric patients, and especially those with substance abuse problems, were likely to be...

The Selfesteem Rating Scale

This questionnaire is designed to measure how you feel about yourself. It is not a test, so there are no right or wrong answers. Please answer each item as carefully and accurately as you can by placing a number by each one as follows 1. I feel that people would not like me if they really knew me well. 2. I feel that others do things much better than I do. 3. I feel that I am an attractive person. 4. I feel confident in my ability to deal with other people. 5. I feel that I am likely to fail at...

About the Friendliness Scale

Psychologist John Reisman was motivated to construct his test because he conceptualized friendliness slightly differently from the authors of other, similar tests. Reisman argued that existing definitions of this trait were virtually indistinguishable from other personality characteristics such as outgoingness or agreeable- ness. He argued that friendliness included four qualities, those represented by the subscales on his test Self-Concept, Accessibility, Rewardingness, and Alienation....

About the Revised Mosher Guilt Inventory

Nothing can interfere with our ability to experience pleasure in our sexual relationships more than guilt and anxiety. Mosher's test measuring guilt about sex is similar to one that I developed with my graduate student Kevin O'Grady to measure anxiety about sex. While guilt and anxiety may seem similar, they are theoretically different, and they have different effects on sexual behavior. By definition, guilty people worry about breaking their own moral rules they feel bad if they engage in some...

About the Survey of Personal Beliefs

The Survey of Personal Beliefs reflects an approach to psychotherapy called rational emotive therapy, developed by psychologist Albert Ellis. Ellis argued that while people tend to believe they are anxious, depressed, or otherwise unhappy because of the things that happen to them, they are really distressed by the things they say to themselves about the things that happen to them. To illustrate this distinction, suppose you go to work one morning and your boss greets you with the news that you...

About the Four Systems Anxiety Questionnaire

Psychologists have known for several decades that anxiety is a multifaceted concept. While all of us would acknowledge having experienced anxiety, the reality is that our experience of feeling anxious is probably quite different from how others experience this emotion. Nearly thirty years ago, psychologist Peter Lang proposed three ways in which anxiety can be experienced. The first can be called the cognitive component what people say to themselves or what they report to others. A man with a...

The Four Systems Anxiety Questionnaire

This questionnaire contains sixty items concerning difficulties that most people experience from time to time. Read each item carefully. If you have experienced any of the thoughts, feelings, physical symptoms, or behaviors in the manner indicated by any of the items, respond with Yes. If you have not, respond with a No. Please make sure that none of the items are omitted. Please do not spend too much time on any question. We are interested in your first reaction, not a deeply considered...

About the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire

We have learned a great deal about depression over the past few decades. Much of this research has focused on the biological underpinnings of depression, and this work has led to a number of new and effective medications. And while these advances have undoubtedly helped to improve the quality of life for countless people, a number of people, including yours truly, are concerned that the biological view of depression has been oversold. We are living in a time when Prozac is one of the...