Horney and Freud Compared

Homey criticized Freud's theories on several accounts. First, she cautioned that strict adherence to orthodox psychoanalysis would lead to stagnation hi both theoretical thought and therapeutic practice (Horney, 1937). Second, Horney (1937, 1939) objected to Freud's ideas on feminine psychology, a subject we return to later. Third, she stressed the view that psychoanalysis should move beyond instinct theory and emphasize the importance of cultural influences in shaping personality. Man is ruled...

Word Association Test

Jung was not the first to use the word association test, but he can be credited with helping develop and refine it. He originally used the technique as early as 1903 when he was a young psychiatric assistant at Burgholtzli, and he lectured on the word association test during his trip with Freud to the United States in 1909. However, he seldom employed it in his later career. In spite of this inattention, the test continues to be closely linked with Jungs name. His original purpose in using the...

Personality and Behavior

Do Eysenck's three general personality dimensions predict behavior According to Eysenck's model shown in Figure 14.7, psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism should predict results of experimental studies as well as social behaviors. Recall that Eysenck's theory assumes that extraversion is a product of low cortical arousability. Therefore, introverts, compared with extraverts, should be more sensitive to a variety of stimuli and learning conditions. Eysenck (1997a) argued that an effective...

Biography of Walter Mischel

Walter Mischel, the second son of upper-middle-class parents, was bom on February 22, 1930, hi Vienna. He and his brother Theodore, who later became a philosopher of science, grew up in a pleasant environment only a short distance from Freud's home. The tranquillity of childhood, however, was shattered when the Nazis invaded Austria hi 1938. That same year, the Mischel family fled Austria and moved to the United States. After living in various parts of the country, they eventually settled hi...

Eliminating Low Expectancies

In addition to changing goals, the therapist tries to eliminate patients' low expectancies of success and its analog, low freedom of movement. People may have low freedom of movement for at least three reasons. First, they may lack the skills or information needed to successfully strive toward their goals (Rotter, 1970). With such patients, a therapist becomes a teacher, warmly and emphatically instructing them in more effective techniques for solving problems and satisfyhig needs. If a...

Neurotic Anxiety

Normal anxiety, the type experienced during periods of growth or of threat to ones values, is experienced by everyone. It can be constructive provided it remains proportionate to the threat. But anxiety can become neurotic or sick. May (1967) defined neurotic anxiety as a reaction which is disproportionate to the tlneat, involves repression and other forms of intrapsychic conflict, and is managed by various kinds of blocking-off of activity and awareness (p. 80). Whereas normal anxiety is felt...

Introduction to Rotters Social Learning Theory

Social learning theory rests on five basic hypotheses. First, it assumes that humans interact with their meaningful environments (Rotter, 1982). People s reaction to environmental stimuli depends on the meaning or importance that they attach to an event. Reinforcements are not dependent on external stimuli alone but are given meaning by the individuals cognitive capacity. Likewise, personal characteristics such as needs or traits cannot, by themselves, cause behavior. Rather, Rotter believes...

Intrapsychic Conflicts

The neurotic trends flow from basic anxiety, which in turn, stems from a child's relationships with other people. To this point, our emphasis has been on culture and interpersonal conflict. However, Horney did not neglect the impact of intrapsychic fac tors in the development of personality. As her theory evolved she began to place greater emphasis on the inner conflicts that both normal and neurotic individuals experience. Intrapsychic processes orighiate from interpersonal experiences but as...

Unity and Self Consistency of Personality

The third tenet of Adlerian theory is Personality is unified and self-consistent. In choosing the term individual psychology, Adler wished to stress his belief that each person is unique and indivisible. Thus, individual psychology insists on the fundamental unity of personality and the notion that inconsistent behavior does not exist. Thoughts, feelings, and actions are all directed toward a single goal and serve a single purpose. When people behave erratically or unpredictably, their behavior...

Concept of Humanity

Rogers's concept of humanity was clearly stated in his famous debates with B. F. Skinner during the mid-1950s and early 1960s. Perhaps the most famous debates in the history of American psychology, these discussions consisted of three face-to-face confrontations between Rogers and Skinner regarding the issue of freedom and control (Rogers & Skinner, 1956). Skinner (see Chapter 15) argued that people are always controlled, whether they realize it or not. Because we are controlled mostly by...

The Power of Myth

For many years, May was concerned with the powerful effects of myths on individuals and cultures a concern that cuhnhiated in his book The Cry for Myth (1991). May contended that the people of Western civilization have an urgent need for myths. Lacking myths to believe hi, they have turned to religious cults, drug addiction, and popular culture in a vain effort to find meaning hi their lives. Myths are not falsehoods rather, they are conscious and unconscious belief systems that provide...

Consistency Paradox

Mischel saw that both laypersons and professional psychologists seem to intuitively believe that people s behavior is relatively consistent, yet empirical evidence suggests much variability in behavior, a situation Mischel called the consistency paradox. To many people, it seems self-evident that such global personal dispositions as aggressiveness, honesty, miserliness, punctuality, and so forth account for much of our behavior. People elect politicians to office because they see them as having...

Comparison of Safeguarding Tendencies with Defense Mechanisms

Limited mostly to the construction of a neurotic style of life 2. Protect the person's fragile self-esteem from public disgrace 2. Protect the ego from the pain of anxiety 3. Operate only on an unconscious level Chapter 3 Adler Individual Psychology 85 protest. In contrast to Freud's views on women, Adler assumed that women because they have the same physiological and psychological needs as men want more or less the same things that men want. These opposing views on femininity were magnified in...

Overview of Social Cognitive Theory

Albert Bandura s social cognitive theory takes chance encounters and fortuitous events seriously, even while recognizing that these meetings and events do not invariably alter ones life path. How we react to an expected meeting or event is usually more powerful than the event itself. Social cognitive theory rests on several basic assumptions. First, the outstanding characteristic of humans is plasticity that is, humans have the flexibility to learn a variety of behaviors hi diverse situations....

Great Mother

Two other archetypes, the great mother and the wise old man, are derivatives of the anima and animus. Everyone, man or woman, possesses a great mother archetype. This preexisting concept of mother is always associated with both positive and negative feelings. Jung (1954 1959c), for example, spoke of the loving and terrible mother (p. 82). The great mother, therefore, represents two opposing forces fertility and nourishment on the one hand and power and destruction on the other. She is capable...

Criteria for Identifying Factors

With these assumptions in mind Eysenck listed four criteria for identifying a factor. First, psychometric evidence for the factor s existence must be established. A corollary to this criterion is that the factor must be reliable and replicable. Other investigators, from separate laboratories, must also be able to find the factor, and these investigators consistently identify Eysenck's extraversion, neuroticism, and psy-choticism. A second criterion is that the factor must also possess...

The Importance of Childhood Experiences

Horney believed that neurotic conflict can stem from ahnost any developmental stage, but childhood is the age from which the vast majority of problems arise. A variety of traumatic events, such as sexual abuse, beatings, open rejection, or pervasive neglect, may leave their impressions on a child's future development but Horney (1937) insisted that these debilitating experiences can ahnost invariably be traced to lack of genuine warmth and affection. Horney's own lack of love from her father...

Is Parsimonious

When two theories are equal in their ability to generate research, be falsified, give meaning to data, guide the practitioner, and be self-consistent, the simpler one is preferred. This is the law of parsimony. In fact, of course, two theories are never exactly equal in these other abilities, but in general, simple, straightforward theories are more useful than ones that bog down under the weight of complicated concepts and esoteric language. In building a theory of personality, psychologists...

Cognitive Affective Personality System

To solve the classical consistency paradox, Mischel and Shoda (Mischel, 2004 Mischel & Shoda, 1995, 1998, 1999 Shoda & Mischel, 1996, 1998) proposed a cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS also called a cognitive-affective processing system) that accounts for variability across situations as well as stability of behavior within a person. Apparent inconsistencies in a person's behavior are due neither to random error nor solely to the situation. Rather, they are potentially...

Care The Basic Strength of Adulthood

Erikson (1982) defined care as a widening commitment to take care o the persons, the products, and the ideas one has learned to care for (p. 67). As the basic strength of adulthood, care arises from each earlier basic ego strength. One must have hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, and love hi order to take care of that which one cares for. Care is not a duty or obligation but a natural desire emerging from the conflict between generativity and stagnation or self-absorption. The antipathy...

The Rep Test

Another procedure used by Kelly, both inside and outside therapy, was the Role Construct Repertory (Rep) test. The purpose of the Rep test is to discover ways in which people construe significant people hi their lives. With the Rep test, a person is given a Role Title list and asked to designate people who fit the role titles by writing then names on a card. For example, for a teacher you liked, the person must supply a particular name. The number of role Example of a List of Role Titles Used...

Personality and Disease

Can personality factors predict mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) Beginning dining the early 1960s, Eysenck devoted much attention to this question. He and David Kissen (Kissen & Eysenck, 1962) found that people who scored low on neuroticism (N) on the Maudsley Personality Inventory tended to suppress then emotion and were much more likely than high N scorers to receive a later diagnosis of lung cancer. Later, Eysenck teamed with Yugoslav physician and psychologist...

Biography of Erich Fromm

Like the views of all personality theorists, Erich Fromm's view of human nature was shaped by childhood experiences. For Fromm, a Jewish family life, the suicide of a young woman, and the extreme nationalism of the German people contributed to his conception of humanity. Fromm was born on March 23, 1900, hi Frankfurt, Germany, the only child of middle-class Orthodox Jewish parents. His father Naphtali Fromm was the son of a rabbi and the grandson of two rabbis. His mother Rosa Krause Fromm was...

Characteristics of Self Actualizing People

Maslow believed that all humans have the potential for self-actualization. Then why are we not all self-actualizing To be self-actualizing, Maslow believed people must be regularly satisfied hi then other needs and must also embrace the B-values. Using these two criteria, he guessed that the psychologically healthiest 1 of the adult population of the United States would be self-actualizing. Beyond Biography What prompted Maslow to look for self-actualizing people For information on Maslow's...

Person Centered Theory

Although Rogers's concept of humanity remained basically unchanged from the early 1940s until his death hi 1987, his therapy and theory underwent several changes in name. During the early years, his approach was known as nondirective, an unfortunate term that remained associated with his name for far too long. Later, his approach was variously termed client-centered person-centered student-centered group-centered and person to person. We use the label client-centered in reference to Rogers's...

Psychotherapy

Homey believed that neuroses grow out of basic conflict that usually begins in childhood. As people attempt to solve this conflict, they are likely to adopt one of the tlnee neurotic trends namely, moving toward, agamst, or away from others. Each of these tactics can produce temporary relief, but eventually they drive the person farther away from actualizing the real self and deeper mto a neurotic spiral (Homey, 1950). The general goal of Horneyian therapy is to help patients gradually grow in...

Similarities Among Events

No two events are exactly alike, yet we construe similar events so that they are perceived as bemg the same. One sunrise is never identical to another, but our construct dawn conveys our recognition of some similarity or some replication of events. Although two dawns are never exactly alike, they may be similar enough for us to construe them as the same event. Kelly (1955, 1970) referred to this similarity among events as the construction corollary. The construction corollary states that a...

Overview of Behavioral Analysis

Dining the early years of the 20th century while Freud, Jung, and Adler were relying on clinical practice and before Eysenck and Costa and McCrae were using psycho-metrics to build theories of human personality, an approach called behaviorism emerged from laboratory studies of animals and humans. Two of the early pioneers of behaviorism were E. L. Thorndike and John Watson, but the person most often associated with the behaviorist position is B. F. Skinner, whose behavioral analysis is a clear...

Critique of Trait and Factor Theories

Trait and factor methods especially those of Eysenck and advocates of the Big Five model provide important taxonomies that organize personality into meaningful classifications. As pointed out in Chapter 1, however, taxonomies alone do not explain or predict behavior, two important functions of useful theories. Do these theories go beyond taxonomies and produce important personality research The trait and factor theories of Eysenck and Costa and McCrae are examples of a strictly empirical...

Research on Dreams

In the 1950s, when the phenomenon of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was first discovered and found to be strongly associated with dreaming, many scientists began to discount Freud's theory of dreams, which was based on the idea that dreams have meaning and are attempts at fulfilling unconscious wishes. Moreover, the REM research showed that only brain-stem regions and not higher cortical regions were involved with REM states. If these cortical structures were not involved hi REM sleep and yet...

The Impact of Culture

Although Horney did not overlook the importance of genetic factors, she repeatedly emphasized cultural influences as the primary bases for both neurotic and normal personality development. Modern culture, she contended, is based on competition among individuals. Everyone is a real or potential competitor of everyone else (Horney, 1937, p. 284). Competitiveness and the basic hostility it spawns result in feelings of isolation. These feelings of being alone in a potentially hostile world lead to...

Biography of Sigmund Freud

Sigismund (Sigmund) Freud was born either on March 6 or May 6, 1856, in Freiberg, Moravia, which is now part of the Czech Republic. (Scholars disagree on his birth date the first date was but 8 months after the marriage of his parents.) Freud was the firstborn child of Jacob and Amalie Nathanson Freud although his father had two grown sons, Emanuel and Philipp, from a previous marriage. Jacob and Amalie Freud had seven other children within 10 years, but Sigmund remained the favorite of his...

Stages of Therapeutic Change

The process of constructive personality change can be placed on a continuum from most defensive to most integrated. Rogers (1961) arbitrarily divided this continuum into seven stages. Stage 1 is characterized by an unwillingness to communicate anything about oneself. People at this stage ordinarily do not seek help, but if for some reason they come to therapy, they are extremely rigid and resistant to change. They do not recognize any problems and refuse to own any personal feelings or...

Critique of Bandura Concept of Humanity Key Terms and Concepts

People often have their life path permanently altered by unexpected meetings with others or by unplanned happenings. These chance encounters and fortuitous events frequently determine whom people marry, what career they pursue, where they live, and how they will live their lives. Many years ago, a young graduate student named A1 had a chance encounter that altered the course of his life. One Sunday, Al, who was usually a conscientious student, became bored with an uninteresting readmg...

Neuroticism

The second superfactor extracted by Eysenck is neuroticism stability (N). Like extraversi n introversi n, Factor N has a strong hereditary component. Eysenck (1967) reported several studies that have found evidence of a genetic basis for such neurotic traits as anxiety, hysteria, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. In addition, he found a much greater agreement among identical twhis than among fraternal twins on a number of antisocial and asocial behaviors such as adult crime, childhood...

Safeguarding Tendencies

Adler believed that people create patterns of behavior to protect their exaggerated sense of self-esteem against public disgrace. These protective devices, called safeguarding tendencies, enable people to hide their inflated self-image and to maintain their current style of life. Adler's concept of safeguarding tendencies can be compared to Freud's concept of defense mechanisms. Basic to both is the idea that symptoms are formed as a protection against anxiety. However, there are important...

Biography of Karen Horney

The biography of Karen Horney has several parallels with the life of Melanie Klein (see Chapter 5). Each was bom during the 1880s, the youngest child of a 50-year-old father and his second wife. Each had older siblings who were favored by the parents, and each felt unwanted and unloved. Also, each had wanted to become a physician, but only Horney fulfilled that ambition. Finally, both Horney and Klein engaged hi an extended self-analysis Horney's, beginning with her diaries from age 13 to 26,...

Spontaneity Simplicity and Naturalness

Self-actualizing people are spontaneous, simple, and natural. They are unconventional but not compulsively so they are highly ethical but may appear unethical or nonconforming. They usually behave conventionally, either because the issue is not of great importance or out of deference to others. But when the situation warrants it, they can be unconventional and uncompromising even at the price of ostracism and censure. The similarity between self-actualizing people and children and animals is...

Components of Psychological Health

As we saw earlier, Maslow suggested that self-actualization people can be characterized by 15 different dimensions. From the 1950s through the 1990s, a number of researchers attempted to determine the structure of mental health and well-being. For instance, in the 1950s, Marie Jahoda (1958) was asked by the Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health to review and summarize the literature on mental health. She concluded that six dimensions most consistently appeared self-acceptance, personal...

Person Situation Interaction

Walter Mischels theory of cognitive-social learning, including his more specific theory of cognitive-affective personality systems, has stimulated hundreds of empirical investigations. Perhaps the most important of these lias been the recent research on the person-situation interaction. The essence of this approach is summed up by the contextual contingency between behavior and context in the statement, If I am in this situation, then I do X but if I am in that situation, then I do Y As we...

An Example of Triadic Reciprocal Causation

Consider this example of triadic reciprocal causation. A child begghig her father for a second brownie is, from the father's viewpohit, an environmental event. If the father automatically (without thought) were to give the child a second brownie, then the two would be conditioning each other's behavior in the Skhuierian sense. The be havior of the father would be controlled by the environment but his behavior, hi turn, would have a countercontrolling effect on his environment, namely the child....

The Jonah Complex

Accordhig to Maslow (1970), everyone is born with a will toward health, a tendency to grow toward self-actualization, but few people reach it. What prevents people from achieving this high level of health Growth toward normal, healthy personality can be blocked at each of the steps in the hierarchy of needs. If people cannot provide for food and shelter, they remain at the level of physiological and safety needs. Others remain blocked at the level of love and belongingness needs, striving to...

Withdrawal

Personality development can be halted when people run away from difficulties. Adler referred to this tendency as withdrawal, or safeguarding through distance. Some people unconsciously escape life's problems by setting up a distance between themselves and those problems. Chapter 3 Adler Individual Psychology 83 Adler (1956) recognized four modes of safeguarding through withdrawal (1) moving backward (2) standing still, (3) hesitating, and (3) constructing obstacles. Moving backward is the...

Oral Sensory Mode

Erikson's expanded view of infancy is expressed in the term oral-sensory, a phrase that includes infants' prhicipal psychosexual mode of adapting. The oral-sensory stage is characterized by two modes of incorporation receiving and accepthig what is given. Infants can receive even hi the absence of other people that is, they can take hi air through the lungs and can receive sensory data without having to manipulate others. The second mode of incorporation, however, implies a social context....

Critique of Adler Concept of Humanity Key Terms and Concepts

Chapter 3 Adler Individual Psychology 65 In 1937, a young Abraham Maslow was having dinner in a New York restaurant with a somewhat older colleague. The older man was widely known for his earlier association with Sigmund Freud, and many people, including Maslow, regarded him as a disciple of Freud. When Maslow casually asked the older man about being Freud's follower, the older man became quite angry, and according to Maslow, he nearly shouted that this was a lie and a swindle for which he...

Critique of Maslow

Maslow's search for the self-actualizing person did not end with his empirical studies. In his later years, he would frequently speculate about self-actualization with little evidence to support his suppositions. Although this practice opens the door for criticizhig Maslow, he was unconcerned about desacralized or orthodox, science. Nevertheless, we use the same criteria to evaluate holistic-dynamic personality theory as we do with the other theories. First, how does Maslow's theory rate on its...

Stages of Psychosocial Development

Comprehension of Erikson s eight stages of psychosocial development requires an understanding of several basic points. First, growth takes place according to the epigenetic principle. That is, one component part arises out of another and has its own thne of ascendancy, but it does not entirely replace earlier components. Second, in every stage of life there is an interaction of opposites that is, a conflict between a syntonic (harmonious) element and a dystonic (disruptive) element. For...

Resistance to Enculturation

A final characteristic identified by Maslow was resistance to enculturation. Self-actualizing people have a sense of detachment from their surroundings and are able to transcend a particular culture. They are neither antisocial nor consciously nonconforming. Rather, they are autonomous, following then own standards of conduct and not blindly obeyhig the rules of others. Self-actualizing people do not waste energy fighting against insignificant customs and regulations of society. Such folkways...

Personal Unconscious

The personal unconscious embraces all repressed forgotten, or subliminally perceived experiences of one particular individual. It contains repressed infantile memories and impulses, forgotten events, and experiences originally perceived below the threshold of our consciousness. Our personal unconscious is formed by our individual experiences and is therefore unique to each of us. Some images in the personal unconscious can be recalled easily, some remembered with difficulty, and still others...

Measuring Self Actualization

Shostrom (1974) developed the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI) hi an attempt to measure the values and behaviors of self-actualizing people. This inventory consists of 150 forced-choice items, such as (a) I can feel comfortable with less than a perfect performance versus (b) I feel uncomfortable with anything less than a perfect performance (a) Two people will get along best if each concentrates on pleasing the other versus (b) Two people can get along best if each person feels...

The Burden of Freedom

The central thesis of Fromm's writings is that humans have been torn from nature, yet they remain part of the natural world, subject to the same physical limitations as other animals. As the only animal possessing self-awareness, imagination, and reason, humans are the freakfs of the universe (Fromm, 1955, p. 23). Reason is both a curse and a blessing. It is responsible for feelings of isolation and loneliness, but it is also the process that enables humans to become reunited with the world....

Locus of Control Depression and Suicide

Rotter s notion of locus of control has been one of the most widely investigated topics hi social and personality psychology over the last 40 years. It lias been examined hi relation to many health behaviors, such as exercise, smoking, drinking, and eating, as well as academic performance, gender, depression, life-satisfaction, and numerous other psychological variables. One of these is suicidal ideation. A consistent and somewhat sobering result from the research on suicidal ideation is the...

Hope The Basic Strength of Infancy

Hope emerges from the conflict between basic trust and basic mistrust. Without the antithetical relationship between trust and mistrust, people cannot develop hope. Infants must experience hunger, pam, and discomfort as well as the alleviation of these unpleasant conditions. By having both painful and pleasurable experiences, infants learn to expect that future distresses will meet with satisfactory outcomes. If infants do not develop sufficient hope during infancy, they will demonstrate the...

Critique of ALLport

Allport based his theory of personality more on philosophical speculation and common sense than on scientific investigations. He never intended his theory to be completely new or comprehensive, but rather he was eclectic, carefully borrowing from older theories and recognizing that his detractors could have important things to say. Consistent with tins tolerant attitude, Allport (1968) acknowledged that his advisories may have been at least partially right. To Allport, most people are best...

Therapy

Accordhig to Bandura, deviant behaviors are hiitiated on the basis of social cognitive learning principles, and they are maintained because, in some ways, they continue to serve a purpose. Therapeutic change, therefore, is difficult because it involves eliminating behaviors that are satisfyhig to the person. Smoking, overeathig, and drinking alcoholic beverages, for example, generally have positive effects initially, and then long-range aversive consequences are usually not sufficient to...

Triadic Reciprocal Causation

In Chapter 15, we saw that Skinner believed that behavior is a function of the environment that is, behavior ultimately can be traced to forces outside the person. As environmental contingencies change, behavior changes. But what impetus changes the environment Skinner acknowledged that human behavior can exercise some measure of countercontrol over the environment, but he hisisted that, hi the final analysis, behavior is environmentally determined. Other theorists, such as Gordon Allport...

Chance Encounters and Fortuitous Events

Although people can and do exercise a significant amount of control over their lives, they cannot predict or anticipate all possible environmental changes. Bandura is the only personality theorist to seriously consider the possible importance of these chance encounters and fortuitous events. Bandura (1998a) defined a chance encounter as an unintended meeting of persons unfamiliar to each other (p. 95). A fortuitous event is an environmental experience that is unexpected and unintended. The...

Identity Versus Identity Confusion

The search for ego identity reaches a climax dining adolescence as young people strive to find out who they are and who they are not. With the advent of puberty, adolescents look for new roles to help them discover then sexual, ideological, and occupational identities. In this search, young people draw from a variety of earlier self-images that have been accepted or rejected. Thus, the seeds of identity begin to sprout during infancy and continue to grow through childhood the play age, and the...

Philosophy of Science

Maslow's philosophy of science and his research methods are integral to an understanding of how he arrived at Ins concept of self-actualization. Maslow (1966) believed that value-free science does not lead to the proper study of human personality. Maslow argued for a different philosophy of science, a humanistic, holistic approach that is not value free and that has scientists who care about the people and topics they hivestigate. For example, Maslow was motivated to search for self-actualizing...

Psychological Disorders

Sullivan believed that all psychological disorders have an interpersonal origin and can be understood only with reference to the patient's social environment. He also held that the deficiencies found hi psychiatric patients are found in every person, but to a lesser degree. There is nothing unique about psychological difficulties they are derived from the same kind of interpersonal troubles faced by all people. Sullivan (1953a) insisted that everyone is much more simply human than unique, and...

Mortality Salience and Denial of Our Animal Nature

Terror management theory has taken this basic assumption and tested it by conducting some of the more clever and well-designed experimental studies in recent social and personality psychology. Although humans are part of the animal kingdom and hence mortal, they are unique hi understanding of the world and unique in realizing their own uniqueness. Humans have long believed that they are more than just bodies they have a soul, a spirit, a mind. Over the centuries, humans have learned to disavow...

The Pioneering Work of Raymond B Cattell

Ail important figure in the early years of psychometrics was Raymond B. Cattell (1905-1998), who was born in England but who spent most of his career in the United States. Cattell did not have a direct influence on Eysenck indeed the two men had quite different approaches to measuring the structure of personality. Because some familiarity of Cattell's trait theory enhances the understanding of Eysenck's three-factor theory, we briefly discuss Cattell's work and compare and contrast it with that...

Generativity and Parenting

In a study on generativity and parenting, Milene Morfei and colleagues (2004) investigated two forms of generativity (agentic and communal) across four domains (parenting, occupation, volunteering, and leisure activities) and then relation to psychological well-being. In addition, the authors examined whether there were any gender differences in each kind of generativity. The researchers studied 50 mothers and 48 fathers who had children between the ages of 15 and 22. Morfei and colleagues...

The Idealized Self Image

Horney believed that human behigs, if given an environment of discipline and warmth, will develop feelings of security and self-confidence and a tendency to move toward self-realization. Unfortunately, early negative influences often hnpede people s natural tendency toward self-realization, a situation that leaves them with feelings of isolation and inferiority. Added to this failure is a growing sense of alienation from themselves. Feeling alienated from themselves, people need desperately to...

Critique of Adler

Adler's theory, like that of Freud produced many concepts that do not easily lend themselves to either verification or falsification. For example, although research has consistently shown a relationship between early childhood recollections and a person's present style of life (Clark, 2002), these results do not verify Adler's notion that present style of life shapes one's early recollections. An alternate, causal explanation is also possible that is, early experiences may cause present style...

Self Efficacy Gender and Academic Achievement

Earlier, we discussed Bandura s four sources of self-efficacy mastery experiences, social modeling, social persuasion, and emotional states. A recent paper by Nan Zhang Hampton and Emanuel Mason (2003) suggests that students with learning disabilities may have lower self-efficacy mainly because they have less access to these four sources of self-efficacy. In this case, for example, repeated failure to master academic experiences leads to low self-efficacy in students with learning disabilities....

Biography of Gordon Allport

Gordon Willard Allport was born on November 11, 1897, in Montezuma, Indiana, the fourth and youngest son of John E. Allport and Nellie Wise Allport. Allport s father had engaged in a number of business ventures before becoming a physician at about the thne of Gordons birth. Lacking adequate office and clinical facilities, Dr. Allport turned the household into a miniature hospital. Both patients and nurses were found in the home, and a clean, sterile atmosphere prevailed. Cleanliness of action...

How Conditioning Affects Personality

In Chapter 1, we said that the key elements of personality are stability of behavior over time and across different situations. By these criteria, personality change occurs when new behaviors either become stable over time and or across different situations. One domain in which personality change may be evidenced is hi psychotherapy. In fact, a major goal of therapy is to change behavior, and if the changes are stable over tune and situations, then one could talk about changing personality. One...

Letters from Jenny

Allport's morphogenic approach to the study of lives is best illustrated in his famous Letters from Jenny. These letters reveal the story of an older woman and her intense love hate feelings toward her son Ross. Between March 1926 (when she was 58) and October 1937 (when she died), Jenny wrote a series of 301 letters to Ross's former college roommate, Glenn, and his wife Isabel, who ahnost certainly were Gordon and Ada Allport (Winter, 1993). Allport originally published parts of these letters...

Me Personifications

During midhifancy a child acquires three me personifications (bad-me, good-me, and not-me ) that form the building blocks of the self personification. Each is related to the evolving conception of me or my body. The bad-me personification is fashioned from experiences of punishment and disapproval that infants receive from their mothering one. The resulting anxiety is strong enough to teach infants that they are bad, but it is not so severe as to cause the experience to be dissociated or...

Categories of Needs

Rotter and Hoclireich (1975) listed six broad categories of needs, with each category representing a group of functionally related behaviors that is, behaviors that lead to the same or shnilar reinforcements. For example, people can meet then recognition needs hi a variety of situations and by many different people. Therefore, they can receive reinforcement for a group of functionally related behaviors, all of which satisfy their need for recognition. The following list is not exhaustive, but...

Punishment

Negative reinforcement should not be confused with punishment. Negative rein-forcers remove, reduce, or avoid aversive sthnuli, whereas punishment is the presentation of an aversive stimulus, such as an electric shock, or the removal of a positive one, such as disconnecting an adolescents telephone. A negative rehiforcer strengthens a response punishment does not. Although punishment does not strengthen a response, neither does it inevitably weaken it. Skinner (1953) agreed with Thorndike that...

The Case of Philip

Existential psychology is concerned with the individuals struggle to work through life's experiences and to grow toward becoming more fully human. May (1981) described this struggle hi a report on one of his patients Philip, the architect we met in the chapter opening. Here, we continue with Philip's story and later we use Ins experiences to illustrate May's concepts of anxiety, intentionality, destiny, psy-chopathology, and psychotherapy. When Nicole told Philip that, as he well knew, she...

Critique of Horney

Horney s social psychoanalytic theory provides interesting perspectives on the nature of humanity, but it suffers from lack of current research that might support her suppositions. The strength of Horney s theory is her lucid portrayal of the neurotic personality. No other personality theorist has written so well (or so much) about neuroses. Her comprehensive descriptions of neurotic personalities provide an excellent Chapter 6 Horney Psychoanalytic Social Theory 181 framework for understanding...

Motivational and Stylistic Dispositions

All personal dispositions are dynamic in the sense that they have motivational power. Nevertheless, some are much more strongly felt than others, and Allport called these intensely experienced dispositions motivational dispositions. These strongly felt dispositions receive their motivation from basic needs and drives. Allport (1961) referred to personal dispositions that are less intensely experienced as stylistic dispositions, even though these dispositions possess some motivational power....

Sample Items From Rotters Interpersonal Trust Scale

Ill dealing with strangers, one is better off to be cautious until they have provided evidence that they are trustworthy. 2. Parents usually can be relied on to keep their promises. 3. Parents and teachers are likely to say what they believe themselves and not just what they think is good for the child to hear. 4. Most elected public officials are really sincere in their campaign promises. 5. In these competitive times, one has to be alert or someone is likely to take advantage of you. 6. Most...

Sample Items from Rotters Internal External Control Scale

Many of the unhappy things in people's lives are partly due to bad luck. b. People's misfortunes result from the mistakes they make. 2. a. One of the major reasons we have wars is that people don't take enough interest b. There will always be wars, no matter how hard people try to prevent them. 3. a. In the long run, people get the respect they deserve in this world. b. Unfortunately, an individual's worth often passes unrecognized no matter how hard he or she tries. 4. a. The average...

Compulsive Drives

Neurotic individuals have the same problems that affect normal people, except neurotics experience them to a greater degree. Everyone uses the various protective devices to guard against the rejection, hostility, and competitiveness of others. But whereas normal individuals are able to use a variety of defensive maneuvers in a somewhat useful way, neurotics compulsively repeat the same strategy in an essentially unproductive maimer. Horney (1942) insisted that neurotics do not enjoy misery and...

Morphogenic Science

Early hi his writings, Allport distinguished between two scientific approaches the nomothetic, which seeks general laws, and the idiographic, which refers to that which is peculiar to the single case. Because the term idiographic was so often misused misunderstood and misspelled (being confused with ideographic, or the representation of ideas by graphic symbols), Allport (1968) abandoned the term hi his later writings and spoke of morphogenic procedures. Both idiographic and morphogenic pertahi...

Overview of Post Freudian Theory

The person we introduced in the opening vignette, of course, was Erik Erikson, the person who corned the term identity crisis. Erikson had no college degree of any kind but tins lack of formal training did not prevent him from gaining world fame in an impressive variety of fields including psychoanalysis anthropology psy-chohistory and education. Unlike earlier psychodynamic theorists who severed nearly all ties to Freudian psychoanalysis, Erikson intended his theory of personality to extend...

Biography of Erik Erikson

Who was Erik Erikson Was he a Dane, a German, or an American Jew or Gentile Artist or psychoanalyst Erikson himself had difficulty answering these questions, and he spent nearly a lifetime trying to determine who he was. Born June 15, 1902, in southern Germany, Erikson was brought up by his mother and stepfather, but he remained uncertain of the true identity of his biological father. To discover his niche in life, Erikson ventured away from home during late adolescence, adopting the life of a...

Biography of Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung was born on July 26, 1875, hi Kesswil, a town on Lake Constance in Switzerland. His paternal grandfather, the elder Carl Gustav Jung, was a prominent physician hi Basel and one of the best-known men of that city. A local rumor suggested that the elder Carl Jung was the illegitimate son of the great German poet Goethe. Although the elder Jung never acknowledged the rumor, the younger Jung, at least sometimes, believed himself to be the great-grandson of Goethe (Ellen-berger,...

Neurotic Trends

As her theory evolved Horney began to see that the list of 10 neurotic needs could be grouped into three general categories, each relating to a person s basic attitude toward self and others. In 1945, she identified the three basic attitudes, or neurotic trends as (1) moving toward people, (2) moving against people, and (3) moving away from people. Chapter 6 Horney Psychoanalytic Social Theory 169 Chapter 6 Horney Psychoanalytic Social Theory 169 FIGURE 6.1 The Interaction of Basic Hostility...

Heinz Kohuts View

Kohut Theory

Heinz Kohut (1913-1981) was born hi Vienna to educated and talented Jewish parents (Strozier, 2001). On the eve of World War II, he emigrated to England and a year later, he moved to the United States, where he spent most of his professional life. He was a professional lecturer in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Chicago, a member of the faculty at the Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis, and visithig professor of psychoanalysis at the University of Cincinnati. A neurologist...

Overview of Humanistic Psychoanalysis

Erich Fromm's basic thesis is that modern-day people have been torn away from then prehistoric union with nature and also with one another, yet they have the power of reasoning, foresight, and imagination. This combination of lack of animal instincts and presence of rational thought makes humans the freaks of the universe. Self-awareness contributes to feelings of loneliness, isolation, and homelessness. To escape from these feelings, people strive to become reunited with nature and with then...

Biography of Melanie Klein

Melanie Reizes Klein was born March 30, 1882, in Vienna, Austria. The youngest of four children born to Dr. Moriz Reizes and his second wife, Libussa Deutsch Reizes, Klein believed that her birth was unplanned a belief that led to feelings of being rejected by her parents. She felt especially distant to her father, who favored his oldest daughter Emilie (Sayers, 1991). By the tune Melanie was born, her father had long since rebelled against his early Orthodox Jewish training and had ceased to...

Critique of Kelly

Most of Kelly's professional career was spent workmg with relatively normal, intelligent college students. Understandably, Ins theory seems most applicable to these people. He made no attempt to elucidate early childhood experiences (as did Freud) or maturity and old age (as did Erikson). To Kelly, people live solely hi the present, with one eye always on the future. This view, though somewhat optimistic, fails to account for developmental and cultural influences on personality. How does...

What Is Self Efficacy

Bandura (2001) defined self-efficacy as people's beliefs in their capability to exercise some measure of control over then own functioning and over environmental events (p. 10). Bandura contends that efficacy beliefs are the foundation of human agency (p. 10). People who believe that they can do something that lias the potential to alter environmental events are more likely to act and more likely to be successful than those people with low self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is not the expectation of...

Description of the Five Factors

McCrae and Costa agreed with Eysenck that personality traits are bipolar and follow a bell-shaped distribution. That is, most people score near the middle of each trait, with only a few people scorhig at the extremes. How can people at the extremes be described Neuroticism (N) and extraversi n (E) are the two strongest and most ubiquitous personality traits, and Costa and McCrae conceptualize hi much the same way as Eysenck defined them. People who score high on neuroticism tend to be anxious,...

Biography of Julian Rotter

Rotter, the author of the locus of control scale, was born hi Brooklyn on October 22, 1916, the third and oldest son of Jewish immigrant parents. Rotter (1993) recalled that he fit Adler's description of a highly competitive, fighting youngest child. Although his parents observed the Jewish religion and customs, they were not very religious. Rotter (1993) described his family's socioeconomic condition as comfortably middle class until the Great Depression when my father lost his...

Psychohistorical Study of Hitler

Following Freud (see Chapter 2), Fromm examined historical documents in order to sketch a psychological portrait of a prominent person, a technique called psyc-hohis-toiy orpsychobiography The subject of Fromm s most complete psychobiographical study was Freud (Fromm, 1959), but Fromm (1941, 1973, 1986) also wrote at length on the life of Adolf Hitler. Fromm regarded Hitler as the world s most conspicuous example of a person with the syndrome of decay, possessing a combination of necrophilia,...

Philosophical Sense of Humor

Another distinguishing characteristic of self-actualizing people is their philosophical, nonliostile sense of humor. Most of what passes for humor or comedy is basically hostile, sexual, or scatological. The laugh is usually at someone else's expense. Healthy people see little humor in put-down jokes. They may poke fun at themselves, but not masochistically so. They make fewer tries at humor than others, but their attempts serve a purpose beyond making people laugh. They amuse, inform, pohit...

The Neurotic Search for Glory

As neurotics come to believe hi the reality of then idealized self, they begin to incorporate it hito all aspects of their lives then goals, their self-concept, and then relations with others. Horney (1950) referred to this comprehensive drive toward actualizing the ideal self as the neurotic search for glory. In addition to self-idealization, the neurotic search for glory includes three other elements the need for perfection, neurotic ambition, and the drive toward a vindictive triumph. 174...

Values of Self Actualizers

Value Maslow Theory

Maslow (1971) held that self-actualizing people are motivated by the eternal verities, what he called B-values. These Being values are indicators of psychological health and are opposed to deficiency needs, which motivate non-self-actualizers. B-values are not needs in the same sense that food, shelter, or companionship are. Maslow termed B-values metaneeds to indicate that they are the ultimate level of needs. He distinguished between ordinary need motivation and the motives of...

Esteem Needs

To the extent that people satisfy their love and belongingness needs, they are free to pursue esteem needs, which include self-respect, confidence, competence, and the knowledge that others hold them in high esteem. Maslow (1970) identified two levels of esteem needs reputation and self-esteem. Reputation is the perception of the prestige, recognition, or fame a person has achieved in the eyes of others, whereas self-esteem is a person's own feelings of worth and confidence. Self-esteem is...

Critique of Skinner

Eysenck (1988) once criticized Skinner for ignoring such concepts as individual differences, intelligence, genetic factors, and the whole realm of personality. These claims are only partly true, because Skinner did recognize genetic factors, and he did offer a somewhat unenthusiastic definition of personality, saying that it is at best a repertoire of behavior imparted by an organized set of contingencies (Skinner, 1974, p. 149). Although Eysenck's opinions are...

Critique of Sullivan Concept of Humanity Key Terms and Concepts

Chapter 8 Sullivan Interpersonal Theory 211 The young boy had no friends his age but did have several imaginary playmates. At school, his Irish brogue and quick mind made him unpopular among schoolmates. Then, at age 8V2, the boy experienced an intimate relationship with a 13-year-old boy that transformed his life. The two boys remained unpopular with other children, but they developed close bonds with each other. Most scholars (Alexander, 1990, 1995 Chapman, 1976 Havens, 1987) believe that the...

Related Research

In general, Homey's theory has stirred only limited recent research. One topic that has generated some interest is her concept of hypercompetitiveness. Horney (1945) believed that the extremely competitive nature of American culture emphasizes winning at all costs, including aggressively manipulating, degrading, and exploiting other people. She called this exaggerated neurotic need to move against others hypercompetitiveness. Richard Ryckman and his colleagues (Ryckman, Hammer, Kaczor, &...

Care Love and Will

Philip had a history of taking care of others, especially women. He had given Nicole a job with his company that permitted her to work at home and earn enough money to live on. In addition, after she ended her affair with Craig and gave up her crazy plan to move across the country, Philip gave her several thousand dollars. He previously had felt a duty to take care of his two wives and before that, his mother and sister. In spite of Philip's pattern of takhig care of women, he never really...

Perseverative Functional Autonomy

The more elementary of the two levels of functional autonomy is perseverative functional autonomy. Allport borrowed this term from the word perseveration, which is the tendency of an impression to leave an influence on subsequent experience. Perseverative functional autonomy is found hi animals as well as humans and is based on shnple neurological principles. An example of perseverative functional Chapter 13 Allport Psychology of the Individual 383 autonomy is a rat that has learned to run a...